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C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media
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C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media

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C:\fakepath\disaster and role of media

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  9. 9. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete mswk-óZv I Kvh©µg‡K †Rvo`vi Kivi wm×v Í M„wnZ nq| g~jZ: `y‡h©vM cÖeY mKj GjvKv‡ZB wgwWqv¸‡jv hv‡Z Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv Kvh©µg‡K mnRZi K‡i †m wel‡q ïay †hvMv‡hvM †ev×vMYB `„wó wbe× K‡ibwb, Dbqb we‡klÁ, mgvR we‡k-lKMYmn mswk-ó mKj gnj welqwU ¸i“Z¡mnKv‡i we‡ePbv Ki‡Qb| `y‡h©vM cÖeY GjvKvi K_v ej‡Z †M‡jB evsjv‡`k‡K ev` w`‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv hvq bv| HwZnvwmKfv‡e evsjv‡`k NywY©So cÖeY A‡ji AvIZvf~³| weMZ 200 eQ‡i G‡`‡k cÖvq 180wUi †ekx †QvU eo N~wYSo AvNvZ nvbvi Ges wecyj msL¨K Rxeb I e¨vcK m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZi cwimsL¨vb cvIqv hvq| f~-cÖK…wZ I AvenvIqv G‡`‡ki cÖZ¨q Í A‡ji Awaevwm‡`i Dci Mfxi cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i _v‡K| eb¨v, Liv, So- SÄv, R‡jv”Q¡vm mn bvbv ai‡bi cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi mv‡_ jovB K‡i G‡`i †eu‡P _vK‡Z nq| †f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y G‡`‡ki DcK’jxq A‡j Kvj‰ekvLx, NywY©So, mvB‡K¬vb I R‡jv”Q¡vm cÖvqB cÖjqsKix c avib K‡i| ZvB evsjv‡`‡ki †f ‡MvwjK cwigÛ‡j cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM GKwU wbˉbwgwËK NUbv| g„Zy¨i fqven Dcje×xi gv‡S †_‡KB G A‡ji gvbyl Zv‡`i †ckvMZ `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i, jovB msMÖv‡gi gva¨‡g wb‡R‡`i wUwK‡q iv‡L| evsjv‡`‡ki ‡f ‡MvwjK wefvRb¸‡jv we‡k-lY Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, ¯^í cwim‡ii G †`‡k hZ †ekx msL¨K b`-b`x I Lvj - we‡ji mgv‡ek i‡q‡Q Zv c„w_exi Avi †Kv_vqI †`Lv hvq bv| Kwe wecÖ`v‡mi iPbvq cvIqv hvq, ÓM½v Avi ¯^i¯^wZ, hgybv wekvj AwZÓ| Kwe Aveyj dR‡ji eY©bvq,Ó evsjv‡`k †Rvqvi fvUvi †`k, el©vKv‡j eb¨v Avi So GLvbKvi cÖvK…wZK GKwU ewkó¨|Ó Be‡b eZ©yZv †`kwU‡K †`vRL-B-cyi wbqvgZÓ e‡j D‡j-L K‡i‡Qb| AvBbB AvKeix‡Z D‡j-L i‡q‡Q,Ó A great storm in 1584 which affected the district Barisal . NywY©S‡oi fqvenZvi BwZnv‡m †`Lv hvq †h, A great storm in October 1876 which affected three coastal districts of Barisal, Noakhali and Chittagong, about 200000 people died during this storm . evsjv‡`k AvenvIqv Awa`߇ii GK Z_¨ g‡Z, MZ 200 eQ‡i G‡`‡k cÖvq 97wU N~wY©So wewfb mgq AvNvZ †n‡b‡Q hvi g‡a¨ 64 wU fqvenfv‡e e¨vcK ¶q¶wZ mvab K‡i| 3 Ryb 1795 mv‡j cÖPÛ mvB‡K¬vb PUªMÖv‡gi mgy`ª e›`i GjvKvq AvNvZ nv‡b| BwZnv‡mi fqvenZg NywY©So wQj 1797 mv‡ji †g gv‡m PUªMÖv‡gi Dci w`‡q e‡q hvIqv NywY©SowU| G S‡o `ywU mgy`ª RvnvR Wywei NUbv N‡UwQj| Gi c 1822, 1869, 1876, mv‡ji fqven NywY©S‡oi AvNv‡Zi wPý e½ Rbc‡` AvRI BwZnvm n‡q Av‡Q| 1919 mv‡j `ywU NywY©S‡oi D‡j-L cvIqv hvq wVK Gfv‡e, ÓTwo great cyclone of 1919 also deserves mention if 9
  10. 10. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete originated in two pacific about 6000 km away and it took 20 days to reach to the coast of Bangladesh . 1941, 1942 Ges 1960 mv‡jI fqven N~wY©S‡oi ZvÛe gvby‡li ü`q‡K cÖPÛfv‡e bvov †`q| Gi ci †_‡K 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1991 Ges 1997 mv‡ji NywY©S‡oi fqvenZv GLbI A‡b‡KB ¯§„wZPviY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| me©‡kl 2004 mv‡ji fqven eb¨v, 2006 mv‡ji †m‡Þ¤^i gv‡m DcK~jxq mvgyw`ªK R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi wbg©g ZvÛ‡ei wPÎ meviB ‡hgb Rvbv i‡q‡Q †Zgwb 2007 mv‡ji †`ke¨vcx fqven eb¨vi ¶q¶wZ I †fvMvw —i wPý KvwU‡q DV‡Z bv DV‡ZB GKB eQ‡i wmW‡ii gZ cÖjqsKix mvB‡K¬v‡Yi AvNv‡Z me©k¦ LyB‡q‡Q G †`‡ki cÖv R‡biv| — Kv‡RB B‡›`v‡bwkqv, c~e-wZgyi, K‡¤^vwWqv ev wf‡qZbv‡gi gZ †`k¸‡jv‡Z cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡M © ¶q¶wZi gvÎv Kgv‡Z wgwWqvi msw&k-óZvi Dci Av ÍR©vwZKfv‡e ¸i“Z¡ cÖ`v‡bi welqwU evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi BwZnvm we‡k-l‡Y cÖvß wPÎ †_‡K wew”Qb K‡i fvevi my‡hvM G‡Kev‡iB _v‡Kbv| eZ©gvb ewk¦K ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y, Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi †¶‡Î bZzb bZzb Szwu K I fqvenZvi gvÎv e„w× †c‡q‡Q Ges †h mKj AÂj Gi Øviv Avµv Í n‡”Q Zvi g‡a¨ evsjv‡`k Ab¨Zg SuywKc~Y© Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q| ZvQvov G‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v, NbemwZc~Y© RbmsL¨v Ges AbybZ AeKvVv‡gvMZ Ae¯’vi Kvi‡Y SuywKi gvÎv Av‡iv evwo‡q Zz‡j‡Q| G‡¶‡Î cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi nvZ †_‡K G‡`‡ki SuywKc~Y© Rb‡Mvwô I m¤ú‡`i ¶q¶wZi gvÎv Kwg‡q wKfv‡e cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ Lvc LvB‡q gvbyl †eu‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i †m wel‡q mwVK mg‡q w`K wb‡Ï©kbv cÖ`vb, m‡PZbZv Zix I c~e© cÖ¯‘wZ‡Z RbMY‡K mnvqZv cÖ`vb Kiv G‡`‡ki MYgva¨‡gi mvgvwRK I ivóªxq `vwq‡Z¡i g‡a¨ c‡o| Avi †m Rb¨B Avgv‡`i MYgva¨g I MYgva¨g mswk-ó e¨w³ I cÖwZôvbmgyn `y‡h©vM c~e©, `y‡h©vMKvjxY Ges `y‡h©v‡MvËi mg‡q KwgDwbwUi gvby‡li Rb¨ wewfbfv‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| 10
