Ping: executing ping with a large count & measuringhow many are received succesfully, we can calculate the percentage of packet loss. Loss equals throughput.
Network management is mostly a combination of local and
remote configuration and management with software.
Network management includes the
deployment, integration and coordination of the
hardware, software, and human elements to
monitor, test, poll, configure, analyze, evaluate and control
the network and element resources to meet the real-
time, operational performance, and Quality of Service
requirements at a reasonable cost.
NETWORK MANAGEMENT ….(contd)
Network management has three functional
Planning and Designing a network.
Analysis of traffic and performance data.
Responsibility of Engineering group to provide quality
and well managed service.
Management decides modifications in provisioning.
Management tools like ping are beneficial for planning
In telephone industry also known as circuit provisioning.
Design of trunk is done by application programs written in
operation systems. Planning systems and inventory systems
are integrated with design systems to build a system of
To disconnect a circuit, it is co-ordinated by planning
systems and the freed components are added to inventory
Design system is made aware of all available components
for future design.
Eg: TIRKS by Bell Systems.
In network communication, provisioning is done by
Provisioning is based on performance statistics and
quality of service requirements.
Each packet has independent path and are switched
based on the loads in the links.
Excess packets are stored in buffers or
retransmitted or are discarded.
In WAN, complex ATM technology is used.
Provisioning is based on virtual circuit.
Switches are cell-based knowing VP-VC of each
session connection to the neighboring nodes.
Architecture is either centralized or distributed.
Following are the three challenges faced by the
Improving service levels.
Profitably introducing new services.
Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6.
Network operation include analysis and
management of various problems, trouble-
Gathers statistics and generate reports for
management, system support and users.
These operations are monitored by NOC which is
the nerve centre of network management
Following are the various functions of network
Data Gathering and Analysis.
Detection and isolation of problems causing failure.
Self-healing or failure appropriate alarm.
Responsibility of I&M group.
Trouble ticket is used to track problems in network.
Periodic analysis of data is done to establish
problem patterns for necessary actions.
There are three sets of configuration of network-
Static Configuration: It is a permanent
configuration. The network would bring it up if it is
started from an idle state.
Current Configuration: Running configuration.
Planned Configuration: For future changes as the
Data should be regularly updated to increase
performance of the network.
Traffic management helps in tuning the network
and also in detecting trends and planning future
It involves security access, data access and data
flow in the network.
Secured communication is another area of concern.
Involves security of data integrity, message
protection, data confidentiality.
Certain necessary policies and procedures are
A security database is established by NOC.
It deals with statistics of the network and useful in
identifying hidden cost.
Cost of operations for an information management
service is based on the service that it provides to
the rest of the organization.
Network is configured so the generated traffic is
gathered from monitoring segments.
Keeps in check the status of network and system
operations. Helps in planning.
Budgeting is done for capital expenses.
Includes network availability, system
availability, customer satisfaction.
Reports should be made to be kept appraised of
An efficient database system is an essential part.
Use hierarchical and scalar based data systems.
Includes details of all the components.
An object oriented relational database is helpful.
Data Gathering and Analysis:
Data is collected:
planning and obtaining useful
information on key quality characteristics produced by
Data is analyzed:
inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data
with the goal of discovering
useful information, suggesting conclusions, and
supporting decision making.
Installing a network includes
cables, devices, connecting software.
More the network is complex, more difficult is to
Pre-determine the required space, topology, data.
The network I&M group deals with all the
This group is a service arm of the Engineering
Centrally store your data
Share access, zero duplication
Remote access from home
Off-site backup of data
Router and switches installation
Power and data trunking and Installation
Wireless LAN & WAN set-up
Manages virus scan & spyware Protection
Secure wireless WEP & WPA encrypted
Maintaining a secure network connected to the
Internet is difficult.
Hackers can scan and attack wide sections of the
Internet at a time.
As consumer connection increases, more
vulnerabilities available for exploitation.
Maintenance is necessary for network facilities to
Cost effective support services.
Small businesses are more dependent on
computers and the Internet than before and the
threat to business computers is changing.
Data or information needs to be maintained.
Maintaining with cost effective parameters.
Real-time visibility into network issues
Improved uptime, security and performance
The ability to add or improve capabilities based on
Rapid response time for replacement hardware.
The Network Installation and Maintenance Agreement is an
agreement between a provider of services and a client,
whereby the provider is engaged in the business of
providing services involving design, installation, and
maintenance of computer networks for a client.
The Network Installation and Maintenance Agreement
outlines the terms, conditions, and obligations required of
the provider of the services.
Chapter 1 and 11 of Network Management
Principles and Practice - Mani Subramanian.
Paper on dlink support services.
Paper on the SANS Institute Reading Room site.