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SDN, OpenFlow, NFV, and Virtual Network

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Published on

SDN
OpenFlow
NFV
P4
Virtualization
OpenStack
Controller
Timothy Lam CEO
CloudBay

Published in: Software

SDN, OpenFlow, NFV, and Virtual Network

  1. 1. SDN and OpenFlow,NFV and Virtual Network Reference  SDN: A Comprehensive Approach  Market Report: NV Solutions  SDN Series Part1-8 (TheNewStack)  P4: Programming Protocol-Independent Packet Processors CloudBay Networks Inc. CEO Timothy Lam
  2. 2. Trends Know Why Know What Know Who Technologies Vendors ApproachKnowledge Know Where Markets Know How Applications
  3. 3. Paradigm Shift Distributed vs Centralized Circuit-Switched Center switchboard Connection- oriented Single point of failure Overhead in initiation Internet Autonomous devices Connectionless (packet-switched) Mutliple data streams Overhead in disassembly & reassembly Virtual Network More centralized with cloud Packet-switched (can emulate circuit) Distributed data- plane, but centralized control-plane Centralized Distributed Mostly Centralized
  4. 4. 2000-2010  Hardware extended to L3 (routing)  Hardware extended to L4 (QoS, ACL)  Control protocols in device Paradigm Shift Hardware vs Software 1990-2000  Hardware in L1 only (bridging)  Hardware extended to L2 (switching)  The rest in Linux kernel Software Hardware Back to Software 2010-2020?  L1, L2 (forward only), and ACL in hardware  L2 (control), L3 and QoS in software  Programmable control in server
  5. 5. Key to SDN Centralized Control Traditional Routing updates among autonomous switches Slow convergence in case of topology change Static route optimization Control Data SDN Flow updates from central controller to switches in secured channel Fast convergence since handled centrally Dynamic route optimization to live traffic loadings Control Data Control Data Data Control Data Data Route updates (L3) Flow updates (L2-L4)
  6. 6. Key to SDN Programmability Traditional Complicated header manipulation (long latency) Limited changes are protocol-dependent Static & manual device configuration Control-Plane Data-Plane API SNMP, CLI SDN Directly programmable rules in data-plane (line rate) Any change possible by application Dynamic configuration from controller Control-Plane Data-Plane API OpenFlow
  7. 7. Traditional Open routing packages (ex. Quagga) recompiled for each Merchant silicon must be compatibility-tested Result: Vendor-lock-in Key to SDN Open Implementation Control-Plane Data-Plane Proprietary SDN Open routers can be freely ported Merchant silicon can be optimized toward standard Result: Open to innovation Control-Plane Data-Plane Open
  8. 8. SDN Characteristics Benefits  Plane Separation • Data-plane in switches (or routers) forwards packets • Control-plane in a server programs forwarding tables  Simpler Devices • Simpler is better (ex. CISC to RISC, Unix to Linux)  Network Abstraction • Distributed-state abstraction • Forward-engine abstraction (cross vendor-specifics) • Object abstraction  Openness • Open projects to drive researcher and vendor communities • Open standards to ensure multi-vendor interoperabilities
  9. 9. SDN Characteristics Drawbacks  Too Discruptive! • Requires device/topology replacement and new expertise  Single Point of Failure • Can be mitigated with HA and hardened links • Controller clustering & hierarchy (roof-leaf controllers)  Lack of DPI • Unable to inspect L5-7 payload (ex. URLs, hostnames) • Shunt traffic to IDS/IPS for inspection  Lack of Statefulness • Process independently, ignore prior state-changing packets • Unable to track dynamic port allocation (ex. FTP) • Unable to follow session exchanges (ex. HTTP)
  10. 10. SDN Components SDN Devices Device Examples (software only) Commercial  Switch-light (BSN): Tied with ASIC (Broadcom) and OS (Linux Virtual Switch)  onePK (Cisco) : Path determination, per-flow policy (QoS), auto configuration Open-Source  Indigo (BSN): Integrated with ASIC to run at line rate! Software Implementation Flow entries naturally mapped to data structures (ex. array, hash table) Complicated logic required to process wildcard matching Packets modification is easy Statistics collectable in full Hardware Implementation Flow entries somehow mapped to native CAM/TCAM tables TCAM is natively designed to process wildcards and partial matching Packet modification may be unavailable Problematic in flow count statistics
  11. 11. SDN Components SDN Controller Controller Examples Commercial  BNC (BSN): Compatible with FloodLight at interface-level  XNC (Cisco): Slices to partition admin domain and TIF to interpolate endpoints Open-Source  FloodLight (BSN): Define OpenFlow classes/interfaces and Restlet framework • Device & topology discovery, flow management, statistics tracking Core Function Modules • REST & Java API for northbound, OF-Config & OVSDB southbound Interfaces (other than SNMP & CLI • Application pipelining, northbound API standard, flow prioritization Current Challenges