  11. 11. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -2 Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ `y h©vM ew× welqK KwZcq wjK aviYv we‡k¦i Rjevqy AZx‡Z cwieZwZ©Z n‡q‡Q, eZ©gv‡b n‡”Q Ges fwel¨‡ZI n‡e| g~jZ: Rjevq~ wbqZ cwieZ©bkxj| Z‡e Av‡M Rjevqy cwieZ©b NU‡Zv GKv ÍB cªvK…wZKfv‡e| wK ‘ eZ©gv‡b cÖK…wZi cvkvcvwk †hvM n‡q‡Q gvby‡li cwi‡ek ‰eix Kvh©µg| Rjevqyi Dcv`vb¸wj †hgb ci¯úi A½vw½fv‡e RwoZ, †Zgwb G¸wj AZ¨ — AwbwðZ| evqygÛ‡j Aew¯’Z wewfb Dcv`vb Ges cÖK…wZi bvbvgyLx wµqvKjvc gvby‡li emev‡mi Rb¨ mnvqK eZ©gvb Rjevqy‡Z GK myMfxi cwieZ©b †W‡K Avb‡Q| G wel‡q mvaviY gvby‡li Ávb I Z‡_¨i mxgveäZv _vK‡jI Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ welqwU `xN©w`b hveZ Av —R©vwZK wbix¶v I Avjvc Av‡jvPbvi welq wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ n‡q D‡V‡Q| welqwUi fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© cÖL¨vZ weÁvbx, bxwZ wba©viK, cwi‡ek we‡k-lK, A_©bxwZwe` I we‡klÁ‡`i w`b w`b fvwe‡q Zzj‡Q| wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbtmiY Ges Gi gvÎv e„w×i cÖwZwµqvi avivevwnKZvB Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi MwZ Z¡ivw ^Z Ki‡Q| Avi ZvB Rjevqy cwieZ©b wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbtmiY I ewk¦K cÖwZwµqvi g‡Zv we¯—Z welq¸wj ci¯úi wbweo fv‡e m¤úwK©Z| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y D™¢Z cwiw¯’wZ … ~ gvbe cÖRvwZi R‡b¨ me‡P‡q cÖwZK‚j Ae¯’vi m„w÷ K‡i‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖavb av°v G‡m co‡Q K…wl, cvwbm¤ú` I ¯^v¯’¨ Lv‡Zi g‡Zv cÖavb †¶Î¸wj‡Z| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqvq mgy`ª c„‡ói D”PZv e„w× cv‡”Q, K…wli Ae¶q NU‡Q, cvwb cÖevn n«vm cv‡”Q, ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨v e„w× cv‡”Q, AvenvIqvi Lvg‡Lqvwj AvPiY Ges mvgvwRK Aw¯’iZv e„w× cv‡”Q| Z…Zxq we‡k¦i †`k¸wji RbMY †h me mgm¨v wb‡q GLbI w`bvwZcvZ Ki‡Qb, Rjevqy cwieZ©b †mB me mgm¨v¸wji †¶Î‡K AviI cÖmvwiZ Ki‡Q| d‡j Zv wek¦Rbxb mgm¨vq cwiYZ n‡”Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©b AvaywbK h ¿mf¨Zvq DbZ †`k¸wji mvaviY Kg©dj| Avi ZvB Ab¨ †`k¸wji Zzjbvq wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbtmi‡Y evsjv‡`k A‡bK wcwQ‡q _vK‡jI G †`k‡K Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi eûgyLx cÖwZwµqvi2 gy‡L c‡o mxgvnxb `y`©kv †fvM Ki‡Z n‡”Q| ZvB G msµv Í †g wjK aviYv¸‡jv ‡hgb Av‡jvPbv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †Zgwb avibv¸‡jv Rbgvb‡mi g‡a¨ fvMvfvwM K‡i †bqvi h_vm¤¢e cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡bvi `iKvi| AvenvIqv : AvenvIqv n‡”Q GKwU wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b wbw`©ó mg‡q (m‡ev©”P mvZ w`‡bi) evqygÛ‡ji weivRgvb Ae¯’vi cÖKvwkZ ev mnR‡eva¨ i“c| hv mvaviYZ Mig ev VvÛv, †fRv A_ev ﮋ, kv — A_ev we¶z× Ae¯’v, †gNnxb ev †gNv”Qb BZ¨vw` w`‡q mn‡RB ‡evSv hvq| D`vniY 2 bvbv ai‡bi cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM (eb¨v, Liv, NywY©So, mvB‡K¬vb) †ivMe¨vwai msµvgb, Rjve×Zv, Rxe ewPΨ n«vm, b`xfvOb, cÖfw„ Z| 11
  12. 12. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete wn‡m‡e ejv hvq- AvenvIqvi c~e©vfvm cÖwZw`b cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq Ges †Uwjwfkb I †iwWIÕi msev‡`I Zv cÖPvwiZ nq| wbqwgZ AvenvIqv ey‡jwU‡b w`‡bi Mo ZvcgvÎv, m‡e©v”P I me©wbg ZvcgvÎv, †gNv”QbZv, †Kvb we‡kl ¯’v‡b e„wócvZ ev S‡oi m¤¢vebvi K_v D‡j-L Kivi cvkvcvwk m~‡h©v`q I m~h©v‡¯—i mgq BZ¨vw` A‡bK wel‡qi D‡j-L _v‡K| AvenvIqvi cÖavb cÖavb Dcv`vb¸wji g‡a¨ c‡o evqyi ZvcgvÎv, evqyi Pvc, evqyi cÖevn Ges MwZ‡eM, †g‡Ni NbZ¡ Ges †g‡Ni cÖK…wZ Ges e„wócvZ| †Kvb GK RvqMvq evqygÛ‡ji cÖavb cÖavb Dcv`vb¸wji msw¶ß i“c ev †NvwlZ Ae¯’v‡KB AvenvIqv ejv nq| GUv evqygÛ‡ji `bw›`b Ae¯’v‡K cÖKvk K‡i| AvenvIqv ¯’vb I mgq Abymv‡i cwiewZ©Z nq| Rjevqy : Rjevqy n‡”Q †Kvb A‡ji ev ¯’v‡bi AvenvIqvi Mo Ae¯’v| †Kvb ¯’vb ev A‡ji wewfb FZz‡f‡` Kgc‡¶ 30 eQ‡ii Mo Ae¯’v‡K Rjevqy ejv n‡q _v‡K| †Kvb we‡kl ¯’v‡bi AvenvIqvi wewfb Ae¯’v‡K cwimsL¨v‡bi wfwˇZ cÖKvkB Rjevqy| mvaviYZ †Kvb ¯’v‡bi 30 eQ‡ii AvenvIqvi wbqvgK¸wji Mo Ae¯’v‡K Rjevqy wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ Kiv nq| GUv mvaviYZ AvenvIqvi cÖavb cÖavb wbqvgK †hgb-ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, Av`ª©Zv, w`‡bi `N©¨ I evZv‡mi MwZ‡eM cÖf„wZi Mo wnmv‡ei wfwˇZ AbywgZ n‡q _v‡K| Rjevqy ¯’vb‡f‡` wfb wfb n‡q _v‡K| GUv wbf©i K‡i A¶vs‡ki Dci, mgy`ª †_‡K `~iZ¡, e„¶ivRxi Ae¯’vb, cvnv‡oi Dcw¯’wZ ev Abycw¯’wZ cÖfw„ Zi Dci| Rjevqy cwieZ©b ej‡Z †Kvb GKwU wbw`©ó A‡ji A_ev mvgwMÖK A‡_© mviv we‡k¦i MocoZv AvenvIqvi `xN©‡gqvw` ¯’vqx cwieZ©b‡K eySvq| AvenvIqv m¤úwK©Z Dcv`vbmg~n †hgb-ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, evqycÖevn cÖf„wZ ai‡bi cwieZ©b Øviv GB Rjevqy cwieZ©b cwigvc Kiv nq| Rievqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖZ¨¶ cÖfv‡e3 mgy`ªcÖ‡ôi D”PZv e„w×, jeYv³Zv, Liv, eb¨v, NywY©So, f~wgi Aebgb, f~wgK¤ú, cÖwZ‡ek, b`-b`x e¨e¯’vq cÖfve †d‡j `y‡h©vM I SzuwKi m„wó K‡i| Avi c‡iv¶ cÖfv‡e Lv‡`¨i AwbðqZv, gvby‡li ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’v, Rjve×Zv cÖf„wZ mgm¨v Zix K‡i| wMÖbnvDm M¨vm : evqygÛ‡j Dcw¯’Z †h me M¨vm Zvc †kvlY K‡i c„w_exi DòZv evwo‡q †Zv‡j Zv‡`i‡K wMÖbnvDm M¨vm ejv nq| wKQy wMÖbnvDm M¨vm cÖvK…wZKfv‡eB weivRgvb ev cÖvK…wZK fv‡e m„ó; †hgb-Rjxq ev®ú, I‡Rvb, Kve©b WvB A·vBW, wg‡_b, bvBUªvm A·vBW 3 wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqv : wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvi d‡jB c„w_exi DòZv evo‡Q| c„w_exi evqygÛ‡j Ggb wKQy M¨v‡mi Dcw¯’wZ i‡q‡Q hviv m~hiwk¥ †kvl‡Yi gva¨‡g c„w_exi DËvc evwo‡q †Zv‡j| GB M¨vm¸wj © wMÖbnvDm M¨vm bv‡g cwiwPZ| evqygÛ‡j wMÖbnvDm M¨vm m¤ú~Y© Abycw¯’Z _vK‡j eZ©gv‡b c„w_exi Mo ZvcgvÎv 150 †mjwmqv‡mi cwie‡Z© gvBbvm 180 †mjwmqvm nZ| d‡j AwZwi³ VvÛvq c„w_exi RxeK‚‡ji †eu‡P _vKv m¤¢e nZ bv| 12
  13. 13. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete n‡jvKve©b (wmGdwm) BZ¨vw`| G¸‡jv evqy gÛ‡j MÖxYnvDm cÖwZwµqv NUv‡bvi me‡P‡q †ekx f~wgKv iv‡L| kxZ cÖavb †`k¸wj‡Z m&ewR Pv‡li Rb¨ Kuv‡Pi Ni Zix K‡i †hfv‡e evB‡i †_‡K Avmv Zvc‡K AvU‡K ivLv nq wVK †mfv‡eB evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wj m~‡h©i Zvc‡K AvU‡K iv‡L| evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm M¨vmmg~n I †gN, f~c„ô †_‡K wewKwiZ Ae‡jvwnZ iwk¥ Lye mn‡RB †kvlY K‡i †bq| Gi d‡j evqygÛj DËß n‡q I‡V Ges evqygÛj †_‡K Zvc Pvwiw`‡K Qwo‡q c‡o| wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvi d‡j evqygÛ‡ji ZvcgvÎv †e‡o hvq| Kve©b WvB-A·vBW: wMÖbnvDm M¨vm mg~‡ni g‡a¨ Kve©b WvB-A·vBW me†P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© I Kvh©Kvix †Uªm M¨vm| MZ K‡qK kZK Ges mv¤cÖwZK `kK¸wj Ry‡o evqygÛ‡j GB Kve©b WvB-A·vB‡Wi cwigvY Avk¼vRbK gvÎvq e„w× cv‡”Q| 1958 