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1. Paper on Floating Solar Photovoltaic System An Emerging Technology


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1. Paper on Floating Solar Photovoltaic System An Emerging Technology

  1. 1. Floating Solar Photovoltaic System: An Emerging Technology Yashpal Sahu, Md. Shahabuddin, Pooja Agrawal CEEPI, JPL Tamnar ABSTRACT The noticeable rise in the electricity demand, fast depletion of fossil fuels, along with environmental concerns throughout the world has led to the requirement of Solar Energy and Solar PV plants are being installed in large scale. This installation has the burden of intense land requirements which will always be a premium commodity. To go for this, conserving the precious land & water, installing Solar PV system on water bodies like lake, reservoir, canal etc is also an emerging option and can be an attractive thought particularly when big generating companies like JPL etc. is having its large reservoirs (i.e. Raw water reservoir & Dam). Additionally, floating photovoltaic systems produce more electricity since they are cooled automatically by the water body. Theoretically, also the aquatic environment profits by the solar installation because the shading of the plant prevents excessive water evaporation and limits algae growth, etc. This paper gives more insight about the Floating PV technology, present status & various available options and CEEPI’s plan to assess and promote this platform to improve JPL’s renewable energy portfolio. 1. Introduction Installed Capacity of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in India The total All India Installed Power generation capacity in India as on 30.11.2014 is 2,55,013 MW which includes 31,692 MW from Renewable Energy Sources (RES), constituting 12 %of the total capacity. The same is shown in the form of a pi diagram below 31692 MW, 12% 223321 MW, 88% Installed Cpacity as on 30.11.14 RenewableEnergy Conventional Energy
  2. 2. There are many ambitious programs of Government to increase Renewable Generation and capacity addition and looking forward for facilitating large scale integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), keeping in view the security of the grid. The breakup of Renewable Energy Sources in India is as shown below S.No. Parmeters Capacity(MW) 1 Small Hydro 3804 2 Wind power 21136 3 Bio gas 4120 4 Solar Power 2632 Total 31692 The same is shown in the form of a pi diagram below India has taken a challenge of installing of 1 Lakh MW capacity of solar power installation and generation by the year 2030. 2. Solar Energy Solar energy is the heat and light energy which can be harnessed by using the latest evolving technologies. Solar energy can be harnessed basically by two types 1) Solar Thermal: Solar thermal can be used for water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat generation. 2) Solar Electricity: It is the conversion of sunlight into electricity by using Photovoltaic 3804 MW, 12% 21136 MW, 67% 4120 MW, 13% 2632 MW, 8% Installed Capacity Renewable Energy Small Hydro Wind power Bio gas Solar Power
  3. 3. 3. Photovoltaic Cell: It is a device which converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. Investors are looking the economics of power production with solar PV technology on the available land to have the maximum returns. There are large water bodies available in various parts of the country which can reduce the savings for the cost of land and can reduce the expenditure for power generation expenses. So the floating solar PV systems can become a very logical alternative for harnessing solar energy by utilizing existing water bodies and help to increase the economic viability of solar projects. There are very few manufacturers who can supply floating PV system worldwide. In India also, manufacturers of PV are planning to enter the market of floating PV. 4. Concept of floating PV system It is a new concept for power generation by Solar photovoltaic system installed over the floating technology over water bodies. This technology replaces the installation of photovoltaic power plants over precious land. Fig -1 Floating plant outline The PV floating plant consists of a floating system, anchoring system, PV system and underwater cables. a. Floating System: A floating platform which allows the installation of the PV systems with having walkway for maintenance. b. Anchoring System: To enable the platform adjust to water level fluctuations while maintaining its position in a southward direction. c. PV System: PV generation equipments, conventional PV module or specialized CPV modules or equivalent devices, which are installed on top of the floating system. d. Underwater special marine Cable: Transfers the generated power from land to the PV system. There are a number of benefits which can be drawn from installing Floating PV system, as outlined below.