  12. 12. SDN Components SDN Controller: Trema
  13. 13. SDN Components SDN Controller: Trema Quick Facts 1. Trema is more of a software development platform for than a production controller. 2. For an integrated development environment, Trema provides an Emulator, and TremaShark for bebugging. 3. Trema employs a multi-process model, in which modules are loosely coupled via a messenger (6 APIs: send/receive notification/request/reply messages). 4. The switch manager is responsible for creating the instance (switch daemon) of a switch (switch.”OFS IPaddr:port” or switch.dpid). Command Syntax (Ruby & C) ./trema run ./objects/examples/dumper/dumper –c ./src/examples/dumper/dumper.conf
  14. 14. SDN Components SDN Controller: NOX/POX
  15. 15. SDN Components SDN Controller: NOX/POX Quick Facts 1. Originally developed by Nirica. 2. NOX applications typically determine how each flow is routed or not routed in the enterprise network. 3. DSO deployer scans the directory structure for any components being implemented as DSO (Dynamically Shared Objects). 4. Events drive all the execution in NOX. NOX events can be classified as core events (datapath, flow, port…) and application events (host, link…). 5. NOX applications provide a component factory for the container, where container hold all the component contexts (including component instance itself). Command Syntax (C++) ./nox_core [OPTIONS] [APP[=ARG[,ARG]...]] [APP[=ARG[,ARG]...]]... ./nox_core -v -i ptcp:6633 switch
  16. 16. SDN Components SDN Controller: Ryu
  17. 17. SDN Components SDN Controller:Ryu Quick Facts 1. Strongly endorsed by NTT Labs. 2. Ryu has a large collection of libraries, ranging from southbound protocols (OF-Config, NETCONF, OVSDB…) to various packet-processing operations (packet builder/parser APIs for VLAN, MPLS, GRE…). 3. Include an Openstack Neutron plug-in that supports both GRE-based overlay and VLAN configurations, with WSGI to enable one to easily introduce newer REST APIs into an application. 4. Ryu applications are single-threaded entities, sending asynchronous events to each other (with event handlers processing in a blocking fashion). Command Syntax (Python) ryu-manager [--flagfile <path to configuration file>] [generic/application specific options...]
  18. 18. SDN Components SDN Controller: Floodlight
  19. 19. SDN Components SDN Controller: Floodlight Quick Facts 1. Floodlight developed by BSN based on Beacon (Stanford). 2. Floodlight’ is an umbrella-term to cover multiple projects such as Floodlight Controller, Indigo, LoxiGen, and OFTest. 3. Two components to OpenStack: RestProxy (connectivity between controller and Neutron) and VirtualNetworkFilter (MAC-based network isolation). 4. Floodlight includes a RestAPI server using Restlets library. With the Restlets, any module developed can expose additional REST APIs through an IRestAPI service (implementing RestletRoutable in a class). Command Syntax (Java) curl http://10.0.0.1:8080/wm/core/controller/switches/json (to get a OFS connected to the controller)
  20. 20. SDN Components SDN Controller: ODL
  21. 21. SDN Components SDN Controller: ODL Quick Facts 1. ODL is managed by the Linux Foundation, and is multi-vendor & multi- project. 2. ODL is characterized by OSGi framework, vendor components, and SAL. 3. OSGi framework is mainly used by applications that will run in the same address space as the controller, and it ensures modularity during development and run-time (ISSU). 4. Vendor components are proprietary extensions including VTN Manager, PCEP, GBP, SDNi, SFC, etc… 5. SAL is responsible for assembling the request by binding producer and consumer into a contract, brokered and serviced by SAL: 5a. AD-SAL converts the language spoken by the protocol plugins into application-specific APIs. 5b. MD-SAL dynamically generates APIs (RPC, RESTful, DOM…) from
  22. 22. SDN Components SDN Controller: ONOS
  23. 23. SDN Components SDN Controller: ONOS Quick Facts 1. ONOS was developed by ON.Lab, and is aiming for wide area network (WAN) and service provider networks. 2. ONOS design principles are: “Intent-based networking”, “Distributed controller architecture”, and “SDN and Service Providers”. 3. Intent can be described in terms of network resource, constraints, criteria and instructions. 4. Various distributed techniques such as partitioning, sharding, aggregation, replication, etc…define how controller interact and share info. 5. Multiple service providers may be associated with a single subsystem. 6. ONOS cluster embraces several HA techniques: Anti-entropy protocol (gossip-based), eventual consistency model, vector clocks, distributed queues, and in-memory data grid.