mv‡j evqygÛ‡j †hLv‡b Kve©b WvB-A·vB‡Wi cwigvY wQj cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡Mi g‡a¨ gvÎ 315 fvM (ppmv), †mLv‡b 1990 mvj bvMv` GB cwigvY `uvovq cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡Mi 350 fv‡M (ppmv)| MZ `k‡Ki cÖwZ eQ‡i k~b¨ `kwgK cuvP kZvsk nv‡i e„w× †c‡q 1993 mv‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY `uvovq cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡Mi 358 fv‡M| AZx‡Zi evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY †Kgb wQj Zv Rvb‡Z M‡el‡Kiv c‡iv¶ c×wZ †e‡Q †bb| G c×wZ‡Z 1750 mv‡ji c~‡e© evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY cÖwZ `k jvL (wgwjqb) fv‡M 280 fvM (ppmv) wQj e‡j Rvbv hvq| MZ `yB kZvãx‡Z evqygÛ‡j CO2 mn Ab¨vb¨ M¨v‡mi cwigvY cÖvq 28kZvsk e„w× †c‡q‡Q| e¨vcK wkívq‡bi Kvi‡Y MZ `yB kZvãx‡Z Kqjv-†Zj-M¨vm Ges R¡vjvwb Kv‡Vi e¨envi eû¸Y e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Gi d‡j evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvYI e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Kve©b Pµ †_‡K Kve©‡bi wZbwU cÖavb Drm †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq; G¸‡jv nj mgy`ª, f~-c„‡ôi cÖvYxRMr Ges evqygÛj| mgy`ª Ges evqygÛ‡ji g‡a¨ Kve©b wewbg‡qi nvi eQ‡i cÖvq 90 wMMvU‡bi mgvb| c„w_exi cÖvYxRM‡Zi †gvU Kve©b gRy‡`i GK eo Ask i‡q‡Q MÖx®§gÛjxq I bvwZkx‡Zvò ebv‡ji cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi wfZ‡i| gvby‡li †h `ywU Kvh©Kjv‡ci d‡j evqygÛ‡j CO2 Ges mxmvi cwigvY e„w× cvq †m `ywU nj-LwbR ev Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwbi D‡Ëvjb I e¨envi e„w× Ges f~wg e¨env‡i cwieZ©b| MZ kZ‡Ki †kl `yB `kK a‡i Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb †_‡K Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi cwigvY eQ‡i cÖvq GK `kwgK bq kZvsk nv‡i e„w× †c‡q‡Q| G †¶‡Î D‡j-L Kiv hvq †h, Dbqbkxj †`k¸wj‡Z we‡k¦i †gvU RbmsL¨vi cÖvq wZb-PZz_©vsk emevm K‡i| wK ‘ wecyj RbmsL¨v _vK‡jI Gme †`k we‡k¦i †gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi gvÎ GK PZz_vs‡ki Rb¨ `vqx| Ab¨w`‡K DbZ †`k¸wj‡Z © wek¦ RbmsL¨vi gvÎ c‡bi kZvsk emevm Ki‡jI Zviv we‡k¦i ‡gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi cÖvq 44 kZvsk NwU‡q _v‡K| GKKfv‡e gvwK©b hy³ivóªB we‡k¦i †gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Yi cÖvq 23 kZvs‡ki Rb¨ `vqx| we‡k¦i †gvU Kve©b wbtmi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki Ae`vb AwZ mvgvb¨, gvÎ ïb¨ 13
  14. 14. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete `kwgK ïb¨ Qq fvM4 | f~wg e¨env‡i cwieZ©b ev eb DRvo, we‡kl K‡i ga¨ A¶vsk I MÖx®§gÛjxq GjvKvq ebvÂj a s‡mi mv¤cÖwZK cÖeYZv evqygÛ‡j CO2 Gi cwigvY e„w× K‡i‡Q| wg _b : wkí wec-e Gi Av‡Mi Zzjbvq eZ©gv‡b evqygÛ‡j wg‡_b M¨v‡mi cwigvY cÖvq wØ-¸Y e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Gi †ewkifvMB N‡U‡Q 1900 mv‡ji ci †_‡K| MZ 1960 ci †_‡K GB e„w×i cwigvY wQj cÖvq wÎk kZvsk| Aek¨ eZ©gvb eQi¸wj‡Z GB e„w×i cwigvY cÖwZ GK‡kv †KvwU fv‡M (wewjq‡b) 10-13 fvM (ppbv) K‡g hvIqvi cÖgvY †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| wg‡_b cÖKw… ZMZfv‡e Rjvf~wg, cÖvYx‡`i gi‡`‡ni cPb, KxU-cZ½, mgy`ª Ges †Lvjv cvwb †_‡K Drcb n‡q _v‡K| eZ©gvb mg‡q wg‡_b M¨v‡mi gvÎv e„w×i KviY¸wji †fZ‡i gvby‡li cÖPwjZ K…wlKvR, cï cvjb, Rjvkq I bxPzRwg fivUKiY BZ¨vw` Kvh©Kjv‡ci f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| GQvovI Zz›`ªv A‡ji Zzlvi M‡j hvIqv, MvQcvjv-jZvcvZv ev Re `ªe¨ cyov‡bv, cÖvK…wZK M¨v‡mi cvBcjvB‡bi wQ`ª w`‡q M¨vm wbM©Z nIqv Ges cïi Rvei KvUv BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g wg‡_b M¨v‡mi wbtmiY N‡U _v‡K| mv¤cÖwZK M‡elYvq †`Lv †M‡Q †h, Dbqbkxj †`k¸wj e¨vcKfv‡e K…wl wbf©i nIqvq Gme‡`k wg‡_b wbtmi‡Yi eo Drm| evsjv‡`‡k we‡k¦i †gvU wg‡_b wbtmi‡Yi 1 †_‡K 2 kZvsk N‡U _v‡K| wg‡_b M¨v‡mi Avqy®‹vj CO2 Gi †P‡q Kg Ges Zv Ab¨vb¨ M¨v‡mi ms‡k-‡li Ici wbf©i K‡i| wg‡_‡bi Avqy¯‹vj Kg nIqvq (Avqy gvÎ 8 †_‡K 12 eQi) we‡k¦ eZ©gv‡b †h cwigv‡Y wg‡_b M¨vm Drcb n‡”Q †mB gvÎv‡K gvÎ 15 kZvsk Kwg‡q Avb‡Z cvi‡j AvMvgx kZvãxi Rb¨ wg‡_‡bi e„wׇK mwVK gvÎvq w¯’i ivLv m¤¢e n‡e| bvBUªvm A·vBW: Ab¨vb¨ wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wji g‡ZvB evqygÛ‡j bvBUªvm A·vB‡Wi cwigvYI µgvMZ e„w× cv‡”Q| AvBwcwmwm5 wi‡cvU© Abyhvqx 1990 mvj bvMv` evqygÛ‡j NO2 Gi cwigvY wQj cÖwZ 100 †KvwU fv‡Mi (wewjq‡b) 310 (ppbv) fvM| A_P wkí wec-e c~e©eZx© mg‡q GB cwigvY wQj cÖwZ 100 ‡KvwU (wewjqb) fv‡Mi g‡a¨ gvÎ 288 fvM| MZ `yB kZ‡K evqygÛ‡j NO2 Gi cwigvY 8 †_‡K 19 kZvsk e„w× †c‡q‡Q| evqygÛ‡j NO2 M¨v‡mi RxebKvj GK‡kv cÂvk eQi| NO2 Drcv`‡b gvby‡li †Kvb †Kvb Kvh©Kjvc `vqx Zv wb‡q `xN© weZK© i‡q‡Q| mgy`ª, gvwU, jeY, K…wl‡Z e¨eüZ G¨v‡gvwbqv mvi BZ¨vw` n‡”Q cÖvK…wZK I gvbexq Kvh©Kjv‡ci Kvi‡Y Drcb bvBUªvm A·vB‡Wi Drm| 4 (WRI-1990 Gi wfwË Z) 5 IPCC (IqvUmb et.al 1992) 14
  15. 15. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete jvKve©b: gvby‡li wewfb Kvh©Kjv‡ci Kvi‡Y evqygÛ‡j n¨v‡jvKve©b6 wbM©gb n‡”Q| wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvq ‡n‡jvKveb©mg~‡ni g‡a¨ †K¬v‡ivd¬‡iv Kve©b me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡cY© f~wgKv z ~ cvjb K‡i _v‡K| GB wmGdwm M¨vm mvaviYZt †iwd«Rv‡iUi Zix I e¨envi, ‡dvg cwiï×KiY cÖf„wZ Kv‡R e¨vcKfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| c„w_ex‡Z Drcvw`Z †gvU wmGdwm M¨vmmg~‡ni 90 kZvs‡kiI †ewk DbZ wkívwqZ †`k¸wj‡Z Drcb n‡q _v‡K| evsjv‡`k evqygÛ‡j LyeB mvgvb¨ cwigvY wmGdwm M¨vm wbtmiY K‡i _v‡K| 1990 mvj bvMv` evqygÛ‡j wmGdwm M¨v‡mi Dcw¯’wZ wQj cÖwZ GK nvRvi fv‡Mi g‡a¨ 484 fvM| wmGdwm Gi wbtmiY cÖwZ eQi e„w× cv‡”Q Ges evqygÛ‡j GB M¨v‡mi Dcw¯’wZi eZ©gvb nvi eRvq ivL‡Z n‡j GB M¨vm`ywUi wbtmiY h_vµ‡g 70 kZvsk I 80 kZvsk nv‡i Kgv‡Z n‡e| GLv‡b D‡j-L¨ †h, gw›Uªj ‡cÖv‡UvK‡j IRb ¯—i ¶‡qi Rb¨ `vqx wmGdwm M¨vm¸wji wbtmiY 1998 mvj bvMv` Kwg‡q 1986 mv‡j Drcvw`Z gvÎvi A‡a©‡K G‡b `uvo Kiv‡bvi j‡¶¨ GB M¨v‡mi Drcv`b wbq ¿Y Kiv nq| gw›Uªj cÖ‡UvK‡ji j¶¨ ev¯—evq‡bi Rb¨ 1990 mv‡ji jÛb Pzw³‡Z 2001 mvj bvMv` wmGdwmÔi Drcv`b 1990 mv‡ji Drcv`‡bi h_vµ‡g GK- Z…Zxqvsk Ges A‡a©K