Early Childhood Care and Education – M. Sen Gupta
Exploring the child – Ruth Khon
Pre-primary education – G. Pankajam
Low – cost, no- cost teaching aids – Mary Ann Das Gupta
AV Instruction, Technology media & methods – Brown, James W & others
http://www.ehow.com , www.earlychildhoodnews.com
Planning is essential for effective teaching and learning.
It should consider that the school atmosphere provides:
• feeling of security, sense of belonging and affections for
achievement, creativity recognition for social
interaction, motor manipulation, language exploration and for
emotional release of children.
• To achieve the overall goal of child development, the planning
should concentrate on the concrete purposes of specific
activities and experiences, the teaching materials and
equipments required, festivals to be celebrated, field trips to
be undertaken, parent education programmes to be conducted
availability of finance etc.
Strategies of Programme Planning:
• Be Flexible
• Balance between group and individual activities
• Balance between Free Play and Guided Activities
• Active Play to Follow Quiet Play
• Be Functional and Meaningful
Types of Programme Planning:
Planning the curriculum may be of Long-term,
Short-term, Weekly and daily, each type of
planning leads to the other.
• What a 3 to 4 years old child should learn and achieve
during the whole year is thought of in the yearly or
• The objectives, concepts to be developed, the learning
experiences to be provided, the trips to be organized,
the vacation period, the parent education programme
and other activities such as celebration of festivals,
nature walk etc. are noted down for the whole year.
• Annual plan also includes the date of re-opening of the
school , date of admission, criteria of admission, fees
structure, expansion of programme of any additional
facilities required, equipment needed etc.
i.e. break up of the curriculum into
different units may be of 3 months or
4 months duration or monthly
programme- more details of different
activities to be undertaken during
On the basis of the progamme planned for
the month, the teacher plans the activities
for the week.
i.e. every day plan of all the activities
CHILD DIRECTED ACTIVITIES :
Children select and initiate their own
activities from a variety of learning
areas prepared by the teacher . Areas
usually dramatic play
, blocks, science, math , games
,puzzles, books, recording, art and
Children are involved in concrete 3
dimensional learning activities .
Child directed group activities:
During these periods also children may
choose one of three or four different
Teacher also move from one group to
another group , noticing , encouraging
giving an informal demonstration
NEED AND VALUES:
The expectation of the child-directed activities is
that children will be motivated to explore when
exposed to an environment rich in variety of
stimulating materials and events.
To enhance child’s sense of self- direction and self
Example: Sand play & water play
TEACHER DIRECTED ACTIVITIES:
classroom activities are
those in which the
teacher introduces the
activity and guides the
students through the
process until they are
Some activities are formal
and less formal.
Teacher directed group
activities are those which
the class joins in as a
whole , with the teacher
NEEDS AND VALUE:
Children must not only learn
to choose for themselves , but
also to realize that they must
conform in certain ways to the
society around them and do
things that someone else
Listening to good music and
singing by oneself from an
early age encourage the child
to appreciate good music.
It helps the child to control his
voice for pitch and tune. To
listen carefully and imitate.
A teaching aid is a tool used by teachers, facilitators
or tutors to explain the concept thoroughly.
Teaching aid is an act of creation. It is an
affirmation that I as a teacher care about the pupils
and believe that with the help of these learning aids,
they can learn. It is an act of love.
Teaching aids provide a stimulus for exploration
and thinking with the added input of verbal, personal
communication with an adult, interaction and
discussion arise….and these are crucial to real, activity
Uses of Teaching Aids:
•To help children improve reading
and comprehension skills
•Illustrate or reinforce a skill, fact,
or idea, and
•Relieve anxiety, fears, or
boredom, since many teaching
aids are like games.
•To stimulate interests, display
can call attention to products or
•To encourage student’s
participation – displays may be
studied and discussed by students
as a part of class activity.
•To help children to communicate
•To be used to set a theme.
Types of teaching aids
A flash card is part of a set of cards on which are
written items to be studied. They are “flashed”
(shown quickly) one by one to a learner to elicit a
Flash cards are useful for drilling new letters,
syllables, words, and other information.
A flip chart is a collection of large pages which are
bound together at the top. The pages are “flipped” or
brought up and to the back as they are used.
Like flash card, flip chart can use to teach different
Story book can be a ready available in the
market or handmade. Through story book new
concept can be taught easily. Books with colorful
pictures have a visual appeal to children which is
more effective than words, it reinforce a child’s
knowledge of what is around him and expose him
to many new things.
Flannel board is a board made out of mount board,
felt cloth or felt paper. It can be use to teach different
Puppets can be usefully manipulated to foster children’s
development. They not only entertain children but also help children in the
development of their language capabilities, imagination etc.
Puppets can be made in different forms such as:
Glove puppet, finger puppet, box puppet, paper bag puppet, sock puppet
Picture stimulates children’s interest. It can use to give
general knowledge like railway station, hospital,
Children at the early childhood
stage are very fond of listening to
stories. They keenly look for every
opportunity to listen. Story telling is a
rewarding experience to children.