  24. 24. SDN Components SDN Controller: Comparison
  25. 25. ProactiveReactive SDN Components SDN Applications Reactive Application Switch Switch Switch Flows Flows Listener API Response API Process Packet Device Message Packet Action Flow Change Controller Proactive Application Switch Switch Flows Flows Flow Pusher Event Listener Controller Configur e Flow Networks Devices Message REST API External
  26. 26. SDN Components SDN Applications Application Examples (open source) Routing Protocols (proactive in nature)  RouteFlow: Map distributed routing tables into OpenFlow topology  Quagga: Provide IP routing protocols (ex. IS-IS, OSPF)  The BIRD: Provide IP routing protocols (ex. IS-IS, OSPF) Security (reactive in nature)  FortNOX: Provide security mediation service through reconciling policies  FRESCO: Scripting language to prototype security detection and mitigation Proactive Most written above network abstraction, so use high-level API (ex. REST API) Example: spanning tree, multipath forward Deal with more aggregate flows (ex. TCP port-specific) so fewer flow entries Reactive Most written in controller native language, so use low-level API (ex. Java, Python) Example: per-user firewall, security access Deal with more granular flows (ex. NAC) so more flow entry hungry
  27. 27. SDN Components Useful SDN Tools Benchmarker & Simulator Examples (open source)  Cbench: Emulate variable number of switches to send packets to controller and observe response from controller  OFLPS: Emulate a standalone controller to send/receive messages with switches and observe response from switches  MiniNet: Simulate large network of switches and hosts. (Not SDN-specific) Orchestrator Examples (open source)  FlowVisor: Enable multiple controllers to share physical switches (slicing)  Maestro: Provide interface for NAC to access and modify network  OESS: Provide user-controlled VLAN provisioning with OpenFlow switches  NetL2API: Provide generic API to control L2 swithces via vendors’ CLIs, not OpenFlow (for non-OpenFlow network virtualization)
  28. 28. OpenFlow Protocol Introduction • Define the communication between data-plane and control plane • Define part of data-place behavior (none of controller) Definition • A Stanford project attempted to build generic programming of various switch implementations based on common ASICs Origin of Development • (Similar to SDN) Switch, controller, protocol, and secure channel Components
  29. 29. OpenFlow Protocol OpenFlow 1.0 Basics  Flow Table & Entries • Each entry has header fields, counters, and actions  Match Fields- 12 Tuple • L2: Switch input port, VLAN ID, VLAN priority, MAC addresses (src/dst), EtherType • L3: IP addresses (src/dst), IP protocol, IP ToS bits • L4: TCP/UDP ports (src/dst)  Virtual Ports • CONTROLLER/TABLE, LOCAL/NORMAL, ALL/FLOOD, IN_PORT, <specified port>  Message Types • Symmetric, controller-switch, asynchronous
  30. 30. OpenFlow Protocol OpenFlow 1.1 Addictions  Multiple Flow Tables & Action Set • Together construct an instruction-based process pipeline which is very programmable  Group Table, Entries & Action Buckets • Perform individual pre-processing before packets are forward to each specified port (in a multicast) • Simplify rerouting to a new next-hop port (from multiple flows)  MPLS & VLAN Tag • PUSH/POP actions to support MPLS/VLAN encapsulation  Controller Connection Failure • Fail secure mode (as usual) & fail standalone mode (native)
  31. 31. OpenFlow Protocol OpenFlow 1.2 Addictions  Extended Match Descriptor • Set of TLV pairs to match virtually any header field • No more complicated parsing and hardcoding • EXPERIMENTER match class for additional payload fields  Extended Context Info • For messages from switch to controller (PACKET_IN) • Include input virtual/physical port, metadata from packet- matching pipeline  Multiple Controllers • Equal mode where all can program the switches • Master/slave mode where slaves can only read statistics
