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Mammals
Body covered with hairs.
Two pairs limbs present.
Heart completely four chambered.
Skin bears numerous glands.
Mammals are viviparous (except egg laying
monotremes)
 After birth, young nourished by milk secreted
from mammary gland of mother.
Parental care developed reaching its climax in
human.
The total number of mammals found in the
world is 5,513. (www.currentresults.com/number-species; Ref. The
World Conservation Union,2014)
There are 89 mammal species in Bangladesh
of which 3 are critically endangered, 12 are
endangered, 16 are vulnerable and 4 are near
threatened. (Wikipedia, last modified in 31 March,2015)
98%
2%
MAMMALS
MAMMALS OF
BANGLADESH
Status of mammals of Bangladesh according to the
total mammals of the world
Mammalia
Artioactyla
Carnivora
Cetacea
Chiroptera
Lagomorpha
Perissodactyla
Pholidota
Primates
Proboscidea
Rodentia
Sirenia
Soricomorpha
Breeding Biology of
Mammals
Mammals give birth to the young, exceptions are
the egg-laying monotremes of Australia, the
platypus (Ornithorhynchus) and the echidnas
(spiny anteaters).
Among mammals Some are seasonal breeders
as a consequence of environmental stimuli such
as
• day length
• resource intake and
• temperature dictating when mating occurs.
Another general aspect of reproductive behaviour
in mammals is the estrus cycle.
Depending upon the estrous cycle in each sexual
season mammals are two types:
1. Monoestrus: A single cycle in each sexual
season. (e.g. The large mammals that live in
temperate areas—bears, dogs, wolves, foxes,
seals, and some deer and antelopes)
2. Polyestrus: Sexual season many times in a
year. (e.g. Mammals that live in warmer zones,
such as some areas of the tropics)
Courtship Behavior
For the breeding purpose courtship attraction is
characterized by-
 Increased energy
 Focused attention
 Affiliative gestures
 Possessive mate guarding and motivation to
win a preferred mating partner.
Courtship Display:
 most mammals have an acute sense of smell.
Body pheromens secreted by males attracting
the females are actually courtship displays.
 Many deer and antelopes shows visual
displays as courtship display such as-
movements as strutting and arching of the
heads.
 In many species discharge urine on females as
a preliminary to copulation.
 Tactile and auditory displays have been shown
to be important in aquatic mammals, such as
porpoises and whales.
In mammals following mating system are
generally recognized:
1. Monogamy (Only one mating partner)
2. Polygamy (more than one mating partner)
This is 3 types:
a) Polygyny (A male mates with several
females)
b) Polyandry (A female mates with several
males)
c) Polygynandry (two or more males have an
exclusive relationship with two or more females)
3. Promiscuity (Both males and females of a
social group can mate with any member of the
group)
Apart from these some mammals are
cooperative breeders (e.g. Common
Marmosets and African Lions) in which groups
of females and sometimes males share the
care of young.
Like social insects some(e.g. Naked Mole Rat)
are eusocial, with a queen female mating with
several males and bearing all of the young in
the colony.
Parental care of
Mammals
The efforts given by parents to their offspring to
increase growth rates, quality, survival and
protect from predators .
Only 6% of mammals show both paternal and
maternal care specially which are socially
monogamous.
Male mammals also provide paternal care.
In mammals, the chief parental care is maternal
care; in large part due to lactation.
Order: Artiodactyla
(Deer, Boar, Buffalo, Gaur etc.)
Most are gregarious living in large groups,
some are solitary.
Pheromones and other glandular secretion to
attract opposite sex.
They breed only once a year, though some may
breed multiple times.
Majority are polygynous, a few seasonally
monogamous.
Most of the species of our country give birth at
the starting of rainy season for food
abundance.
Females are caregivers. Lactation to offspring.
Mothers two types; hiders and followers.
