An Open Source GIS System for Earthquake Early Warning and Post-Event Emergency Management

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Authors: M. Pollino, G. Fattoruso, A. B. Della Rocca, L. La Porta, S. Lo Curzio, A. Arolchi, V. James and C. Pascale (2011).

Presented at "Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011 International Conference", Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011.

The recent advances in geo-informatics have been opening new opportunities in earthquake early warning and emergency management issues. In the last years, the geo-scientific community has recognized the added value of a geo-analytic approach in complex decision making processes for critical situations due to disastrous natural events such as earthquakes. In fact, recently, GIS-based solutions are investigated in several research projects such as SIT_MEW Project, aimed at the development of volcanic and seismic early warning systems (EWSs). In this project context, an innovative open source GIS system has been investigated and developed as integrated component of the seismic EWS. Its architecture consists in a geospatial database system, a local GIS application for analyzing and modelling the seismic event and its impacts and supporting post-event emergency management, a WEB-GIS module for sharing the geo-information among the public and private stakeholders and emergency managers involved in disaster impact assessment and response management.

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  • The earthquake early warning systems are based on the principle that the alert information travels much faster than the seismic waves, as a consequence is possible to send a alert at a target site, that is potentially at risk, from few seconds to tens of seconds before the arrival of the largest amplitude seismic waves. The time range between the alarm and the arrival of the destructive wave is called lead time, and its length depends on the distance from the epicentral area and the target site, and on the latency times due to the computation and telemetry. This time can e sufficient to estimate, through innovative method and fast computational procedures, the magnitude and the location
  • The OC designed in SIT_MEW Project receives and elaborates information coming from monitoring systems (i.e., ISNet) and allows to activate a series of automatic security measures for sensible structures and infrastructures
  • The OC designed in SIT_MEW Project receives and elaborates information coming from monitoring systems (i.e., ISNet) and allows to activate a series of automatic security measures for sensible structures and infrastructures GIS systems can support quick analysis of the situation immediately following an earthquake and facilitate critical decision making processes
  • An Open Source GIS System for Earthquake Early Warning and Post-Event Emergency Management

    1. 1. An Open Source GIS System for Earthquake Early Warning and Post-Event Emergency Management Maurizio Pollino 1 , Grazia Fattoruso 1 , Antonio Bruno Della Rocca 1 , Luigi La Porta 1 , Sergio Lo Curzio 1 , Agnese Arolchi 1 , Valentina James 2 , Carmine Pascale 2 1 ENEA - National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development 2 Consorzio TRE - Tecnologie per il Recupero Edilizio Remote sensing Data Analysis, modeling, interpretation and Applications: from a global view to a local analysis (RS 2011) University of Cantabria, Santander - June 20 th -June 23 th , 2011
    2. 2. Table of contents June 20, 2011 <ul><li>Overview on Earthquake Early Warning Systems and Earthquake Early Warning Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The project context: SIT_MEW </li></ul><ul><li>SIT_MEW Operating Centre Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>GIS logical architecture </li></ul><ul><li>GIS Modules </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and future developments </li></ul>
    3. 3. Seismic waves (~ 3.5 Km/s) Information (speed of light) Epicenter Earthquake Early Warning Systems: Operating Principle The term “early warning” for seismic hazard implies an alert given after the detection of phenomena indicating the generation of a possibly dangerous event and before it starts damaging a given location. M, P T P (at the network) T S (at the target) T 0 time Telemetry and computing P-Arrival Lead Time ~ 10 sec Immediate post-event ~ 1 min Allarm Issue  Target Seismic Network
    4. 4. June 20, 2011 Early warning and real time earthquake risk mitigation The scale of alert times for earthquake is seconds to tens of seconds In case of earthquakes, Early Warning method is not a classical forecasting method. It can give probabilistic information after the event. The final aim of a seismic early warning system is to estimate in a fast and reliable way the earthquake damage potential. To reach this goal most of worldwide Earthquake early warning system are being designed or actually operated following two complementary approaches: the site-specific systems and the Regional systems
    5. 5. A major step may be the use of regional networks for the protection of multiple critical systems, and then a hybrid use of regional and on-site warning methods. Earthquake Early Warning Approach: June 20, 2011
    6. 6. <ul><li>A prototype hybrid seismic early warning system should be based on: </li></ul><ul><li>a highly-dynamic, high-density seismic network located around a fault zone </li></ul><ul><li>r obust and reliable signal transmission systems able to operate under extreme conditions </li></ul><ul><li>capability of fast data processing and modeling </li></ul><ul><li>information and preparation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>automated protection systems </li></ul>The functions of a Seismic Alert Management System can be is related to two different phases of an event: early warning : 10-20 seconds after the main shock the system should predict the ground motion intensity, evaluate the epicentre and provide dissemination of information. post (near) event warning : 100-200 seconds after the main shock, the decision support system should address a preliminary scenario based on spatial interpolation of ground motion and then a detailed scenario, based on simulation of simplified source/propagation models. June 20, 2011
    7. 7. June 20, 2011 The project context Integrated, broadband communication system for natural hazards emergencies management, including early warning methods The main goal of SIT_MEW Project is to develop an integrated system for emergencies management in case of natural disasters (seismic and volcanic) located in Campania Region, a seismically and volcanic active area. In particular, the attention is focused on the issues concerning risk assessment and mitigation, early warning (EW) methodologies and post-event support activities. SIT_MEW is based on data coming both from an existing seismic network located within the study area ( ISNet, Irpinia Seismic Network ) and it will improve an hybrid EWS.
    8. 8. Signal to the Network stations Seismic Network Epicentre Main control Centre Trasmission system Sensors measures Alarm Trasmission system Prototype of an hybrid Earthquake Early Warning System Event Propagation (5.5km/sec)
    9. 9. The kernel of the operating centre is a decision support system (DSS) that should enable the operators to make decisions and to disseminate early warning through a broadcasting system. The OC is supported by a GIS system that represents and performs the geographical information related to real time and near real time phases and the event source and analyses in few minutes the expected damages on structures and buildings. The System proposed:
    10. 10. June 20, 2011 SIT_MEW Operating Centre Architecture Data collection tools Data operations tools Data representation tools GIS TOOLS COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS
    11. 11. GIS logical architecture: schema Geodatabase Module Quantum GIS PostgreSQL/PostGIS WebGIS Client MapServer WebGIS Module SCENARIO (Epicentre & Magnitude) Internet Intranet June 20, 2011 Expected Damage Scenarios Operating Centre GIS Modulo
    12. 12. GIS Modules <ul><li>GIS developed by using free/open source software (FOSS). It consists in the following modules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GeoDatabase module (PostgreSQL/PostGIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIS module (QuantumGIS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WEB-GIS module (MapServer) </li></ul></ul></ul>Quantum GIS PostgreSQL/PostGIS June 20, 2011 MapServer
    13. 13. Spatial analysis GIS spatial analysis procedures and geo-processing operations : <ul><ul><li>Description and characterization of the study area ( Geodatabase ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Census Data management; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shake maps processing (PGA/IMCS); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of Vulnerability index I v maps (Census parcel based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map Algebra to elaborate Expected Damage Scenarios ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic maps (I v and Expected damage scenarios) to support the management of near-EW and post-event phases; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation via intranet/internet to data and maps. </li></ul></ul>June 20, 2011
    14. 14. Data collection and Geodatabase population June 20, 2011 The Geodatabase Module has been purposely implemented to provide the spatial description of the Campania region and is structured into different logical schemes. <ul><ul><li>Basic GIS Layers (Italian DBPrior10K: Administrative boundaries, road network, railways, hydrograph, etc ...); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic Maps (hydrology, geomorphology, seismic classification, etc.); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1:25.000 Cartography; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Census data (ISTAT, Italian National Institute of Statistics). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic location and data of ISNet seismic sensors; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) distribution maps; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data from parametric catalogue of damaging earthquakes in Italy (INGV). </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Data operations tools, GIS module (QuantumGIS) June 20, 2011 The GIS Module, in direct connection with Geodatabase Module, is devoted to process geographical data and spatial information. By means of spatial analysis procedures and geo-processing operations, this module provides a complete and up-to-date description of the study area and, as final result, the maps of expected damage . [Sabetta and Pugliese, 1996)] [Decanini et al.,1995] <ul><li>Y the parameter to evaluate, the PGA for this case study </li></ul><ul><li>M (local) the magnitude </li></ul><ul><li>R the distance </li></ul>
    16. 16. Vulnerability index I V Vulnerability indices for building typologies and construction age over the study area Vulnerability index modifiers depending of number of storeys and construction age June 20, 2011
    17. 17. Maps of expected damage <ul><li>By means Map Algebra operations, it has been possible to create the final expected damage maps. </li></ul><ul><li>The variables represent the simulated PGA with certain epicentre coordinates and local magnitude ML. </li></ul>June 20, 2011
    18. 18. WEB GIS Applications, MapServer June 20, 2011 The primary goal of the WEB-GIS Module is to make geographic data and thematic maps available to specific end-users and, potentially, to the public. The application allows the end-user to view spatial data within a web browser, without a specific GIS Desktop software. This Module provides interactive query capabilities and integrates the GIS solutions with other technologies.
    19. 19. Guidonia, 16 Giugno 2011
    20. 20. Guidonia, 16 Giugno 2011
    21. 21. Conclusions and future developments June 20, 2011 <ul><li>An innovative open source GIS system has been investigated and developed as integrated component of the seismic EWS; </li></ul><ul><li>A local GIS application for analyzing and modelling the seismic event and its impacts and supporting post-event emergency management; </li></ul><ul><li>A new WEB-GIS module for sharing the geo-information among the public and private stakeholders has been proposed; </li></ul><ul><li>In perspective, multi-source data and GIS integrated analysis can contribute to a better emergency planning; </li></ul><ul><li>A interactive DSS based on GIS approach could support the public government to address in the near post-event, activities. </li></ul>

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