  32. 32. OpenFlow Protocol OpenFlow 1.3 Addictions  Per-Flow Meters & Meter Bands • Discrete levels of bands (threshold) to match current usage • Matched band enforces QoS control actions (DROP/DSCP)  Per Connection Filtering • Controllers can filter asynchronous messages from switches with SET_ASYNC message  Auxiliary Connections • Data packets between switches and controller  auxiliary • Control messages  primary connection  Cookies • Flow-entry cookies in controller caches to boost performance
  33. 33. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?) P4 Used to configure packet processing (@DP) Programmable parser can define new headers Actions are composed from protocol- independent primitives Match+Action stages in parallel or series. Classic OpenFlow 1.X Used to populate forwarding tables (@CP) Pre-defined set of header fields Pre-defined small set of actions Match+Action stages in series
  34. 34. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?)  Reconfigurability • Controller able to redefine packet parsing and processing  Protocol Independence • Controller able to specify header fields to extract and tables to process these headers  Target Independence • Turn target-independent description into target- dependent program (for ASIC, NPU, FPGA, etc…)  1st-step: high-level • Express in imperative language to represent the control flow  2nd-step: below • Translate P4 representation to TDGs (Table Dependency Graph) for dependency analysis • Map the TDG to a specific switch target Objectives2-stepCompile
  35. 35. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?) Components
  36. 36. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?)  A header definition describes the sequence and structure of a series of fields. It includes specification of field widths and constraints on field values. Components- Headers
  37. 37. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?)  A parser definition specifies how to identify headers and valid header sequences within packets.  P4 assumes the underlying switch can implement a state machine that traverses packet headers from start to finish, extracting field values as it goes. Components- Parsers
  38. 38. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?)  Match+action tables are the mechanism for performing packet processing. P4 program defines the fields on which a table may match and the actions it may execute.  Programmer describes how the defined header fields are to be matched in the match+action stages (e.g., should they be exact matches, ranges, or wildcards?) and what actions should be performed. Components- Tables
  39. 39. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?)  P4 supports construction of complex actions from simpler protocol-independent primitives. These complex actions are available within match+action tables.  P4 assumes parallel execution of primitives within an action function. Components- Actions
  40. 40. P4 (OpenFlow 2.0?)  The control program determines the order of match+action tables that are applied to a packet. A simple imperative program describe the flow of control between match+action tables.  Control flow is specified as a program via a collection of functions, conditionals, and table references. Components- Control Flow
  41. 41. SDN Alternatives Open SDN Physically Centralized Controller  The control-plane is physically decoupled from the data-plane  Controller (on server) communicates with data-plane (on switches) using OpenFlow  Flow tables are synchronized in between  SB API provides abstraction to the applications above (through NB)  Global view of current topology and live traffic loads in place Data Example Beacon, FloodLight/BNC, Indigo/SwitchLight, OVS/NVP, App App App Controller NB API SB API OpenFlow Data Data Global View Flows Flows Flows
  42. 42. SDN Alternatives SDN via APIs Partially Centralized Controller  Still control-plane on each switch  Controller just to automate the configurations on switches via improved APIs  Configurations through SNMP/CLI are still static and error-prone  SDN-appropriate APIs must be dynamic and have immediate effect upon changes (ex. RESTful API)  Applications still have to synchronize the distributed control-planes Data Example ODL/XNC, SDN from Arista, Brocade, etc… App App App Controller Data Data Control Control Control SNMP/CLI
  43. 43. Distributed or logically centralized Controller  Virtualized network overlay on existing physical network (unchanged)  Controller just to ensure mappings from VMs to tunnel endpoints (VTEPs)  Distributed approach by placing “control agent” on each vSwitch  Another logically-centralized approach by “controller instances” on vSwitches  L3 tunnels (MAC-in-IP) in use are: VXLAN(VMW), NVGRE(MSFT), STT(NCR)  Overlay solutions differ in learning of virtual MAC addresses across tunnels  Fully DPI-capable and state-aware (since any feature can be implemented) SDN Alternatives SDN via Network Overlays Example NSX, Contrail, DOVE, MidoNet, etc… VM Data Data Data Control Control Control CP DP CP DP CP DP DP DP CP DPvSwitches (on hypervisors) Agen t Agen t Agen t Control Instances VM VM VMVM VM tunn el tunn el tunnel s
  44. 44. SDN Alternatives SDN via Open Device No Controller!  Dependent on how “open” chip vendors are willing to be (Broadcom, Intel)  Dependent on popularity of open linux (ONL, Cumulus) as switch OS  Similar approach from WiFi router- OpenWRT  Somehow applicable to data-center switches, but not enterprise switchesExample BMS(QCI), DPDK(Intel), OFDPA(BRCM), CL(Cumulus) App App SDKData Control Chip-Level ASIC Interface Board-Level OS-Level Protocol Stacks API BSP ONL/ONI E OVS… Open Open Open Open Open App REST RPC
  45. 45. SDN Alternatives Comparing Side-by-side Open SDN SDN via APIs SDN via Overlays Benefits Plane Separation high low medium Simpler Devices high low medium Network Abstraction high medium high Openness high low medium-high Drawbacks Too Discruptive! low high n/a Single Point of Failure medium medium medium Lack of DPI low low medium Lack of Statefulness low low medium
  46. 46. SDN in Data Center Current Technologies  VXLAN • UDP header (source port hash for LB); VXLAN_ID = 24 bits  NVGRE • GRE header (no src/dst ports); Virtual_Subset_ID = 24 bits  STT • TCP header (ports yet to be ratified); Context_ID = 64 bits  MSTP • Each VLAN with its own spanning tree (share unused ports)  SPB • Use IS-IS to determine optimal paths • Apply Q-in-Q at edge and Mac-in-Mac in core (for QoS)  Fat-Tree • Aggregate bandwith consistent across all tiers (non- blocking) Tunneling(L3)Multi-Pathing
  47. 47. SDN in Data Center Data Center Demands  Overcome Current Limitations • L2 networks stretched by MAC-in-IP tunneling across WANs and server virtualization lead to MAC address explosion • VLAN limit is natively 4096 (12 bits) • Cross-sectional bandwidth, not single-rooted hierarchy (STP)  Add, Move, Delete Resources • Allocate resources before network services come online  Failure Recovery • Network restored to known state (deterministic paths)  Multitenancy  Traffic Engineering • Consider current traffic load (or congestion) • Increasing East-West traffic due to virtualized workloads
  48. 48. SDN in Data Center Open SDN • Controller create tunnels then route traffic into appropriate tunnels • Need hardware switches with built-in tunneling support Overcome Current Limits • Restore routes based on traffic loads, time of day, scheduled or observed loads over time Failure Recovery • Control directly hardware network traffic down to the flow level Traffic Engineering
  49. 49. SDN in Data Center SDN via APIs • Need controller aware of server virtualization changes • But fundamental capabilities still not changed Add, Move, and Delete Resources • Need controller to automate device updates and centralize route and path management (not typically the case) Failure Recovery • Combine traffic-monitoring tools with PBR and SNMP/CLI APIs to provide traffic engineering (ex. RSVP, MPLS-TE) Traffic Engineering
  50. 50. SDN in Data Center SDN via Overlays • VTEPs further upstream or more VMs per hypervisor can maximize MAC address saving Overcome Current Limits • Tasks performed in virtual tunnels are less complicated than if applied and replicated on all physical devices Add, Move, and Delete Resources • VLANs are relevant only within a single tenant, 4096 VLANs suffice Multitetancy
  51. 51. SDN in Data Center Comparing Side-by-side Open SDN SDN via APIs SDN via Overlays Demands Overcome Current Limits yes no yes Add, Move, Delete yes yes yes Failure Recovery yes no no Multitenancy yes no yes Traffic Engineering yes some no
  52. 52. SDN in Other Settings  WANs • Yield deterministic best LSPs in MPLS network, rather than traditional RVSP with unpredictable or competing LSP  SP and Carrier Networks • Push/pop MPLS/VLAN tags or PBB encapsulation to route traffic within and between carrier networks  Campus Networks • Traffic redirection of unauthenticated flows to captive portal • Traffic suppression based on hostnames or IP addresses  Mobile Networks • Controller redirect traffic from multi-vendor hotspot to registered mobile network for usage charge and QoS policy  Optical Networks • Controller redirect elephant flows to circuit-switched
  53. 53. SDN in Border Cases  Mobile Roaming  Traffic Offload: Auto-roam to RAN with lighter load (ex. 3GWiFi)  Media-independent Handover: MBB or BBM handover from BS to AP  Infra-controlled Roaming: Explicit control to appoint AP to client  Big Data Flows  Hadoop Offload: Rapid flow table sync across multiple switches to direct Hadoop traffic to optical devices  Smart Wireless Backhaul  For Providers: Segregate different traffic types from providers to different flows into shared backhaul (based on SLAs)  For Consumers: OVS on smartphone to choose best RAN and AP Energy Saving  For AP: Adjust down the transmission power level when traffic is light
  54. 54. SDN Ecosystem Academic  Stanford  UC Berkeley  Indiana (InCNTRE)  ONRC  ON.LAB Industry Research  HP  NTT  Microsoft Labs  NEC Software Vendor  VMware  Microsoft  Big Switch Network  Cumulus ODM  Quanta  etc… Merchant Silicon  Broadcom  Mellanox
  55. 55. SDN Ecosystem Industry Alliances Open Network Forum (ONF) Members are mostly LDCs: Google, Yahoo!, Facebook, NTT, Verizon, Deutsche Telekom (and Goldman Sachs) Focus on OpenFlow to communicate between controller and SB devices Major proponent of OpenSDN! OpenDayLight (ODL) Members are mostly NEMs: Cisco, Brocade, Juniper, IBM, NEC, Fujitsu, Huawei, Ericsson (and VMware, Citrix, Red Hat) Focus on NOS (an universal controller) to support all NB apps and SB protocols! May divert into SDN via APIs!
  56. 56. Major SDN Acquisitions Cisco  Acquired Cariden (11 years) for $141M  Cariden specialize in mapping flows to MPLS LSPs and VLANs  Acquired Meraki (6 years) for $1.2B  Meraki specialize in cloud-based control of Wi-Fi APs and wired switches  Acquired Insieme (1 year) for $863M (spin-in)  Insieme make new router and switch interoperable with other vendors but better working with Cisco-proprietary configuration (ACI) Juniper  Acquired Contrail (<1 year) for $176M (spin-in)  Contrail specialize in network virtualization and applications to address East-West traffic patterns in data center  Fully support OpenStack. No support for OpenFlow (XMPP only) VMware  Acquired Nicira (5 years) for $1.26B  Nicira specialize in network virtualization with preferably OpenFlow  After acquisition, OpenFlow component is replaced with proprietary
  57. 57. SDN Startups OpenFlow Followers Big Switch Network  Started with free Indigo software switch to popularize Floodlight controller  Paired with commercial versions named Switch Light and BNC  Then changed to sell bundles on white-box switches with bootloader to download Switch Light and self-configure (Big Pivot)  Provide purpose-driven solutions: Big Tap (network monitoring) and Big Fabric (network virtualization)  Rather than overlay, Big Fabric replace all physical switches with white- box Pica8  NOS to integrate OVS with white-box switches to build OF-based network  Control is logically centralized with OVS switching agent on each switch Cumulus Network  Turn switch into “server” with great number of NICs (Cumulus Linux)