  4. 4. 5. First Solar Floating Solar Panel in India. A floating solar power plant was conceptualized and implemented indigenously at 10 KW Rajarhat near Kolkata. It was an experimental project and first such floating power plant in the country which has been promoted by Union Ministry of Renewable Energy and conceptualized by Renewable Energy College, Arka, Kolkata. This project will revise the situation on where the solar installation above water can Boost the generation by cooling the panels. Excessive heat can reduce the efficiency of solar modules. The project will also observe the effects of corrosion and evaporation from the lake. This project will cost around two million rupees and for research the project will require another two million rupees. It is estimated that around 20,000kWh will be generated. The electricity generated through this plant will be sold to the grid at the rate of 8.9 rupees a unit. India is one of those few countries that have been blessed with limitless solar potential. Solar energy can give India power independence and make it a leading economy in the world. The best way to make India solar independent is to adapt new technology. The challenge of installing 1 lakh MW capacity by the year 2030 can only be fulfilled by acquiring 6 lakhs acres of land. But with the coming of floating PV can help to address the issue of the acquiring the 6 acres of land. 6. K-water 100kW Floating PV Systems: K-water has installed a 100kW floating PV system on the water surface of Hapcheon dam reservoir in October 2011 for operation. The electricity generated by the floating PV systems installed in Hapcheon dam reservoir are generating profits by being sold to the national power grid. Figure 2 displays the view of the 100kW floating PV systems. Fig-2 K-water PV Floating Plants Outline (100kW)
  5. 5. 7. Performance Analysis of Floating PV System: 7.1. 100kW Floating PV System: The 100kW floating PV system in Hapcheon is forming a 33° tilt and its installed capacity is 99.36kW, composed of 414 240W modules. Figure 3 represents the generation quantity and capacity factor of the Hapcheon 100kW floating PV system based on the data acquired between January 2012 to December 2012. The standards for generation quantity were the amount read on the meters at VCB, and the capacity factor was calculated under the following equation. Capacity Factor (%) = Generated Quantity Duration Analysis Period (kWh) X 100 Installed Capacity (kW) x Analysis Period (h) Monthly average generated quantity during January 2012 to December 2012 was 10,853kWh, and the average capacity factor was 14.9%. The maximum monthly generated quantity was 13,792kWh in October and the minimum was 8,224kWh in December. For capacity factor, the maximum capacity factor was 18.7% in October and the minimum was 11.1% in December. Fig-3 Hapcheon 100kW Floating PV System Performance Analysis Graph 8. Pictures of Floating PVs installed:
  6. 6. 9. Advantage of floating PV (i) Economical and technical benefits  Conserve valuable land for farming, mining, tourism and other land-intensives activities and turn unused and non-revenue generating water surface into profitable solar power plants  No land acquisition required for floating PV projects  Protects ecologically sensitive areas  Drastically reduced installation time and associated costs due to very limited site preparation needs  Water for cleaning the panels (& hence enhancing efficiency) is readily available.
  7. 7.  Due to the cooling effect of the water on both the panels and the electrical equipment, all water resistant, floating solar plants are expected to yield a higher power output than conventional solar installations, thus the return on investment is higher. As per a study conducted in Korea, comparing two Floating PV plants of 100 kWp & 500 kWp each with equivalent respective ground mounted PV systems, it was reported that daily average generation (kWh) of the FPV plants were approximately 10% higher compared to the land based systems. (ii) Environment impacts  Minimize water evaporation, conserve water by lowering the water temperature and reducing the size of the water area exposed to air, floating solar panels can reduce water evaporation by up to 33% on natural lakes and ponds, and by to 50% on man-made facilities.  Improve water quality and cut maintenance costs  Potential reduction in algae growth due to reduced sunlight penetration and reduced photosynthesis. (iii) Preserves existing ecosystems  There is no excavation work, concrete foundation or banks occupation necessary.  Most of the systems are supported on HDPE blocks; can safely be installed on drinking water reservoirs.  Generally anchors require no excavation and have no impact on existing ecosystems. (iv) Other Added Benefits  Local employment generation for operation and maintenance  Become Carbon neutral to carbon positive advantages. 10. Environmental Impact on Floating PV System:  Occurrence of Wave Due to Wind Velocity.  Wind Speed’s Effect on Structure.  Effect of Wind Speed on Power Generation Amount. 11. Challenges for installing floating PV: a) Electrical equipment, modules and wiring, must be water resistant. b) Effects on the environment, mainly water quality, must be considered, and the annual fluctuation in reservoir water levels must be taken into when constructing the system.
  8. 8. 12. Scope of floating PV at JPL Jindal Power Limited (JPL) also has a large reservoir where we can think about the installing of the floating Solar PV systems. And by utilizing the amount of power generated, JPL can also reduce the auxiliary power consumptions. The following diagram shows the Layout of raw water reservoir at JPL The water body of the raw water reservoirs covers about 18 hectares of land i.e. the shaded portion of the reservoir shows the proposed area which can be utilized for installation of floating PVs i.e. 6-7 hectares.
  9. 9. 13. Wind Velocity and Temperature Graph:
  10. 10. 14. Calculation of Pay Back Period: Description Unit Value Area of Reservoir Hectare 19 Area Required for 10000 Module Hectare 3.6 Total No of Module Nos. 10000 Capacity of each Module Watt 250 Total Capacity of the Plant MW 2.5 Installation Cost for 1 MW Unit crore 8 Total Installation Cost crore 20 Selling Cost per Unit Rs/ kWh 9 Total Generation Hrs Hrs 1920 Total Generation(MU) MU/per Day 0.02 Total Generation(MU) MU/per Year 4.8 Earning Per Year Crore 4.32 Savings after 5 years Crore 1.6 Savings after 10 years Crore 23.2 Pay Back Period is 5 year (approx.) 15. Conclusion: This paper shows the installed capacity of Renewable Energy of India as well as explaining the concept of Floating PV system. It also consists of 100 kW Performance Analysis of Floating PV System of K-water Company. As JPL Tamnar has very big reservoir with 19 hectare area so with lots of data collection from environment dept. as regarding wind condition as well as the sun intensity and rays angle in Tamnar found very attractive so it concluded that JPL Tamnar has potential to install 2.5 MW capacity of Floating Solar PV power plant which will take only 18% of the total area of the reservoir. As Solar power selling cost is very high comparatively so the payback period will be only 5 years based on calculation and plant life will be minimum 25 to 30 years.