cwigvY Kwg‡q Avbvi wm×v — †bqv nq| Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb : Dw™¢` I cÖvYx‡`‡ni GKwU cÖavb Dcv`vb nj Kve©b, we‡klZ nvB‡WªvKve©b| Avi GB Kve©b mg„× Dw™¢` I cÖvYxi Rxevk¥ ev †`nve‡kl †_‡K Drcb Kqjv, †Zj I cÖvK„wZK M¨vm‡K Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb ejv nq| cÖvYx ev Dw™¢‡`i †`nve‡kl Zjvwb AvKv‡i f~-M‡f© ¯—‡i ¯—‡i mwÂZ nq| jvL jvL eQi a‡i Gfv‡e mwÂZ Zjvwb f~-Mf©¯’ Zvc I Pv‡c ax‡i ax‡i Ggb GK i“c aviY K‡i hv‡K R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e mn‡RB e¨envi Kiv hvq| gvbyl Gme Rxevk¥ Zjvwb‡K hvw K c×wZ‡Z AvniY K‡i Ges R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡i _v‡K| Gme Rxevk¥ ¿ Zjvwb‡K BÜb kw³ wn‡m‡e e¨envi Ki‡Z G¸‡jv‡K cyov‡bv nq Ges Gi d‡j G¸wji †`n- mwÂZ Kve©b WvB-A·vBW †ei n‡q evZv‡m Qwo‡q c‡o, hv evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm cÖwZwµqvq eo ai‡bi f~wgKv iv‡L| ewk¦K Dòvqb : gvbyl eûhyM a‡i ¯’vbxq cwi‡ek‡K cªfvweZ K‡i Avm‡Q| wK ‘ gvÎ MZ kZ‡KB gvby‡li Kvh©Kjvc mgMÖ wek¦e¨e¯’v‡K cÖfvweZ Kivi gZ Ae¯’vq DbxZ n‡q‡Q| gvby‡li Aeva Kvh©Kjv‡ci d‡j B‡Zvg‡a¨B wek¦ cwi‡e‡ki MVb web¨vm e`‡j †M‡Q| e¨vcK wkívqb,eb DRvo I Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwbi e¨envi eû¸Y e„w×i Kvi‡Y evqygÛ‡j wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wji cwigvY eû¸Y e„w× cvIqvq wek¦ AenvIqvgÛ‡j DËvc e„w× cv‡”Q| kxZ cÖavb †`k¸wj‡Z m&ewR Pv‡li Rb¨ Kuv‡Pi Ni Zix K‡i †hfv‡e evB‡i †_‡K Avmv Zvc‡K AvU‡K ivLv nq, wVK †mfv‡eB evqygÛ‡ji wMÖbnvDm M¨vm¸wj m~‡h©i Zvc‡K AvU‡K iv‡L| evqygÛ‡j 6 G¨v‡ivmj, †iwd«Rv‡iUi, †dvg e¨envi 15
  16. 16. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete wMÖbnvDm M¨v‡mi cwigvY hZ e„w× cv‡e m~h© ZvcI evqygÛ‡j ZZ‡ewk K‡i AvU‡K _vK‡e| Gi d‡j Ab¨ me Ae¯’v AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡jI evqygÛ‡ji Mo ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡q f~-gÛj‡K DËß— K‡i Zzj‡e| f~-gÛ‡ji GB DËß nIqvi cÖwµqv‡KB ejv n‡”Q ewk¦K Dòvqb| gvby li Kg©KvÛ Ges wMÖbnvDm M¨vm: gvby‡li bvbvgyLx Kvh©Kjv‡ci Kvi‡Y wek¦e¨vcx wMÖbnvDm M¨vm wbM©gb e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Av‡V‡iv kZ‡K wkí wec-‡ei c‡i KjKviLvbvi msL¨v e¨vcKfv‡e e„w× cvIqv Ges f~wg e¨env‡i cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y wMÖbnvDm M¨v‡mi wbM©gb eû¸Y e„w× †c‡q‡Q| wMÖbnvDm M¨vm e„w×i R‡b¨ †h me KviY `vqx (†hgb-Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb e¨envi) †m¸‡jv GLb AvaywbK mf¨Zv I A_©‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ûi mv‡_ A½v½xfv‡e Rwo‡q i‡q‡Q| G¸wj Qvov AvaywbK Rxebhvcb AvR Avi KíbvI Kiv hvq bv| wK ‘ Gme Kg©Kv‡Ûi Rb¨ Avevi wMÖbnvDm M¨v‡mi cwigvY e„w× cv‡”Q| †hgb- Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb `n‡bi Kvi‡Y, eb DRvo Kivi d‡j, K…wl Drcv`b Gi Øviv Ges wkí KviLvbv I Ab¨vb¨ M¨v‡mi e¨envi Kivq| I‡Rvb ¯—i s‡mi Rb¨ `vqx wmGdwm M¨v‡mi cwie‡Z© Ab¨vb¨ I‡Rvb-wbivc` nvB‡WªvKve©b ‡hgb, nvB‡Wªvd¬z‡ivKve©b Ges cvi-d¬z‡ivKve©b e¨eüZ n‡”Q| GB CFC-Gi Drcv`b‡K 1997 mv‡ji wK‡q‡Uv Pzw³‡Z wbq ¿Y Kivi D‡`¨vM †bqv nq| H Pzw³‡Z e`y¨wZK Bbmy‡jUi, Zvc cwievnx Ges kxZjxKi‡Y e¨eüZ mvjdvi †n·v †d¬vivBW Gi Drcv`b wbq ¿‡Yi cÖ¯—veI ivLv nq| GB mvjdvi †n·v †d¬vivBW we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎv e„w×i mvg‡_¨©i †¶‡Î Kve©b WvB-A·vBW AYyi †P‡q 23900 ¸Y †ewk kw³kvjx| 16
  17. 17. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Aa¨vq -3 Rjevqy cwieZ©b I KwZcq ev¯eZv Rjevqy cwieZ©b ej‡Z †Kvb GKwU wbw`©ó A‡ji, A_ev mviv we‡k¦i Mo AvenvIqvi `xN©‡gqvw` ¯’vqx cwieZ©b Ges AvenvIqvi ¯^vfvweK Ae¯’vi cwie‡Z© Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi we¯—vi‡K eySvq| AvenvIqvi Dcv`vbmg~n †hgb, ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, evqycÖevn cÖf„wZi ai‡bi cwieZ©b Øviv GB Rjevqy cwieZ©b cwigvc Kiv nq| Rjevqy cwieZ©b msµv — Av —tivóªxq cwil` (AvBwcwmwm)Õi Z…Zxq mgx¶v wi‡cvU© †_‡K Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi wek¦e¨vcx cÖfve7 wK iKg Zv bx‡P Av‡jvPbv Kiv nj:- K) ewk¦K Dòvqb: Rjevqy g‡Wjmg~n Abyhvqx AZ¨waK RbmsL¨vi Pvc Ges KvwiMwi cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y 1990 mvj †_‡K 2100 mv‡ji g‡a¨ we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎv 1.40 †mjwmqvm †_‡K 5.80 †mjwmqvm ch© — e„w× †c‡Z cv‡i| GB wnmv‡ei g‡a¨ wmGdwmÕi ¶wZKviK cÖfve I mgy‡`ªi axij‡qi cwieZ©b‡KI A —f©~³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| GQvovI AÂj I FZz‡f‡` ZvcgvÎv KZUv e„w× cv‡e Zv AviI †ewk AwbwðZ| kxZj DËivÂjxq GjvKvq kxZKv‡j ZvcgvÎv †ewk e„w× cv‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q| G‡¶‡Î m¤¢ve¨ Abygvb n‡”Q †h-2100 mvj bvMv` we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎvi 4 wWwMÖ ‡_‡K 7 wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm cwigvY e„w× NU‡Z cv‡i| wK ‘ GKB mg‡q DËiv‡ji KvbvWv, wMÖbj¨vÛ I DËi Gwkqvi kxZKvjxb ZvcgvÎv 40 kZvs†kiI †ewk e„w× cv‡e| mgy`ª †_‡K `~‡i Aew¯’Z ev gnv‡`‡ki Af¨ ifv‡M `ª“Z ZvcgvÎv e„w× cv‡e| †mB — Zzjbvq DcK‚jeZx© A‡j ZvcgvÎv †`wi‡Z ev axi MwZ‡Z e„w× cv‡e| gvwU ev f~-Z¡‡Ki Zzjbvq mgy`ªc„ô ev mgy‡`ªi cvwb axi MwZ‡Z Dò nq| Zvc ev m~h©v‡jvK mgy‡`ªi cvwbi KZUv Mfx‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cvi‡Q Zvi Ici wbf©i K‡i mgy‡`ªi cvwbi Dò n‡q IVvi MwZ| G Kvi‡Y wMÖbj¨v‡Ûi `w¶‡Y Aew¯’Z AvUjvw›UK gnvmvMi Ges G›UvwU©Kvi cv‡k Aew¯’Z `w¶Y mvMi †`wi‡Z Dò n‡e| †Kbbv, f~-Dcwifv‡Mi ZvcgvÎvi mgch©v‡q †h‡Z Gme mvM‡i AviI †ewk cwigvY cvwb‡K Dò n‡Z n‡e| L) mgy`ª c ôi D PZv ew× : Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wj‡Z 2100 mvj bvMv` mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv M‡o 9 †mt wgt †_‡K 88 †mt wgt ch© — evo‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡q‡Q| mgy‡`ªi DcwiZ‡ji ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡q cvwbi cÖmvi‡Yi Rb¨ Ges wngev‡ni eidMjv cvwb mgy‡`ª G‡m wg‡k mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× Ki‡e| wek¦ MVb cÖwµqvq GLb cÖPi AwP bxq NUbv NU‡Q, †hgb- †mªv‡Zi z — ¯^fve e`jv‡”Q, ¯’vbxq f~-Av‡jvob I Ab¨vb¨ Kvi‡Y ¯’vbxq I AvÂwjK mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv 7 ‰ewk¦K Eòvqb, mgy`ª cÖ‡ôi D”PZv e„w×, f~wgi A‡avMgb, e„wócvZ I f~-Z¡‡Ki Ae¯’v, Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi we¯Ívi Ges `y‡h©vM, Gj wb‡bv-`wLbv Av‡jvob| 17
  18. 18. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete ¯^vfvweK nv‡ii PvB‡Z †ewk cwigvY e„w× cv‡”Q ev K‡g hv‡”Q| wMÖbj¨vÛ I G›UvwU©Kvi ZzlvicvZ †ewk nIqvi cÖwZwµqvq ev wecix‡Z Zzlvi Ave„Z GB `yB A‡j eo eo eid UzK‡iv M‡j hvIqvi nvi wKQyUv †e‡o‡Q| hw` m~hv‡jvK mgy‡`ªi cvwbi AviI wb‡Pi ¯—‡i cÖ‡ek © K‡i mgy‡`ªi cvwb‡K Dò K‡i †Zv‡j Ges eid M‡j hvIqvi nvi hw` eRvq _v‡K Zvn‡j f~- Z¡‡Ki ZvcgvÎv AcwieZ©bxq _vK‡jI mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× cv‡e| M) f~wgi A avMgb : f~cô nVvr a ‡m ‡M‡j ev ax‡i ax‡i Lvov ev cÖvq Lvovfv‡e e‡m †M‡j „ Zv‡K f~wgi A‡avMgb ejv nq| f~wgi A‡avMg‡bi R‡b¨ f~wgK¤ú, f~-¯—‡ii ¯’vb cwieZ©b, f~- Mf© †_‡K cvwb D‡Ëvjb Ges Kv`vgvwU I Rxev‡k¥i wgkªb cÖf„wZ‡K `vqx Kiv hvq| mgy`ª c„ô †_‡K †Kvb ¯’v‡bi D”PZv K‡g hvIqv ev †ewk nIqvi †cQ‡b H ¯’v‡b cwj Ae‡¶cY I f~wg A‡avMg‡bi wgwjZ wµqvi nvi KvR K‡i _v‡K| cwj Ae‡¶c‡Yi Kvi‡Y †Kvb GjvKvi mgybwZ (mgy`ª c„ô †_‡K D”PZv) e„w× †c‡q _v‡K| N) ewócvZ Ges f~-Z¡ Ki Ae¯v : Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wj†Z wek¦e¨vcx †gvU e„wócvZ e„w× cv‡e e‡j aviYv Kiv n‡”Q; wK ‘ ‡mB m‡½ ¯’vbxq ch©v‡q e„wócvZ K‡g hvIqvi cÖej m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| GKzk kZ‡Ki wØZxqv‡a© DËi ga¨vÂj †_‡K D”P A¶vs‡ki †`k¸wjI G›UvwU©Kv‡Z kxZKvjxb e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY e„w× cv‡e| Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wj †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h, wKQy GjvKvq e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY e„w× cv‡e, Avi wKQy GjKvq e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY K‡g hv‡e| A‡÷ªwjqv, ga¨ Av‡gwiKv I `w¶Y Avwd«Kvq kxZKvjxb e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY K‡g hv‡e| †ewk e„wó I Zzlvicv‡Zi Kvi‡Y D”P A¶vsk, A_©vr DËi †Mvjv‡a©i †`k¸wj‡Z kxZKv‡j †fRv AvenvIqv _vK‡e| wK ‘ ZvcgvÎv e„w× cvIqvi Kvi‡Y MÖx®§Kv‡j gvwU ïK‡bv n‡q hv‡e| ¯’vbxq f~wgi ‡ci †¶‡Î gvwUi Av`ªZv ev Rjxqev®ú aviY ¶gZv K…wli Rb¨ AZ¨ — cÖ‡qvRbxq GKwU welq| wK ‘ GL‡bv © ch© — Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wji mvnv‡h¨ gvwUi GB Av`ª©Zv‡K mwVKfv‡e cwigvc Kiv k³| G Kvi‡Y GL‡bv ch© — mwVK K‡i ejv hv‡”Q bv †h, Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j gvwUi MÖx®§Kvjxb Av`ª©Zv evo‡e bvwK Kg‡e| O) Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi we¯vi Ges `y h©vM : Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j AvenvIqvi Pigfvevcb cÖeYZv¸wji we¯—vi NU‡e| we‡k¦i ZvcgvÎv e„w×i d‡j Mig w`‡bi cwiwa I Zvc cÖevn evo‡e| Av`ª© w`‡bi msL¨v Kg‡e, K‡g hv‡e kxZKv‡ji cwiwa| Rjevqy g‡Wjmg~n Abyhvqx †ek wKQy A‡j Nb Nb AwZel©Y †`L‡Z cvIqv hv‡e| Avi Ab¨w`‡K Av —tgnv‡`kxq A‡j MÖx®§Kv‡j Livi cÖ‡Kvc e„w× cv‡e| GQvovI Ggb wKQy Z_¨ cÖgvY cvIqv †M‡Q hv †_‡K Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q †h, wKQy GjvKvq cªej So-SvcUv I fvix e„wócv‡Zi m‡½ m‡½ mvB‡K¬vb ev N~wY©S‡oi cÖ‡Kvc Av‡iv e„w× cv‡e| 18
  19. 19. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete P) Kwl e¨e¯v I Lv`¨ wbivcËv: we‡k¦i me RvqMvq Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwµqv GKB iKg n‡e bv| D”P A¶vsk A‡j kxZ FZzi cwiwa K‡g Avmv, K…wl Drcv`‡bi mgqmxgv e„w× Ges km¨ Drcv`b e„w×i g‡Zv BwZevPK cÖwZwµqv †`L‡Z cvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨w`‡K †ewki fvM K…wl AÂjmg~‡n mxwgZ Lv`¨km¨ Drcv`b eRvq ivLvi †¶‡Î bvbvwea cÖwZK‚j cÖwZwµqvi Kvi‡Y Lv`¨ mieiv‡n NvUwZ †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| K…wl †¶‡Î Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m¤¢ve¨ cÖwZwµqvi wPÎ wb‡P Zz‡j aiv nj- 1. myweavcÖvß Ges Avk¼vRbK Kwl AÂj: MÖx®§gÛj Ges Gi cvk¦eZx© A‡j ZvccÖevn e„w×, †g mygx evqyi aiY cwieZ©b Ges Abve„wó ev Livi Kvi‡Y K…wl Drcv`b K‡g †h‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨w`‡K DËi KvbvWv I BD‡iv‡ci gZ kxZcÖavb A‡j MÖx®§ FZzi `xN©¯’vwqZ¡ G A‡ji K…wl Drcv`b evwo‡q w`‡Z cv‡i| D”P A¶vs‡ki Rjevqy AÂj¸wj‡Z cwieZ©b †ewk n‡Z cv‡i| †Kbbv DËi I `w¶Y †gi“i wbKUeZx© AÂj¸wji Mo ZvcgvÎv wbi¶‡iLvi KvQvKvwQ AÂj¸wji †P‡q †ewk n‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q| ga¨8 A¶vs‡ki Rjevqy AÂj KZK¸wj we‡kl dmj Drcv`‡bi AbyKzj| ZvB G A‡ji Rjevqy cv‡ë †M‡j Zv K…wl I Mevw` cïi Drcv`b‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡e| 2. ewócvZ I ZvcgvÎvi ai b cwieZ©b : AvenvIqv g‡Wj Abyhvqx cieZx© GK‡kv eQ‡ii g‡a¨ wek¦ DòZv cÖvq 3 `kwgK 50 †mt e„w×i m‡½ m‡½ ev®úxfeb Ges evwife‡b cwieZ©b NU‡e| B‡Zvg‡a¨B Liv cÖeY wKQy GjvKvq cÖPÛ ï®‹Zvi `xN© cvjv ïi“ n‡q †M‡Q| wKQy GjvKv nq‡Zv Avevi Rjve×Zvq Avµv — n‡e, wKQy GjvKv gvwUi Av`ªZv nviv‡e| FZz © cwieZ©‡bi d‡j ga¨ A¶vs‡ki gnv‡`kxq A‡j MÖx‡®§ gvwUi Av`ª©Zv K‡g hv‡e, Avevi D”P A¶vsk A‡j kx‡Z †ewk K‡i e„wó Ges Zzlvi co‡e| Zv‡ci AvwaK¨ K…wl Drcv`‡b Mfxi cÖfve †dj‡e| †hgb kxZKv‡ji `N¨© K‡g hvIqvq wKQy dmj DcK…Z n‡e, Avevi wKQy dmj cvwb ¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y D”P Zv‡c ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| GQvovI KxU cZ½ Ges †iv‡Mi we¯—v‡ii Kvi‡Y km¨nvbxi Avk¼v e„w× cv‡e| 3. Gkxq Kwl ewk ó¨ cÖwZwµqv: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y †bcvj, Pxb Ges f~Uv‡bi DPzu gvjf~wg GjvKvi gZ Zzlviv”Qb GjvKvq MÖx®§ FZyi ¯’vwqZ¡ e„w× K…lK‡`i Rb¨ Avk©xev` e‡q Avb‡e| wVK GB mg‡q km¨ Drcv`‡b ‰ewP‡Î¨i Afve Aí wKQy dm‡ji Dci †ewk Pvc Zix Ki‡e| we‡klK‡i †hme AÂj GKwU gvÎ dm‡ji wbweo Pv‡li Ici †ewk wbf©ikxj †mme A‡j SzwK †ewk e„w× cv‡e| ZvcgvÎvq cwieZ©b, cvwbP‡µ cwieZ©b, wngcv‡Zi ïi“ I †k‡li mg‡q cwieZ©b cÖfw„ Z Kvi‡Y ‡ivM msµgY I KxU cZ‡½i we¯—vi NU‡e| 8 450 †_‡K 600 A¶vsk 19
  20. 20. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete mgy`-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i d‡j evsjv‡`k, wgki, B‡›`v‡bwkqv Ges gvjØx‡ci gZ wbPz A‡ji ª †`k¸wj‡Z DcK‚jxq c-veb, jeY cvwbi AbycÖ‡ek Ges cvwb wb®‹vkb e¨e¯’vq RwUjZv e„w× cv‡e| 4. Kve©b WvB-A·vBW M¨v mi wbtmiY ew× Ges ewa©Z Drcv`b: Kve©b WvB A·vB‡Wi D”PgvÎv C3 type Dw™¢‡`i mv‡jvKms‡k-lY evwo‡q †`q Ges cÖ‡k¦`b NUvq| we‡k¦i †ewkifvM `vbvkm¨ cÖRvwZ GB †kªYxi A f³| GB C3 type Dw™¢` †kªYx wek¦e¨vcx we‡kl — ~ K‡i Av`ª© Ges kxZj cwi‡e‡ki we‡kl Dc‡hvMx| †ewkifvM dmj †hgb-Mg, avb, he, K¨vkfv9 Ges Avjy‡K G †kªYxi ZvwjKvf~³ Kiv hvq| M‡elYv Øviv cÖgvwYZ †h Kve©b WvB- A·vB‡Wi NbZ¡ wظY n‡j wm-3 UvBc dm‡ji djb 30 kZvsk ch© — e„w× †c‡Z cv‡i| Aek¨ ZvcgvÎv, e„wócvZ, gnvgvix, KxUcZ½ Ges cywói †hvMvb BZ¨vw`‡Z cwieZ©b GB djb e„w×i nvi‡K Kgv‡Z ev evov‡Z cv‡i| fyÆv, AvL, †Rvqvi Ges eRivi gZ dmj‡K wm-4 UvB‡ci (C4 type) ‡kªYxf~³ Kiv nq, hv A‡bK Dbqbkxj †`‡ki AwZ cÖ‡qvRbxq Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b Ges cï cvj‡bi Rb¨ LyeB ¸i“Z¡cY| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y PviYf~wgi ~ © Drcv`b K‡g hvIqvi d‡j Mevw` cïi `vg †e‡o hv‡e Ges G‡jv‡g‡jv K…wl e¨e¯’vi my‡hv‡M k‡m¨i `vgI †e‡o hv‡e| 5. `wi`ª-f~wgnxb `i Lv`¨ wbivcËvi Ici cÖej Pvc: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m‡½ LvcLvB‡q †bqvi D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kivi ciI A‡bK †`k NvUwZ Drcv`b AwfÁZvi gy‡LvgywL n‡Z cv‡i| Liv cÖeYZv e„w× ev ﮋ eQ‡ii we¯—vi ¯’vbxq `wi`ª I wew”Qb f~wgnxb‡`i Lv`¨ wbivcËv‡K bvbvfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— Ki‡e| evwYR¨ †¶‡Î wcwQ‡q _vKv, `~e©j AeKvVv‡gv, Z_¨ I cÖhyw³ ewÂZ Ges ¯^k¯¿ msNvZ KewjZ `wi`ª Rb‡Mvôxi c‡¶ Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j K…wl‡Z m„ó cÖwZwµqvi m‡½ Gu‡U DV‡Z cviv m¤¢e n‡&”Q bv| we‡k¦i `wi`ªZg GjvKv¸wj K…wl e¨e¯’vi Ici wbf©ikxj _vKvi Kvi‡Y Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi gvivZ¥K Suwy Ki gy‡L i‡q‡Q| Q) mgy`ªmgZj, gnvmvMi Ges DcKjxq GjvKv: DcK‚j †iLvi ewkó¨, mgy`ª †mªv‡Zi cwieZ©b, †Rvqv‡ii cwieZ©b I f~wgi D”PZvi iKg‡d‡ii Kvi‡Y Ges ¯’vbxq I AvÂwjK ewk‡ó¨i Ici mgy`ª c„‡ôi cwieZ©‡bi gvÎv, we¯—…wZ I MwZc_ wbf©i Ki‡e| G‡¶‡Î gvby‡li Kvh©KjvcI ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡e| DcK‚jxq A‡j iv¯—vNvU, evwo-Ni, euva I Ab¨vb¨ AeKvVv‡gv wbg©vY mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i gy‡L DcK‚jxq A‡ji cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’vi ¯^vfvweK mvov`v‡bi ¶gZv‡K mxgve× ev cÖfvweZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| 9 MÖx®§ cÖavb †`‡ki we‡kl ai‡Yi Dw™¢` 20
  21. 21. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete 1. mgy`-c ôi D PZv ew×: MZ GK‡kv eQ‡i wek¦e¨vcx mgy`-c„‡ôi D”PZv M‡o 10 †_‡K 25 ª ª †mw›UwgUvi e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Rjevqy g‡Wjmg~‡n Abygvb Kiv n‡q‡Q 2001 mvj bvMv` mgy`ª- c„‡ôi D”PZv Av‡iv 15 †_‡K 95 †mw›UwgUvi ch© — e„w× cv‡e| mgy‡`ªi cvwbùxwZi Rb¨ mgy‡`ªi cvwbi Zvcxq cÖmviY Ges wngevn I eidMjv cvwbi AwZ AvMgbB `vqx| MZ GK‡kv eQ‡ii Zzjbvq mgy‡`ªi cvwbi `yB †_‡K cuvP¸Y †ewk e„w× NU‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q| hv AvMvgx cÖvq GK‡kv eQi a‡i mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„wׇK cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| mgy`ª-c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i †cQ‡b ZvcgvÎv e„w×, cvwbi Zvcxq cÖmviY,mgy`ª †mªv‡Zi cwieZ©b, cwj Ae‡¶cY BZ¨vw` A‡bK¸wj cÖvK…wZK kw³i f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| DcK‚jxq A‡j MwZkxj e¨e¯’v weivRgvb| eb¨v, Pigfvevcb AvenvIqv, cwj fivU cÖwµqv, KvVv‡gvMZ I cÖvYxR cÖwZi¶v e¨e¯’v Ges Ab¨vb¨ ¯’vbxq cÖvK…wZK e¨e¯’vi m‡½ mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i wg_w¯ qv NU‡e| 2. DcKjxq AÂj I Øxcmg~ ni Ici cÖej Pvc: eZ©gvb mg‡q DcK‚jxq A‡j wbweo Dbqb Kg©KvÛ MÖnY Kiv n‡jI mgy`ùxwZi Kvi‡Y DcK‚jxq AÂj I †QvU †QvU Øxc¸wj ª gvivZ¥K SuywKi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q| mgy`ªùxwZi Kvi‡Y `~e©j A_©bxwZ I cwiKvVv‡gv m¤úb Dbqbkxj †`k¸wj †hgb myMfxi SzwKi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q, †Zgwb DbZ †`k¸wji DcK‚jeZx© wbPz GjvKv¸wjI GB mgy`ª ùxwZi Kvi‡Y gvivZ¥K SzwKi g‡a¨ Av‡Q| mgy`ª-c„‡ôi eZ©gvb D”PZvi gvÎ GK wgUvi cwigvY e„w× NU‡jB Di“¸‡qi cÖvq ïb¨ `kwgK cvuP kZvsk, †b`vij¨v‡Ûi cÖvq 6 kZvsk, evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvq 17 `kwgK cvuP kZvsk Ges cÖevj MwVZ gvk©vj Øx‡ci cÖvq 80 kZvsk mgy‡`ª Wy‡e hv‡e| GQvov jeY cvwbi AvMÖvm‡b wgwó cvwbi ¸Y I gvb nvwi‡q hv‡e| D”PgvÎvi mgy`ªùxwZ-R‡jv”Q¡vm, f~-K¤úb, N~wY©So cÖf„wZ Pigfvevcb cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi gvÎv e„w× Ki‡e| mvgyw`ªK R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi Ke‡j B‡Zvg‡a¨B cÖvq 4 †KvwU 60 jvL †jvK ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡q‡Q, hv‡`i AwaKvskB Avevi Dbqbkxj †`‡ki Awaevmx| M‡elYvq cÖvß Z_¨ †_‡K Rvbv †M‡Q, mgy‡`ªi cvwbi ¯—i gvÎ 50 †mtwgt evo‡j AviI cÖvq 9 †KvwU 20 jvL gvbyl ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e, Avi GK wgUvi mgy`ªùxwZ NU‡j cÖvq GK‡kv AvVv‡iv ‡KvwU gvbyl ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| DcK‚jxq A‡j we‡k¦i cwieZ©bkxj I ewPΨgq cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’v †hgb,g¨vb‡MÖvf ebvÂj,cÖevj cÖvPxi cÖfw„ Z i‡q‡Q| DcK‚jxq A‡ji ms‡e`bkxj wbPz e-Øxc mgf~wg, cÖevj Øxc I cÖevj cÖvPximg~n e„wócvZ I So-SÅvi gvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y ¶wZMÖ¯— nIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i m‡½ Zvjwgwj‡q cÖevj mÂq `ª“ZZi n‡jI ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y cÖev‡ji e„w× I mÂq ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡Z cv‡i| 3. cÖavb A_© bwZK ¶Îmg~ n bwZevPK cÖwZwµqv : cÖavb cÖavb A_©‰bwZK †¶Îmg~n mgy`ªùxwZi d‡j ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| DcK‚jxq AÂj K…wl,grm¨, RjR Rxe I Lv`¨ k‡m¨i GK eo Avavi hv mgy`ªùxwZi d‡j SuywKi m¤§yLxb| GQvov Ab¨vb¨ †¶Î †hgb-ch©Ub, gvbe emwZ Ges exgv e¨e¯’v ¶wZi Ke‡j co‡e| Avmb GB mgy`ª ùxwZ we‡k¦i wbgf~wg I c-veb mgf~wgmg~n‡K c-vweZ Kivi cvkvcvwk Avwaevmx‡`i‡K DcK‚jxq AÂj I Øxcmg~‡ni emwZ 21