 Hiders keep their newborn offspring in such a
place where it is easy to camouflage. During her
foraging, she comes back periodically to clean
and feed it. She take it with her when it is capable
enough to protect itself from predators.
They live in small groups for adequate shelter of
young.
Followers accompany their offspring
immediately after birth, live in open habitat with
little shelter of young.
Mating behavior
Sus (Wild boar) Munticus (Barking deer)
Parental care
Axis(Chital) Munticus (Barking deer)
Order: Carnivora
(Cat, Dog, Tiger, Fox, Civet, Mongoose
etc.)
Carnivores are polygynous, polygynandrous
and monogamous.
Who live in pack, the dominant male and
female of the pack breed and all the member of
the pack help raise offspring (Ex-Canis lupus)
Who are solitary, often polygynandrous with
male and female each having multiple partners
during breeding season (Cats, Bears)
They breed aseasonally, which in cold climate;
mate in winter and spring and breed in spring
and summer
They attract the opposite sex by contacting the
vibrissae of face and leg. Sometimes they use
secretion of glands, roaring sound to attract
others.
Carnivores may have two or three litters per
year but most have just one litter every year.
Females nurture the young providing milk for 2
weeks to 2 years.
Once it thought that males show no care, even
kill their offspring. But now, paternal care of
carnivores is not unknown, specially in canids, it’s
very developed.
Mating behavior
Panthera tigris (Tiger) Canis lupus(Indian
wolf)
Parental care
of canis
Order: Cetacea
(Dolphins, whales)
Cetaceans are the large aquatic mammalian
group represented by whales & dolphins in
Bangladesh.
Cetaceans may show polygyny, polyandry or
polygynandry.
Breeding system more typically characterized
by male-male competition.
Long birth interval (one to six year).
Long gestation period (typically varies from 10
to 16 months)
 Females give birth to a single precocious
young at a time.
 Birth takes place in water.
 Parental care entirely maternal.
 Growth of young cetaceans are very rapid.
 Lactation period vary widely from less than
one year to more than 3 years.
SPERM WHALE
Male & female pair Female with young
diving
Order: Chiroptera
Order Chiroptera is the second highest group of
mammals contain 38 species in Bangladesh of
world 1037 appx. species.
Mating systems vary among bat species.
Many temperate bats mate in the fall as they
aggregate near their winter hibernacula.
-These bats are generally promiscuous.
In many micro chiropterans, one or two males
defend small harems of females.
 Some has a lek mating system, where males
gather in a lekking arena to display to females.
 Some bats are monogamous.
-In these cases, the male, female, and their
offspring roost together in a family group.
 All newborn bats are completely dependent on
their mothers for both protection and
nourishment.
 In few monogamous bat species males
contribute to feeding and protecting young.
 young bats either remain in the roost while
their mothers forage, or cling to their mothers'
during flight.
 In some species, females will communally care
for young, with "babysitters" caring for the
cluster of young while their roost-mates forage.
Mating behaviour:
Grey hair bat Mating bat pair
Parental care
of Common vampire bat
Order: Lagomorpha
(Hares, Rabbits, pikas)
Lagomorphs are primitive placental mammals
including hares, pikas & rabbits.
Most of the Lagomorphs are polygynandrous.
Sexual maturation can occur from 3 to 9
months after birth in rabbits &1 to 2 years after
birth for hares.
During mating season males and females form
small groups in which males compete for
access to estrus females.
As a courtship display both sexes jumped into
the air & males urinate on female.
 Many lagomorphs breed several times a year
and produce large litters.
 Females mate soon after giving birth or while
carrying a litter.
 Rabbits give birth to altricial young after a short
gestation period and while hares give birth to
precocial young after a longer gestation
period..
 The youngs are left alone in the nest for the
first few weeks, with the mother nearby
feeding.
 Maternal care in lagomorph is limited to a few
visit every twenty four hours mostly at night.
 Females generally nurse young for at least 3 to
4 weeks.
 Altricial youngs need longer parental care
than the precocial young.