  11. 11. 16. References: [1] M. Abdolzadeh and M. Ameri, “Improving the effectiveness of a photovoltaic water pumping system by spraying water over the front of photovoltaic cells”, Proceedings of ISES World Congress, (2007). [2] J. J. Wysocki and P. Rappaport, “Effect of Temperature on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion”, The American Institute of Physics, AIP, (1960). [3] E. Radziemska, “The effect of temperature on the power drop in crystalline silicon solar cells”, Renewable Energy, vol. 28, no. 1, (2003). [4] C. Hark sun, “A Study on Development of Syntactic Foam (I)”, The Korean Society of Ocean Engineers, (1992). [5] H. Haeberlin and J. D. Graf, “Gradual Reduction of PV Generator Yield due to Pollution”, 2nd World conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, (1998). [6] Haman Photovoltaic Power Plant, [7] K-water, Groundwork research for Commercialization of Floated Photovoltaic System, (2011). [8] Y. K. Choi, N. H. Lee and K. J. Kim, “Empirical Research on the efficiency of Floating PV systems compared with Overland PV Systems”, CES-CUBE 2013, Guam, USA, (2013) July 19. power-nhpc [9] Young-Kwan Choi, Nam-Hyung Lee, Se-HyeonLee, “A Study on the Development of Tracking Floating Photovoltaic System to Increase Generation Efficiency”, EU PVSEC 2013. October 2013 [10] Young-Kwan Choi, Nam-Hyung Lee, Kern-Joongkim, “Empirical Research on the efficiency of Floating PV systems compared with Overland PV Systems”, CES-CUBE 2013. July 2013 [11] Young-Kwan Choi, Nam-Hyung Lee, Kern-Joongkim, “A Study on the Design and Implementation of a Prototype for a Tracking Type Floating Photovoltaic System”, ISGC&E 2013. July 2013 [12] Nam-Hyung Lee, Young-Kwan Choi, Kern-Joongkim, “Performance Analysis of Floating PV Systems for Development Tracking Type Floating PV System”, ISGC&E 2013. July 2013 [13] Young-Kwan Choi, Nam-Hyung Lee, Kern-Joongkim, “Analysis of the Grounding System of Floating Photovoltaic Systems”, ISGC&E 2013. July 2013 [14] Young-Kwan Choi, Nam-Hyung Lee, Kern-Joongkim, Yong Cho, “A Study on the Influence to Solar Radiation by Changing the Azimuth and Tilt of a Photovoltaic Array”, The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers Vol.62, No.5, pp. 712~716, 2013. commissions-india-s-first-floating-pv-power-plant [15] Y. K. Choi, N. H. Lee and K. J. Kim, “Empirical Research on the efficiency of Floating PV systems compared with Overland PV Systems”, CES-CUBE 2013, Guam, USA, (2013) July 19. [16] SPG Solar ( [17] k-water, Korea ( [18] Ciel-et-terre ( [19] Solaris Synergy ( [20] Sunengy ( [21] GEITS ( [22] DNV ( [23] ZM Architecture ( [24] Phil Pauley (
  12. 12. About Author: Yashpal Sahu Education qualifications: ME- Mechanical, BIT, Mesra Ranchi BE-Mechanical, GRKIST, Jabalpur Certified Energy Auditor Certfied BOE Work Exp: 10 yrs 8 months with Jindal Power Limited, - Project Monitoring of 250 MW - Commissioning & Operation of 250MW - Efficiency and CEEPI department - Commissioning of 600 MW unit Cell no: +91 9329445005 Email: Md Shahabuddin Education: B.Tech in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (EEE) From Bengal College of Engineering & Technology , Durgapur PGDC in Thermal Power Plant from NPTI, Guwahati. Work Exp: 1. Since Aug 2009 to Jul 2012 as a Desk Operation Engineering (Asst Manager) in Vedanta Aluminium Ltd. , Jharsuguda. 2. Currently working as a CEEPI TEAM (Asst Manager) in Jindal Power Ltd. , Tamnar. Cell no: +91 7898905434 Email: Pooja Agrawal Education: B.Tech in Electrical Engineering (EE) From Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad Work Exp: Currently working as a CEEPI TEAM (Asst Manager) in Jindal Power Ltd. , Tamnar. Cell no: +91 7898902697 Email: