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Nuclear technologies alan bullick

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Nuclear technologies alan bullick

  1. 1. Alan Bullick Dr. McGinley EVHM 3305-H01
  2. 2.  History  Current Technologies  BWR  PWR  Limitations  Resources  Thermal Inefficiencies  Maintenance  New Fission Reactor Designs and Benefits  (GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor  (LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor  (MSR) Molten Salt Reactor  (SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor  (SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor  (VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor  New Fusion Design Technology  Tokamak  Results
  3. 3. CHICAGO PILE 1 DECEMBER 2, 1942  Created by Enrico Fermi  Consisted of a Pile of Uranium Contained Within Graphite Bricks  Control Rods Manually Operated  Built on a Racket Court Underneath the Alonzo Stagg Field Stadium of the University of Chicago
  4. 4. EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER BEGIN OPERATING REACTOR I DECEMBER 20, 1951  World’s First Nuclear Power Plant to Generate Electricity  Decommissioned in 1964  Located in Arco Idaho a.k.a (Atomic City)  Nuclear Reactor Became Site of Idaho National Labs
  5. 5. (PWR) PRESSURIZED WATER (BWR) BOILING WATER REACTOR REACTOR
  6. 6. CURRENT RESOURCE PROJECTIONS RESOURCE PROJECTIONS USING BREEDER REACTORS AND MOX FUEL
  7. 7. THERMAL INEFFICIENCIES MAINTENANCE  Current Efficiencies of PWR  Every 1 to 2 Years a and BWR Designs are Limited Conventional Nuclear Plant by the Operating Needs to Refuel Portions of Temperatures of Their Rankine Cycles. the Fuel Core Assembly  Average Efficiency is 33%  Every 5 Years the Turbine-  1500 MWe Nuclear Power Generator Must be Inspected Plant Actually Produces 4500  1-2 Months Spent Offline for MW of Power and Wastes 3000 MW. Each Maintenance Process  3000 MW of Power can Power 876,000 Homes  Average Inlet/Outlet Temps: 275˚C/325˚C (525˚F/650˚F) Efficiency = ( 1 – Cold temperature / Hot temperature ) * 100
  8. 8. Members: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, Switzerland, Euratom, the People’s Republic of China, and the Russian Federation Designs: (GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (MSR) Molten Salt Reactor (SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor
  9. 9. Reactor Power: 600MWth Net Efficiency: 48% Coolant/Outlet Temp: 490˚C/850˚C (914˚F/1562˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  10. 10.  Small/Modular  Able to be Used as a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Waste Conversion Facility  Able to Utilize Pebble Bed Fuel Technology in Some Designs  Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
  11. 11. Reactor Power: 50-150 MWe 300-400 MWe 1200 MWe Coolant/Outlet Temp: 1022˚F-1472˚F Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on CO2 Gas Rankine Cycle Operating on Super Critical H20
  12. 12.  Easily Scalable Design  Long Refueling Intervals (10-30 Years)  Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities  Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
  13. 13. Reactor Power: 1000 MWe Outlet Temp: 1300˚F Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  14. 14.  Large Size  Highly Sustainable Closed Fuel Cycle  Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities  Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
  15. 15. Reactor Power: 150-500 MWe 500-1500 MWe Outlet Temp: 550˚C (1022˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on CO2 Gas
  16. 16.  Large/Medium Size  Near Term Deployment  Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
  17. 17. Reactor Power: 1700 MWe Net Efficiency: 44% Outlet Temp: 550˚C (1022˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  18. 18.  Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
  19. 19. Reactor Power: 600 MWth Outlet Temp: 1000˚C (1832˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  20. 20.  Medium Size Design  Design Appropriate for Hydrogen Production
  21. 21.  Fusion is the Process Powering the Sun  Recreating Difficulties on Earth  Material Limitations  Gravitational Limitations  Solutions  Control Plasma Created From Ionized Atoms Using Super-Cooled Super-Conducting Magnets Named Tokamaks
  22. 22.  The Joint European Torus (JET) was Able to Produce a 16 MW Pulse for 1 Second in 1997  The Tora Supra was Able to Sustain Plasma Confinement for 6.5 Minutes in 2003.  Current Goal is to Achieve Power Multiplication of 10x
  23. 23.  Radioactive Half-life of Tritium is 12.3 Years Instead of the 700 Million Year Half-life of Uranium  The Fusion Process Has a Higher Energy/Mass Fuel Ratio Than the Fission Process
  24. 24.  Nuclear Power Remains a Very Viable Option Even Without Future Technological Advancements  Nuclear Advancements Will be Able to Aid Developing Countries With Both Electrical and Water Generation Capabilities  Generation IV Nuclear Plants Allow For the Possibility of a Hydrogen Fueled Future
  25. 25. [1] (2011, June 29). U.S & World Population Clocks. U.S. Census Bureau. [Online] Available: http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html [2] AREVA Communications Department, All About Nuclear Energy: From Atom to Zirconium. AREVACOM ed. Paris, France: AREVA, April 2008 [3] “Nuclear Energy,” Alternative Energy, vol. 2, N. Schlager and J. Weisblatt, Eds. Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale, 2006, pp. 169-208 [4] An Energy Landmark: Idaho’s Pioneering Experimental Breeder Reactor-I. Idaho National Laboratory. [Online] Available: http://www.inl.gov/ebr/ [5] A. B. Reynolds, Bluebells and Nuclear Energy. Madison, WI: Cogito Books, 1996 [6] New Nuclear Technology Opportunities: Coal Steam from a Nuclear Boiler. Coal2Nuclear. [Online] Available: http://www.coal2nuclear.com/coal_steam_from_a_nuclear_boiler.htm [7] (2002 Dec.). Ten Nations Preparing Today for Tomorrow’s Energy Needs: A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International Forum. [Online] Available: http://www.ne.doe.gov/genIV/documents/gen_iv_roadmap.pdf [8] S. Hough (2009 April). Supercritical Rankine Cycle: A Synopsis of the Cycle, it’s Background, Potential Applications and Engineering Challenges. University of Idaho. [Online] Available: http://www.if.uidaho.edu/~gunner/ME443-543/HW/rankine.pdf [9] M. Ragheb. (2011, July 1). Chapter 1: Nuclear Reactor Concepts and Thermodynamic Cycles. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. [Online] Available: https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineering/Nucle ar%20Reactors%20Concepts%20and%20Thermodynamic%20Cycles.pdf [10] ITER Organization. (2011) ITER: The Way to New Energy. ITER. [Online] Available: http://www.iter.org/ [11] (2011, March 9). Economics of Nuclear Power. World Nuclear Association. [Online] Available: http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/inf02.html

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