PikasGroup Altricial young of Rabbit
Order: Perissodactyla
(Hores, Zebras, Rhinoceros)
Perissodactyla are commonly known as odd-toed
ungulates with hooves that feature an odd
number of toes on the rear feet.
Perissodactyls are polygynous.
Male perissodactyls often spar with each
other for the privilege to mate with receptive
females.
A male that has found a female will attempt
to taste her urine to see if she is in estrus.
 The female may also signal that she is in
estrus.
 Gestation is very long, from about 11 months in
horses to 16 months for rhinoceroses.
 Perissodactyls tend to give birth of a precocial
calf at a time.
 The calf is capable of standing within moments
of birth.
 The young stays with its mother even after
being weaned, usually until it is chased off by
the mother on the birth of a new calf.
Indian Rhinoceros pair Horse with young
mating
Order: Pholidota
(Pangolin)
 They are usually solitary, but they have be
observed traveling in pairs.
 When a male comes across a female, mating
occurs if the female is in estrus.
 It is believed that they can reproduce at any
time of the year.
 Female reach sexual maturity when they
reach a length of approximately 810 mm.
 Mothers provide care for some duration of time,
as infants ride on the back of their mother.
 For protection, the mother curls into a ball with
the infant encompassed in the middle
Mating and parental care
Pangolin mating Baby pangolin with its mother
Order: Proboscidea
(Elephants)
They have complex social system of groups
led by mature female.
Groups are called ‘herds’
Dominant male mates with females.
Polygynous male having more than one female
as a mate at one time.
They breed all the year round, give birth of one
offspring.
After birth, mother help the calf to stand and
may bend her front legs so that it can reach to
nipple to suck.
Elephants have strong mother-calf bond.
After birth, the mother assists the calf to stand
and may bend her front legs so that it may reach
her nipples to suckle.
First few months mother closely watches her
calf. Latter the mother less attentive but
allomothers (aunts, sisters) take care.
Parental care may be given until early teens.
Females may allow another calf from their
family group to suckle.
Mating behavior
Of Elephas maximus
Parental care
Of Elephas maximus
Order: Rodentia
(Mice, Rats, Squirrels)
Their mating system is polygynandrous.
Once a female enters her six-hour estrus
period, she may mate as many as five-hundred
times with competing males.
An average female is capable of giving birth
approximately seven times per year.
Around 18 hours after giving birth, females
experience postpartum estrus, and mate again.
 The young are very small and
underdeveloped, they are milk-fed until
weaning occurs at 3 to 4 weeks.
 Often, the litters of numerous females will
occupy the same nest, and all the young are
cared for by the adults, regardless of who the
true mothers are.
Mating Behaviour
House mice Harvest mice
Order: Sirenia
(Dogons, Manatee)
Members belonging to this order are earlier
offshoot from the line of probocidian evolution.
Sirenians are polygamous, some are
monogamous.
Steller’s sea cow are monogamous, living with
long lasting family groups consisting of a mating
pair and two offspring.
Female sirenians are believed to be
polyestrous.
All sirenians are capable of breeding year
round, but each species has seasonal peaks
when birth rates are particularly high.
 Prominent secondary sexual characteristics in
males.
 Little evidence of sexual dimorphism or male-
male competition.
 High age of first reproduction.
 Long birth interval (3-6 years).
 Long reproductive life (20 years or more).
 Cows travel into shallow waters to give birth
 Sirenian gestation lasts 12 to 14 months.
 Females typically give birth to one precocial
calf.
 They have a long period of lactation.
 They generally continue nursing for about 18
months, although they may nurse up to four
years.
 Very young calves synchronize all activities,
such as breathing and resting, to match their
mother.
Parental care of dugong
Adult female with calf
Order:
Soricomorpha(Insectivora)
(Moles, Srews)
The name Soricomorpha was designated by
Gregory in 1910 and means 'shrew-formed'.
Shrews breed during March and April.
Males travel short to long distances to find
areas with a higher density of females.
To attract mates, shrews give off musky odors
produced by their lateral glands, or make
characteristic movements, such as tail-
wagging.
Moles mate from late February to early March.
 They have polygynous mating system.
 They produce one litter a year.
 Solenodons may be polygynous or
promiscuous.
 They are capable of having 2 litters within a
year.
 In moles ,young are helpless and naked at
birth, but mature quickly.
 Young nurse for less than three months, but
stay with their mother until her next litter.
 All soricomorphs provide very high fat,
nutritious milk for their young.
 Soricomorph males offer little, to no parental
care.
 To produce high-calorie milk, females eat up
to 3-times their normal intake when weaning
young.
 When conditions are harsh, females draw on
their own energy stores, which may lead to a
loss in body mass.
Hedgehog pair
Order: Primates
(Monkey, Lemurs, Apes)
Most primate species are limited to only one of
the following six basic patterns:
1. Single female & her offspring
2. Polyandrous family group
3. One male several female group
4. Multimale-multifemale group
5. Fission-fusion group
6. Monogamous family group
Single female & her offspring
It is found among the orangutans, some of the
small nocturnal prosimians (lemurs).
 The males of this type generally have large
territories with several females.
 The adult males live mostly alone.
 They come together with females occasionally
for mating.
 Females take care of their young.
 Children usually leave their mother when they
reach sexual maturity.
Single Orangutang female
with her child
Monogamous Family Group
It is found among the some New World monkeys
(titi monkeys), some prosimians, the small Asian
apes.
Monogamous groups consist of an adult male
and female with their children.
 Parental care both paternal & maternal.
 Titi monkey & Owl monkey both live in small
groups consisting of an adult pair and 2–4
young.
 Females give birth to a single infant each year
and the male is the primary carrier for the
infant soon after birth.
 Dependent infants may be carried as much as
90% of the time by their fathers and transfer to
the mother for brief periods.
 In titi monkeys, infants develop a preference
for their fathers over their mothers.
Monogamous group parental care
Bolivian grey titi
(Callicebus donacophiluso) carrying infant
Polyandrous family group
It is common amongThe smallest New World
monkeys, the marmosets and tamarins.
 They form both monogamous and polyandrous
family unit.
 They generally start with a monogamous
mating pair. Later, a second adult male may
join the family and assist in child rearing.
 When this occurs, both adult males will
potentially mate with the adult female.
 These monkeys commonly have twins and the
fathers carry the babies around on their backs
most of the time.
Common Marmosets
Young clinging to the back Family sitting on tree
One-male-several-female group
One-male-several-female group is found among
hamadryas baboons, geladas, langurs, howler
monkeys, gorillas.
 One-male-several-female groups have
polygynous mating patterns.
 The male and his female mates form a distinct
mating and child rearing group.
 Gorillas communities usually consist of a single
dominant adult male, his mates, and their
children.
 The relationship with any particular male may
be short-term.
 Young remain with natal group until sexual
maturity occurs.
One-male-several-female group
Mountain Gorilla with young Pair of red-handed
hawler monkey
Mountain Gorilla with young
multimale-multifemale group
It is the most common social group pattern among
semi-terrestrial primates (savanna baboons,
macaques and some New World monkeys).
 With this pattern, there are no stable
heterosexual bonds.
 Both males and females have a number of
different mates.
 commonly have a dominance hierarchy among
both males and females.
 The top ranking individuals are referred to as
the alpha male and the alpha female.
 Alpha males usually mate more often than
others.
 Most young adult male rhesus macaques
leave their natal community and ultimately join
others to find mates.
Western Chimpanzee
Group Mating Young play
with mother
Family of Rhesus
Macaque
Rhesus Macaque with
suckling Young
Fission-Fusion Society
A fission-fusion society is typical of chimpanzees.
 Individuals enter and leave communities from
time to time.
 Adult males occasionally wander off and forage
alone or join a few other males in a hunting
party.
 Females casually change membership from
one group to the other especially when females
are in estrus and seeking mates.
 Children usually stay physically close to their
own mothers until they become sexually
mature around 11 years of age or somewhat
later.
 Chimpanzees maintain their bonds with their
mother well into adulthood.

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Breeding Biology and Parental Care of Mammals

  • 1.
  • 2. Contribution 117420- Data Collection, Slide Preparation 117445- Data Collection, Slide Preparation 117474- Data Collection, Slide Preparation 107448- Data Collection, Slide Preparation
  • 3. Mammals Body covered with hairs. Two pairs limbs present. Heart completely four chambered. Skin bears numerous glands. Mammals are viviparous (except egg laying monotremes)  After birth, young nourished by milk secreted from mammary gland of mother. Parental care developed reaching its climax in human.
  • 4. The total number of mammals found in the world is 5,513. (www.currentresults.com/number-species; Ref. The World Conservation Union,2014) There are 89 mammal species in Bangladesh of which 3 are critically endangered, 12 are endangered, 16 are vulnerable and 4 are near threatened. (Wikipedia, last modified in 31 March,2015)
  • 5. 98% 2% MAMMALS MAMMALS OF BANGLADESH Status of mammals of Bangladesh according to the total mammals of the world
  • 7. Breeding Biology of Mammals Mammals give birth to the young, exceptions are the egg-laying monotremes of Australia, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus) and the echidnas (spiny anteaters). Among mammals Some are seasonal breeders as a consequence of environmental stimuli such as • day length • resource intake and • temperature dictating when mating occurs.
  • 8. Another general aspect of reproductive behaviour in mammals is the estrus cycle. Depending upon the estrous cycle in each sexual season mammals are two types: 1. Monoestrus: A single cycle in each sexual season. (e.g. The large mammals that live in temperate areas—bears, dogs, wolves, foxes, seals, and some deer and antelopes) 2. Polyestrus: Sexual season many times in a year. (e.g. Mammals that live in warmer zones, such as some areas of the tropics)
  • 9. Courtship Behavior For the breeding purpose courtship attraction is characterized by-  Increased energy  Focused attention  Affiliative gestures  Possessive mate guarding and motivation to win a preferred mating partner.
  • 10. Courtship Display:  most mammals have an acute sense of smell. Body pheromens secreted by males attracting the females are actually courtship displays.  Many deer and antelopes shows visual displays as courtship display such as- movements as strutting and arching of the heads.  In many species discharge urine on females as a preliminary to copulation.  Tactile and auditory displays have been shown to be important in aquatic mammals, such as porpoises and whales.
  • 11. In mammals following mating system are generally recognized: 1. Monogamy (Only one mating partner) 2. Polygamy (more than one mating partner) This is 3 types: a) Polygyny (A male mates with several females) b) Polyandry (A female mates with several males) c) Polygynandry (two or more males have an exclusive relationship with two or more females) 3. Promiscuity (Both males and females of a social group can mate with any member of the group)
  • 12. Apart from these some mammals are cooperative breeders (e.g. Common Marmosets and African Lions) in which groups of females and sometimes males share the care of young. Like social insects some(e.g. Naked Mole Rat) are eusocial, with a queen female mating with several males and bearing all of the young in the colony.
  • 13. Parental care of Mammals The efforts given by parents to their offspring to increase growth rates, quality, survival and protect from predators . Only 6% of mammals show both paternal and maternal care specially which are socially monogamous. Male mammals also provide paternal care. In mammals, the chief parental care is maternal care; in large part due to lactation.
  • 14. Order: Artiodactyla (Deer, Boar, Buffalo, Gaur etc.) Most are gregarious living in large groups, some are solitary. Pheromones and other glandular secretion to attract opposite sex. They breed only once a year, though some may breed multiple times. Majority are polygynous, a few seasonally monogamous. Most of the species of our country give birth at the starting of rainy season for food abundance.