  22. 22. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete †_‡K m‡i †h‡Z eva¨ Ki‡e| Awfevmx‡`i ¯’vbv —‡ii d‡j mxwgZ m¤ú‡`i AwaKvix †`k¸wj‡Z Lv`¨-evm¯’vb-Kg©ms¯’vbmn AeKvV‡gvMZ Ges gvbweK I ¯^v¯’¨MZ bvbv m¼‡Ui m‡½ eû bZzb ai‡bi m¼‡Ui Rb¥ †`‡e| 4. mgy`ª Ges Gi B Kvwm ÷g: Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j mvM‡ii cÖwZ‡ekxK e¨e¯’vI (B‡Kvwm‡÷g) cÖfvweZ n‡e| ZvQvov Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y ‡h‡Z mvM‡i R‡g _vKv eid AveiY ¶‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| MZ wek eQ‡ii g‡a¨ AvK©wU‡K 14 kZvsk Ges 1950 †_‡K 1970 mv‡ji g‡a¨ G›UvK©wUKvi 25 kZvsk eid AveiY ¶q cÖvß n‡q‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y mgy`ª‡mªv‡Zi aib, cvwbi Dj¤^ wgkªY Ges Zi‡½i aibI cwiewZ©Z n‡Z cv‡i| GB cwieZ©‡bi d‡j Re Drcv`bkxjZv, cÖwZ‡ek KvVv‡gvq cywói ch©vß †hvMvb I mvgyw`&ªK cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi Kvh©KvixZvI cÖfvweZ n‡e e‡j g‡b nq| ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y †Kvb A‡ji cÖPwjZ Rxe-‰ewPΨ †f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vb cv‡ë Ab¨ †Kv_vI ¯’vbv —i n‡Z cv‡i| we‡kl K‡i D”P-A¶vsk GjvKv¸wj †hLv‡b cÖRvwZ¸wji †e‡o IVvi mgq e„w× cv‡e (Av‡jv I cywói †RvMvb AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡e a‡i wb‡q) e‡j Abygvb Kiv n‡”Q †mLv‡b Rxe cÖRvwZi ‡f ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vb cwieZ©b nIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| mgy‡`ªi cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vq c-v¼U‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Acwimxg| mgy‡`ª mwÂZ Kve©b‡K mgy‡`ªi Dcwifv‡Mi cvwbi mv‡jvK-ms‡k-lx c-v¼Ub I Ab¨vb¨ cÖvYx †L‡q †d‡j| ZvB ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y mvgyw`ªK c-v¼U‡bi Kv‡R †Kvb cwieZ©b NU‡j Zv Kve©b we‡kvab I m‡q cÖwZwµqv Zix Ki‡e| Gi cÖfve Rjevqy e¨e¯’vq cybt cÖZ¨veZ©b Ki‡Z cv‡i hv Rjevqy cwieZ©b‡K cÖkwgZ ev MwZkxj †h †KvbwU Ki‡Z cv‡i| wgwó cvwbi A —tcÖevn I cvwbi Avav‡ii AvKv‡ii Ici wbf©ikxj DcK‚jxq A‡ji wgwó cvwb mieivn Kg-†ewk SuywKi gy‡L co‡e| cwj Ae‡¶c‡Yi nvi ¯’vbxq mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i †P‡q Kg n‡e, bv †ewk n‡e Zvi Ici wbf©i Ki‡Q †jvbv Rjvf~wg I g¨vb‡MÖvf ebv‡ji wU‡K _vKv| †Kv_vI †Kv_vI cwj mÂqb mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×i nv‡ii †P‡q †ewk n‡e| cwj mg„× AÂj¸wj‡Z †hgb-A‡÷ªwjqvq, GgbwU NU‡e| Avi †Kv_vI kw³kvjx mvgyw`ªK †mªvZ Ae‡¶wcZ cwj‡K Qwo‡q wQwU‡q †`‡e| d‡j Gme A‡j kw³kvjx mvgyw`ªK †mªv‡Zi Kvi‡Y cwj mÂq Kg n‡e| K¨vwiweq A‡j GgbwU †`Lv †h‡Z cv‡i| R) Rb¯^v¯¨ I RbemwZ: Rjevqy cwieZ©b gvbe ¯^v¯’¨ I RbemwZmg~‡ni Ici `xN©‡gqv`x cÖfve †djvi Avk¼v i‡q‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨v e„w× cv‡e| Rb¯^v¯’¨ g~jZ wbf©i K‡i chv©ß Lv`¨, wbivc` cvwb, wbivc` evm¯’vb, fvj mvgvwRK Ae¯’v, h‡_vchy³ cwi‡ek Ges msµvgK †ivM wbq ¿‡Y DbZ mvgvwRK web¨vm ev m‡PZbZvi Ici| ZvB Pigfvevcb AvenvIqvi ZxeªZv e„w× ev `xN© ¯’vwqZ¡ gvbe ¯^v‡¯’¨i cÖwZ eo ai‡bi ûgwK Zix Ki‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv, †hgb-ZvccÖevn, eb¨v, So I Livi g‡Zv `y‡h©vM¸wji Kvi‡Y g„Zz¨, Amy¯’Zv, `~wf©¶, †`kv —imn †iv‡Mi e¨vcK cÖv`yf©ve I mvgvwRK Aw¯’iZv Zix n‡Z cv‡i| weÁvbxiv Abygvb Ki‡Qb †h, wKQy wKQy GjvKv AwZ eb¨v ev Livq 22
  23. 23. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete Avµv — n‡Z cv‡i| GQvov DcK‚jxq GjvKvi myi¶v e¨e¯’vi h_vh_ Dbqb Kiv bv n‡j mgy`ª mgZ‡ji D”PZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y mvgyw`ªK c-veb gvivZ¥K ch©v‡q †c Q‡e| u y 1. iv Mi cÖv`~fve: Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv, †hgb-Zvc cÖevn, eb¨v, So Ges Livi © g‡Zv cÖvK…wZK `y‡hv©M¸wji Kvi‡Y g„Zz¨, Amy¯’Zv, `ywf©¶, †`kv —ix nIqvi m‡½ m‡½ wewfb †iv‡Mi cÖv`yf©ve Ges mvgvwRK Aw¯’iZv ‰Zwi n‡Z cv‡i| weÁvbxiv Abygvb Ki‡Qb †h, wKQy wKQy GjvKv AwZeb¨v ev AwZ Livi Ke‡j co‡e| KxUcZ½ Ges wewfb †iv‡Mi evnK bZzb bZzb GjvKvq Qwo‡q co‡e| GQvov KxUcZ½ I Ab¨vb¨ gva¨‡g evwnZ n‡q bZzb bZzb GjvKvq †iv‡Mi we¯—vi NU‡Z cv‡i| 2. cvwb m¤ú` I cqtwb® vkb e¨e¯vi Dci cvwb mieiv n NvUwZi cÖfve: cqtwb®‹vkb,†mPmn wewfb Kv‡R cÖ‡qvRbxq I cv‡bvc‡hvMx cvwbi mieivn evavMÖ¯— n‡e-hv AvÂwjK cvwb e¨e¯’vcbvi m¶gZv Kwg‡q w`‡Z cv‡i| Avevi mivmwi D‡ËvwjZ I mieivnK…Z cvwb‡Z e¨vK‡Uwiqv Ges Ab¨vb¨ gvB‡µv-AM©vwbRg Gi cwigvY e„w× ‡c‡Z cv‡i| weï× cvwbi NvUwZ gvbyl‡K b`xi cvwbi gZ `~wlZ cvwb e¨envi Ki‡Z eva¨ K‡i _v‡K| hvi d‡j Wvqwiqv RvZxq cvwbevwnZ †iv‡Mi e¨vcKZv e„w× cv‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y Liv cÖeYZv e„w×, cvwb NvUwZ I cqtwb®‹vkb e¨e¯’vi Av‡iv AebwZ NU‡e| GQvov Lv`¨ NvUwZi d‡j Acywó I ¶zavi gZ ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨v `xN©vwqZ n‡e| cqtwb®‹vkb AwZwi³ cvwbi wb®‹vkb I AveR©bv wb®‹vkb e¨e¯’v¸wji mg qnxbZv ¯^v¯’¨MZ mgm¨v e„w× Ki‡e| ^ 3. MvwjK wefvRb Ges iv Mi we¯vi: D”P A¶vsk Ges `ªvwNgvsk GjvKv¸wj‡Z gkv, ciRxex KxU Ges Bu`yi RvZxq (Zx¶è `uvZ wewkó ¶z`ª cÖvYx) Rx‡ei we¯—vi NU‡e| eZ©gv‡b wek¦ RbmsL¨vi cÖvq 45 kZvsk gvbyl g¨v‡jwiqv cÖeY A‡j emevm K‡i _v‡Kb| Rjevqy g‡Wj Abyhvqx A¶vsk Ges `ªvwNgv‡iLvi cÖv xq GjvKv¸wj‡Z †ivM cÖev‡ni ai‡b weivU cwieZ©b — Avm‡e| GB AÂj¸wj eZ©gv‡b g¨v‡jwiqv Avk¼vMÖ¯— AÂj| Avi GB cÖv —eZ©x A‡j DbZ †ivM cÖwZ‡iva e¨e¯’vI M‡o I‡Vwb| ‡g mygx Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j †g mygx ‡ivMe¨vaxmn Ab¨vb¨ †ivMmsµgY Ges gkvevwnZ (†W½y, njy` R¡i cÖf„wZ) I ciRxex KxU evwnZ (†jBg wWwRR BZ¨vw`) eû ai‡bi †iv‡Mi we¯—vi NU‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©b Øviv cÖ‡ivwPZ m¤¢ve¨ ¯^v¯’¨ mgm¨vi (†hgb- GjvR©x Ges k¦vm msµv — †ivMe¨vax cÖfw„ Z) ZvwjKv Av‡iv j¤^v n‡e| GKB mg‡q `~lYKvix wewfb c`v‡_©i cÖfv‡e mvgyw`ªK Lv`¨I gvivZ¥K Suwy Ki g‡a¨ co‡e| 4. SuywKc~Y© gvbe emwZ: †h me gvbe emwZ evwYwR¨K grm¨ AvniY, cÖPwjZ K…wl e¨e¯’v I Ab¨vb¨ cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Dr‡mi Ici †ewk wbf©ikxj †m me emwZ Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqvq †ewk SuywKi gy‡L i‡q‡Q| GQvovI wbPy AÂj I e-Øxcmg~n, DcK‚jeZx© eo kni¸wj, eb¨v c-veb f~wg‡Z M‡o IVv ¶z`ª ¶z`ª emwZ, cvnvwo GjvKv, ebv‡j M‡o IVv gvbe 23