  58. 58. SDN Startups Network Virtualization ConteXtream  Use grid-computing for distributed network virtualization solution with global knowledge of network (similar to IS-IS, OSPF)  Control of session routing is at rack level (control agent at TOR server) PLUMgrid  Provide SDN via overlays solution well integrated with ESX and KVM  Proprietary protocol to direct traffic to VXLAN tunnels rather than OpenFlow  Proprietary virtual switch implementation rather than OVS or Indigo Pertino  Provision to corporate users on-demand WAN or LAN connectivity for private network through the Internet (SDN via Cloud)  Usage-based charge model and monthly subscription (free for up to 3 users)
  59. 59. SDN Startups NFV Embrane  Virtualize load balancer, firewall, VPN, and WAN optimization through distributed virtual appliance (DVA)  Annual subscription model (fix-rate) and usage-based model to charge hourly for certain bandwidth (on-demand) Pluribus  Feature virtual load balancer and firewall distributed across Pluribus “server switches” with some assistance from Pluribus SDN controller  Pluribus controller is interoperable with OpenFlow and NSX controllers Midokura  Create virtual switch, load balancer, and firewall on virtualized network overlay (many hypervisors supported)  Feature unified management software to administer thousands of virtual networks from a single physical network
  60. 60. SDN Startups Optical and Mobile Switching Plexxi  Apply centralized controller concept for L2 and L3 into L1 for optical switch  Feature dual-mode switch (Ethernet & optical) and Plexxi controller  Switch interconnection traffic is in optical paths  Normal flows (short-duration) are in Ethernet paths  Elephant flows (persistent) are shunted to Calient optical switch Tollac  SDM to connect diverse network services to a shared virtual network  WaaS to dynamically provision network services in mulititenant WiFi environment (with fine-grained control of tunnels)
  61. 61. Future for SDN Gartner Hype Curve  2012: Massive VC investments into SDN startups and rapid acquisitions by incumbents  2013: Solution-oriented bundles required, not just open source software alone  2014: OF-specific ASIC build, best practices to be formulated, business will consolidateSDN is the future. The best way to predict the future is to make it! Visibilit y Maturit y Technology Trigger Peak of Inflated Expectatio n Trough of Disillusionme nt Slope of Enlightenme nt Plateau of Productivity 2012 2013 2014
  62. 62. Know Why Know What Know Who Know Where Know How Reality Check !! Know Why Not Success of SDN Maturity of OpenFlow Commercial POCs OpenFlow ASIC Depend On Catalyzed By
  63. 63. Challenges to OpenFlow Control Plane  Master-Slave Failover Issue • Need to define master re-election mechanism  Balance between Centralized and Distributed Control • Consider regionally centralized with globally distributed?  Performance Issue (with Flow Entries) • Out-of-sequence problem when network is large  Incompatibility Issue • Need private extensions for some features resulting in incompatibility (PLUMgrid fixed this)  Security Issue • Controller-switch channel (and controller-controller) need further security beyond TLS
  64. 64.  TCAM Hungry • Need to be able to mask any match field(s) at will  Multi-FlowTable (with “Cascading”) • Action output from one table be the input for next table lookup  Protocol-neutral • Like ACL but need far more actions and any field modifiable Stateless & Timeless • Unlike traditional with state machines and timestamps (demanded in telco use cases)  No Conditional Branch (if/else if…then) • Very expensive to implement with large number of flow tables  Switch/Router Only (currently) • Need extend further for other devices (ex. FW, SLB, etc…) OverSpecsUnderSpecs Challenges to OpenFlow Data Plane
  65. 65. ONF Resolutions CAB (Nick McKeown) (Intel, Broadcom, Mellanox, Huawei, etc…) FAWG Aggressive Type table (user define new header offset and length) SRAM to replace TCAM (use metadata to cascade hash lookup) Packet modifications (any match field can be modified independently) Shared memory (variable number of flow tables and table sizes) Progressive NDM (Negotiable Data-plane Model) Current ASIC capabilities mapped into a number of models (profiling the number of flow tables, exact match fields, instructions supported) Behind the scene are mostly ACLs (and route, MAC, VLAN, MPLS tables, etc...