  • 15. Females are caregivers. Lactation to offspring. Mothers two types; hiders and followers.  Hiders keep their newborn offspring in such a place where it is easy to camouflage. During her foraging, she comes back periodically to clean and feed it. She take it with her when it is capable enough to protect itself from predators. They live in small groups for adequate shelter of young. Followers accompany their offspring immediately after birth, live in open habitat with little shelter of young.
  • 16. Mating behavior Sus (Wild boar) Munticus (Barking deer)
  • 18. Order: Carnivora (Cat, Dog, Tiger, Fox, Civet, Mongoose etc.) Carnivores are polygynous, polygynandrous and monogamous. Who live in pack, the dominant male and female of the pack breed and all the member of the pack help raise offspring (Ex-Canis lupus) Who are solitary, often polygynandrous with male and female each having multiple partners during breeding season (Cats, Bears) They breed aseasonally, which in cold climate; mate in winter and spring and breed in spring and summer
  • 19. They attract the opposite sex by contacting the vibrissae of face and leg. Sometimes they use secretion of glands, roaring sound to attract others. Carnivores may have two or three litters per year but most have just one litter every year. Females nurture the young providing milk for 2 weeks to 2 years. Once it thought that males show no care, even kill their offspring. But now, paternal care of carnivores is not unknown, specially in canids, it’s very developed.
  • 20. Mating behavior Panthera tigris (Tiger) Canis lupus(Indian wolf)
  • 22. Order: Cetacea (Dolphins, whales) Cetaceans are the large aquatic mammalian group represented by whales & dolphins in Bangladesh. Cetaceans may show polygyny, polyandry or polygynandry. Breeding system more typically characterized by male-male competition. Long birth interval (one to six year). Long gestation period (typically varies from 10 to 16 months)
  • 23.  Females give birth to a single precocious young at a time.  Birth takes place in water.  Parental care entirely maternal.  Growth of young cetaceans are very rapid.  Lactation period vary widely from less than one year to more than 3 years.
  • 24. SPERM WHALE Male & female pair Female with young diving
  • 25. Order: Chiroptera Order Chiroptera is the second highest group of mammals contain 38 species in Bangladesh of world 1037 appx. species. Mating systems vary among bat species. Many temperate bats mate in the fall as they aggregate near their winter hibernacula. -These bats are generally promiscuous. In many micro chiropterans, one or two males defend small harems of females.
  • 26.  Some has a lek mating system, where males gather in a lekking arena to display to females.  Some bats are monogamous. -In these cases, the male, female, and their offspring roost together in a family group.  All newborn bats are completely dependent on their mothers for both protection and nourishment.  In few monogamous bat species males contribute to feeding and protecting young.
  • 27.  young bats either remain in the roost while their mothers forage, or cling to their mothers' during flight.  In some species, females will communally care for young, with "babysitters" caring for the cluster of young while their roost-mates forage.
  • 28. Mating behaviour: Grey hair bat Mating bat pair
  • 29. Parental care of Common vampire bat
  • 30. Order: Lagomorpha (Hares, Rabbits, pikas) Lagomorphs are primitive placental mammals including hares, pikas & rabbits. Most of the Lagomorphs are polygynandrous. Sexual maturation can occur from 3 to 9 months after birth in rabbits &1 to 2 years after birth for hares. During mating season males and females form small groups in which males compete for access to estrus females. As a courtship display both sexes jumped into the air & males urinate on female.
  • 31.  Many lagomorphs breed several times a year and produce large litters.  Females mate soon after giving birth or while carrying a litter.  Rabbits give birth to altricial young after a short gestation period and while hares give birth to precocial young after a longer gestation period..  The youngs are left alone in the nest for the first few weeks, with the mother nearby feeding.
  • 32.  Maternal care in lagomorph is limited to a few visit every twenty four hours mostly at night.  Females generally nurse young for at least 3 to 4 weeks.  Altricial youngs need longer parental care than the precocial young.