  24. 24. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete emwZ (hv wKbv `vevb‡ji ûgwK‡Z co‡Z cv‡i) Ges cwi‡ek Ae¶‡q Avµv — gvbe emwZmg~n Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Suwy Ki gy‡L i‡q‡Q| Avi Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ cÖwZwµqv¸wji me©‡¶‡ÎB `wi`ªZg Rb‡Mvôx me‡P‡q †ewk gvÎvq ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| mgy`ª DcK‚jeZx© A‡bK A‡j eûwea Dbqb N‡U‡Q | Gme DcK‚jeZx© A‡j RbmewZ, wkí-e›`i I eûgyLx AeKvVv‡gv M‡o ‡Zvjv n‡q‡Q| wK ‘ mgy`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w×, N~wY©So, eb¨v cÖf„wZ cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi gy‡L c‡o NbemwZc~Y© A‡bK DcK‚jxq GjvKv, Dbqbkxj †`k¸wji mgy`ªZxieZx© AÂj I ¶z`ª Øxc¸wj †_‡K gvbyl †`‡ki wfZ‡ii w`‡K m‡i †h‡Z cv‡i-hv H me †`‡ki AeKvVv‡gvi Ici evowZ Pvc Zix Ki‡e| S) RjevqyRwbZ `y h©vM Ges AvenvIqvi PigfvevcbZv Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y ZvccÖevn, ZzlvicvZ, eb¨v, Liv Ges Ab¨vb¨ Pigfvevcb cwiw¯’wZi D™¢e n‡Z cv‡i| gvbe Rxeb I we‡k¦i cÖwZ‡ek e¨e¯’vi Ici Rjevqyi cÖfve‡K MÖvn¨ bv K‡iB ¯^vfvweK ev c~eeZx© Ae¯’v †_‡K Rjevqyi e¨vcK I my¯úó cwieZ©b‡KB © Rjevqyi Pigfvevcb Ae¯’v ejv n‡q _v‡K| Avi Rjevqyi Pigfvevcb Ae¯’v hLb gvby‡li ¯^vfvweK Rxeb hvÎvq gvivZ¥K cÖfve †d‡j ZLb Zv‡K RjevqyRwbZ `y‡h©vM ejv nq| evqygÛ‡ji evB‡ii kw³, †hgb-Av‡MqwMwii AM~rcvZ ev m~h© kw³i ZviZ‡g¨i m‡½ m‡½ Rjevqyi Dcv`vbmn mgy`ª, RxegÛj, eid AveiY, f~-Z¡K cÖf„wZiI cwieZ©b NU‡Z cv‡i| Gj wb‡bv `wLYv Av‡jvob Gi cÖfv‡e Gme GjvKvq Af¨ ixb wg_w¯qvi MwZI e„w× cv‡e| — 1. Aiw¶Z gvbeRxeb Ges Pigfvevcb Rjevqy I `~ h©vM: we‡k¦i wKQy As‡k Rjevqyi AvKw®§K `yNUbv GZ Nb Nb N‡U †h G¸‡jv GKUv ¯^vfvweK wbqg e‡j we‡ePbv Kiv nq| Avi © wMÖbnvDm M¨vm GB Rjevqy cwieZ©b‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i-hv Rjevqyi PigfvevcbZv I `y‡h©vM G `y‡UviB ZxeªZv, cÖmviZv I PwiÎ cv‡ë †`q| we‡k¦i en As‡ki RbMY cÖvK…wZKfv‡e Aiw¶Z I cÖvw —K A‡j emevm Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡”Qb| GQvovI †ewk SuywKcÖeY Rjevqy A‡j g~j¨evb cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Avavi M‡o D‡V‡Q-hv Rjevqyi Lvg‡Lqvwjcbvq evievi ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡q Avm‡Q| 1995 mv‡ji MÖx‡®§ hy³iv‡óªi ga¨-cwðgv‡j Ges fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡k `ve`vn AvNvZ nv‡b| Ryb gv‡mi ZvcgvÎv 500 †mjwmqv‡miI †ewk n‡q DËi fvi‡Z cuvP‡kvi †ewk Ges hy³iv‡óª mvZ‡kvi †ewk gvby‡li g„Zz¨i KviY nq| DËi Avwd«Kvi ‡mvnvBj A‡j 1970 n‡Z bq eQie¨vcx evwl©K e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY GB kZvãxi cÖ_g mvZ `kK A‡c¶v cÖvq 20 kZvsk K‡g †h‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q| hv H A‡ji ¯^vfvweK cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Avavi¸wj‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— K‡i| 2. Pigfvevcb Rjevqyi we¯vi Ges `y h©v Mi MwZew×: Rjevqyi Mo ev ¯^vfvweK Ae¯’vi †Kvb i`e`j NU‡j Zv Aek¤¢vexi ‡c `y‡h©v‡Mi Pigve¯’vi ZxeªZv‡K e„w× Ki‡e| mvaviYfv‡e 24
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  27. 27. Click Here & Upgrade Expanded Features PDF Unlimited Pages Documents Complete AvniY Ges Ab¨vb¨ A_©‰bwZK Kvh©Kjvcmg~nI ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e| A‡bK Dbqbkxj †`‡ki Avw`evmx‡`i Lv`¨ Ges R¡vjvwb e¨e¯’vq a m bvg‡e| Dò A‡j ev¯úxq wbM©gb P‡µ cwieZ©b wewfb cÖRvwZi cÖRbb Ges wgkª‡Yi Dci Mfxi cÖfve †dj‡e| 4. gi A ji m ¼vPb: we‡k¦i ‡gvU my‡cq cvwbi cÖvq 80 kZvs‡ki g‡Zv i‡q‡Q DËi I `w¶Y †gi“ cÖ‡`k `ywU‡Z| GB †gi“ AÂj‡K wN‡i Av‡Q we‡k¦i mgMÖ Zzlvi, eid, Ges f~- Mf©¯’ wPiwngvwqZ AÂj| wngvwqZ cvwb Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi †¶‡Î LyeB ms‡e`bkxj| Rjevqy g‡Wj¸wji g‡Z cieZ©x GK‡kv eQ‡i cvnvox wngev‡ni cwiwa GK-Z…Zxqvsk †_‡K A‡a©K cwigvY K‡g †h‡Z cv‡i| GUv cvjvµ‡g cvk¦eZ©x cÖwZ‡ek KvVv‡gv Ges Rb‡Mvôx‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| GQvovI b`xi †g mygx cÖevn Ges cvwb mieiv‡ni Dci cÖwZwµqv Zix n‡e, hv ch©vqµ‡g cvwbkw³ Ges K…wl‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| A‡bK DuPz cvnvox AÂj Ges †gi“ A‡ji gvbwP‡Î bvUKxq cwieZ©b NU‡Z cv‡i| Zzlvi ¯—yc M‡j hvIqvi Kvi‡Y we`¨gvb AeKvVv‡gv e¨e¯’v G‡jv‡g‡jv n‡q co‡Z cv‡i Ges `ªexf~Z AwZwi³ Kve©b I wg‡_b evqygÛ‡j Aegy³ n‡q co‡e| U) AeKvVv gv, wkí-KviLvbv I e¯MZ m¤ú` Rjevqy cwieZ©b gvbe emwZ Ges gvby‡li †f Z e¯‘MZ m¤ú‡`i Dci eo ai‡bi cÖfve †dj‡e| wKQy ¸i“Z¡cY© AeKvVv‡gvi Ici GB cÖfve †ewk n‡e| Gm‡ei g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q wkí ~ c-v›U, kw³ Drcv`b I eȇbi miÄvg, iv¯—v NvU, e›`i Ges Ab¨vb¨ †hvMv‡hvM myweavmn AvevwmK I evwYwR¨K m¤úwË Ges DcK‚jxq euva BZ¨vw`| 1. wkí Lv Z cÖfve: Rjevqyi PigfvevcbZv †hgb - S‡oi AvNvZ, eb¨v, ¯’vbxqfv‡e cÖPÛ e„wócv‡Zi `i“Y f~wga m, `ª“Z Zzlvi weMjb, DògÛjxq N~wY©So Ges n¨vwi‡Kb A_ev GgbwK Livi Kvi‡Y ebvÂj ev †SvcSv‡oi cy‡o hvIqv eZ©gvb Drcv`b e¨e¯’vi Dci Mfxi cÖfve ‡dj‡e| Gi d‡j wkí, kw³ Ges †hvMv‡hvM AeKvVv‡gv¸wj `ye©j n‡q co‡e| cÖej Ges Nb Nb evwicv‡Zi ZxeªZv kû‡i eb¨v †W‡K Avb‡e| K…wl-wkí Ges Rjwe`y¨r Zix, ev‡qvgvm Drcv`b Ges †hvMv‡hvM m¤úwK©Z Ab¨vb¨ A_©‰bwZK Kvh©KjvcI `ye©j n‡q co‡e| GB Ae¯’v DcK‚jxq A‡j Av‡iv Zxeªfv‡e †`Lv †`‡e| 2. wkí I A_©bxwZi Ici c iv¶ cÖfve: A_©‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ûi cÖwZwU †¶Î ci¯úi Av — tm¤úwK©Z nIqvq GKwU ‡¶‡Î cÖfve co‡j Zv mgMÖ A_©bxwZ, wkí, kw³ Ges †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| K…wl, wkí Ges ev‡qvgvm Drcv`‡bi †¶Î¸wj Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j A_©‰bwZK Ab¨vb¨ †¶Î¸wj Øviv cÖfvweZ n‡e| Gi d‡j †gvUvgywU A‡bK¸wj wfb wfb cÖfv‡ei mg ^q NU‡e Ges G¸wj Ab¨vb¨ A_©‰bwZK †¶Î‡KI `ye©j Ki‡Z cv‡i| G QvovI MÖvgv‡j cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Drmmg~n µgvMZ ¶qcÖvß nIqvi Kvi‡Y MÖvg †_‡K kn‡i 27
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