  66. 66. Complementary Frameworks SDN vs NV vs NFV SDN on NV: Centralized control of virtual networks to enable automation SDN on NFV: Decouple FW, SLB, etc. is the first step toward virtualization (as well as cross-vendor compatibility and easier management) NV SDN NFV Objective: Create virtual network fabric above physical network to relieve constraints (from software vendors) Objective: Reallocate services from appliances to commodities to save cost (from telecom) Objective: Decouple CP/DP and provide abstraction to foster network innovation (from research)
  67. 67. NV Alternatives Direct Fabric Programming vs Overlays VM VM VM TOR Switch Virtual Switch Hypervisor Direct fabric programming Inside the hypervisor Modify or replace vSwitch Run as VM instance Device driver / Agent A B C D E Pros Cons VM/Driver Mobile with portable VMs Scalability limit; Little QoS Overlay More guest OS support Access to hypervisor kernel Direct Fabric Strong QoS/SLA controls Vendor to support OpenFlow E C D A B
  68. 68. NV Vendors (Top 4) VMware (~32%)  NSX Controller Cluster: Semi-distributed control with logical routers (in thousand) port-group mapped to hypervisor switches  NSX Edge Gateways: Edge routers as appliances with its own routing tables  Micro-segmentation: Stateful firewall at VM-vNIC granularity Cisco (~21%)  ACI: Centralized policy management with family of N9K, UCS, APIC, and AVS  Nexus 1000V: Multi-hypervisor overlay with distributed virtual switches and CSR  Cisco Intercloud to connect over 30 telecom providers Juniper (~13%)  Contrail: Multi-DC and inter-cloud with distributed control plane and deep analytics  Northstar: WAN virtualization integratible with OSS/BSS and NEBS-compliant, features NFV service-chaining and monetization for service providers HP (~12%)  VCN: Integrated with Helio Openstack and FlexFabric, for open-source clouds  VAN: Combined SDN controller with VMware NSX platform, for large
  69. 69. 附錄
  70. 70. Who Has What? (Old School) Controller NV Platform Switches Arista Fulcrum-based Brocade MLXe, CER, CES Citrix NetScaler SDX(ADC) Cisco CiscoOne, XNC InterCloud OnePK, Nexus1000v Nexus, Catalyst, ASR, ACI Dell VNA PowerConnect HP VAN VCN (for Helion) FlexFabric Huawei OPS (Open Programming System) ENP-based IBM PNC DOVE G8xxx, DVS (virtual) Juniper Contrail, OpenContrail Hybrid (no OpenFlow) NEC PFC VTN PFxxxx (NPU-based) VMware EdgeGateway NSX OVS (OVSDB)
  71. 71. Who Has What? (New School) Controller NV Platform Switches Big Switch FloodLight, BNC Big Cloud Fabric Indigo, Switch Light Centec V330/V350 (OF-ASIC) ConteXtrea m Grid (L4-7) LISP-supported (for NFV) Cumulus Cumulus Linux, ONIE Embrane Heleos (L4-7) DVA Midokura MidoNet (L2/L3/L4) KVM-based only NoviFlow NoviKit (NPU from EZChip) Nuage VSC VSP VRS Pica8 Pica8 OS OVS, XORP-based, P-3xxx Plexxi Plexxi Controller Affinity Metadata Service (RDBS) PlexxiSwitch PLUMgrid PLUMgrid Director PLUMgrid Platform (L2/L3/L4), PLUMgrid Virtual Domain IO Visor (no OpenFlow) Vello NX Controller VelloOS VX, CX, also pure OF
  72. 72. Who Bought Who? Buy Bought Product Intel Fulcrum 10G/40G Ethernet VMware Nicira L2/L3/L4 NV Cisco vCider L4-7 NV Oracle Xsigo NV (Xsigo Server Fabric) Extreme EnteraSys Summit switch Brocade Vyatta Router, FW, VPN (XORP-based) Juniper Contrail MPLS-related F5 LineRate LROS (SDN Proxy for flow management) Cisco Inseime ACI, ASIC (hiring) HP H3C From Huawei Dell Force10 Networking

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