  • 34. Order: Perissodactyla (Hores, Zebras, Rhinoceros) Perissodactyla are commonly known as odd-toed ungulates with hooves that feature an odd number of toes on the rear feet. Perissodactyls are polygynous. Male perissodactyls often spar with each other for the privilege to mate with receptive females. A male that has found a female will attempt to taste her urine to see if she is in estrus.
  • 35.  The female may also signal that she is in estrus.  Gestation is very long, from about 11 months in horses to 16 months for rhinoceroses.  Perissodactyls tend to give birth of a precocial calf at a time.  The calf is capable of standing within moments of birth.  The young stays with its mother even after being weaned, usually until it is chased off by the mother on the birth of a new calf.
  • 36. Indian Rhinoceros pair Horse with young mating
  • 37. Order: Pholidota (Pangolin)  They are usually solitary, but they have be observed traveling in pairs.  When a male comes across a female, mating occurs if the female is in estrus.  It is believed that they can reproduce at any time of the year.  Female reach sexual maturity when they reach a length of approximately 810 mm.
  • 38.  Mothers provide care for some duration of time, as infants ride on the back of their mother.  For protection, the mother curls into a ball with the infant encompassed in the middle
  • 39. Mating and parental care Pangolin mating Baby pangolin with its mother
  • 40. Order: Proboscidea (Elephants) They have complex social system of groups led by mature female. Groups are called ‘herds’ Dominant male mates with females. Polygynous male having more than one female as a mate at one time. They breed all the year round, give birth of one offspring. After birth, mother help the calf to stand and may bend her front legs so that it can reach to nipple to suck.
  • 41. Elephants have strong mother-calf bond. After birth, the mother assists the calf to stand and may bend her front legs so that it may reach her nipples to suckle. First few months mother closely watches her calf. Latter the mother less attentive but allomothers (aunts, sisters) take care. Parental care may be given until early teens. Females may allow another calf from their family group to suckle.
  • 44. Order: Rodentia (Mice, Rats, Squirrels) Their mating system is polygynandrous. Once a female enters her six-hour estrus period, she may mate as many as five-hundred times with competing males. An average female is capable of giving birth approximately seven times per year. Around 18 hours after giving birth, females experience postpartum estrus, and mate again.
  • 45.  The young are very small and underdeveloped, they are milk-fed until weaning occurs at 3 to 4 weeks.  Often, the litters of numerous females will occupy the same nest, and all the young are cared for by the adults, regardless of who the true mothers are.
  • 47. Order: Sirenia (Dogons, Manatee) Members belonging to this order are earlier offshoot from the line of probocidian evolution. Sirenians are polygamous, some are monogamous. Steller’s sea cow are monogamous, living with long lasting family groups consisting of a mating pair and two offspring. Female sirenians are believed to be polyestrous. All sirenians are capable of breeding year round, but each species has seasonal peaks when birth rates are particularly high.
  • 48.  Prominent secondary sexual characteristics in males.  Little evidence of sexual dimorphism or male- male competition.  High age of first reproduction.  Long birth interval (3-6 years).  Long reproductive life (20 years or more).  Cows travel into shallow waters to give birth  Sirenian gestation lasts 12 to 14 months.  Females typically give birth to one precocial calf.  They have a long period of lactation.
  • 49.  They generally continue nursing for about 18 months, although they may nurse up to four years.  Very young calves synchronize all activities, such as breathing and resting, to match their mother.
  • 50. Parental care of dugong Adult female with calf
  • 51. Order: Soricomorpha(Insectivora) (Moles, Srews) The name Soricomorpha was designated by Gregory in 1910 and means 'shrew-formed'. Shrews breed during March and April. Males travel short to long distances to find areas with a higher density of females. To attract mates, shrews give off musky odors produced by their lateral glands, or make characteristic movements, such as tail- wagging. Moles mate from late February to early March.
  • 52.  They have polygynous mating system.  They produce one litter a year.  Solenodons may be polygynous or promiscuous.  They are capable of having 2 litters within a year.  In moles ,young are helpless and naked at birth, but mature quickly.  Young nurse for less than three months, but stay with their mother until her next litter.  All soricomorphs provide very high fat, nutritious milk for their young.
  • 53.  Soricomorph males offer little, to no parental care.  To produce high-calorie milk, females eat up to 3-times their normal intake when weaning young.  When conditions are harsh, females draw on their own energy stores, which may lead to a loss in body mass.
  • 55. Order: Primates (Monkey, Lemurs, Apes) Most primate species are limited to only one of the following six basic patterns: 1. Single female & her offspring 2. Polyandrous family group 3. One male several female group 4. Multimale-multifemale group 5. Fission-fusion group 6. Monogamous family group
  • 56. Single female & her offspring It is found among the orangutans, some of the small nocturnal prosimians (lemurs).  The males of this type generally have large territories with several females.  The adult males live mostly alone.  They come together with females occasionally for mating.  Females take care of their young.  Children usually leave their mother when they reach sexual maturity.
  • 58. Monogamous Family Group It is found among the some New World monkeys (titi monkeys), some prosimians, the small Asian apes. Monogamous groups consist of an adult male and female with their children.  Parental care both paternal & maternal.  Titi monkey & Owl monkey both live in small groups consisting of an adult pair and 2–4 young.
  • 59.  Females give birth to a single infant each year and the male is the primary carrier for the infant soon after birth.  Dependent infants may be carried as much as 90% of the time by their fathers and transfer to the mother for brief periods.  In titi monkeys, infants develop a preference for their fathers over their mothers.
  • 60. Monogamous group parental care Bolivian grey titi (Callicebus donacophiluso) carrying infant
  • 61. Polyandrous family group It is common amongThe smallest New World monkeys, the marmosets and tamarins.  They form both monogamous and polyandrous family unit.  They generally start with a monogamous mating pair. Later, a second adult male may join the family and assist in child rearing.  When this occurs, both adult males will potentially mate with the adult female.  These monkeys commonly have twins and the fathers carry the babies around on their backs most of the time.
  • 62. Common Marmosets Young clinging to the back Family sitting on tree
  • 63. One-male-several-female group One-male-several-female group is found among hamadryas baboons, geladas, langurs, howler monkeys, gorillas.  One-male-several-female groups have polygynous mating patterns.  The male and his female mates form a distinct mating and child rearing group.  Gorillas communities usually consist of a single dominant adult male, his mates, and their children.
  • 64.  The relationship with any particular male may be short-term.  Young remain with natal group until sexual maturity occurs.
  • 65. One-male-several-female group Mountain Gorilla with young Pair of red-handed hawler monkey
  • 67. multimale-multifemale group It is the most common social group pattern among semi-terrestrial primates (savanna baboons, macaques and some New World monkeys).  With this pattern, there are no stable heterosexual bonds.  Both males and females have a number of different mates.  commonly have a dominance hierarchy among both males and females.  The top ranking individuals are referred to as the alpha male and the alpha female.
  • 68.  Alpha males usually mate more often than others.  Most young adult male rhesus macaques leave their natal community and ultimately join others to find mates.
  • 69. Western Chimpanzee Group Mating Young play with mother
  • 70. Family of Rhesus Macaque Rhesus Macaque with suckling Young
  • 71. Fission-Fusion Society A fission-fusion society is typical of chimpanzees.  Individuals enter and leave communities from time to time.  Adult males occasionally wander off and forage alone or join a few other males in a hunting party.  Females casually change membership from one group to the other especially when females are in estrus and seeking mates.
  • 72.  Children usually stay physically close to their own mothers until they become sexually mature around 11 years of age or somewhat later.  Chimpanzees maintain their bonds with their mother well into adulthood.