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Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Meeting the obligations of the new
offshore safety regulations with
your peop...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Overview
•

Introducing Lloyd’s Register

•

The importance of skilled behavi...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Introduction to Lloyd’s
Register
•

Global provider of advisory, technical
& ...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Introduction
• Human Engineering is the human factors and
ergonomics consulta...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Assets are sociotechnical systems
The interactions between:
The Sociotechnica...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Weak Organisational Integrity multiplies risk
•

Between 70% and 90% of failu...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Fragile
Optimising

Deviation

Failure

The ND Space
Real Men Don’t Use Proce...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Organisational drift - consequences
•

Technical standards and procedures are...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

REGULATORY CONTROL
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

DOI 30 day review recommendations
II.B. Recommendation 4 &
III.A. Recommendat...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Pull through to legislation
•

Performance based safety case
regime

•

Safet...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Implications for people and organisations
•

Organisation: There should be cl...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Safety & Environmental Management
Systems
•

Compliance deadline for mandator...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

SEMS 13 elements
General Management Program Principles
Safety and Environment...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Applicable Phases
SEMS applies to all OCS oil and gas operations on new and e...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Job Safety Analysis


Prepare JSA for all OCS activities identified in your
...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Audit requirements
•

2 years after initial implementation

•

Then every 3 y...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

ASSET DESIGN
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Objectives for Human Factors Integration

To define a feasible role for peopl...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

HFI goals for project phases

System lifecycle or maturity stages

HFI goals
...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

HFI Objectives for project phases
Key questions:

•

Is the role of people in...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

HFI questions related to main goals
HFI goals

Key questions

To define a fea...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

CONTROLLING ERROR
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Control of human error – the wider view
•

DOI Safety measures report...
Mana...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Safety Critical Task Review Method
Step 1
Site Procedure
Screening

NO – cons...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

MANAGING COMPETENCE
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Trained isn’t necessarily competent
Job Analysis

Competence must be
measured...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

The assessments
Technical Knowledge 1, 2 and 3
Mechanical Comprehension

Foll...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Knowledge assessments
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Ability assessment
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Ability assessments = normalisation
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Behaviourally anchored competencies
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

ORGANISATIONAL
MANAGEMENT
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Organisational integrity – bringing it all
together
Tasks critical
To the

St...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Measuring Organisational Integrity
Organisational Integrity Dimension
Perform...
Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited

Summary
•

New safety regulations demand an increased focus on:
•

Organisati...
For more information, please contact:

W Ian Hamilton & Michael Suerth
Lloyd’s Register Americas
1505 Hwy 6 South Suite 25...
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Meeting the obligations of the new offshore safety regulations with your people

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Meeting the obligations of the new offshore safety regulations with your people. Presentation IMAREST Houston, Human Engineering Lloyd's Register

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Meeting the obligations of the new offshore safety regulations with your people

  1. 1. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Meeting the obligations of the new offshore safety regulations with your people W Ian Hamilton & Michael Suerth IMAREST Houston 4th May 2011
  2. 2. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Overview • Introducing Lloyd’s Register • The importance of skilled behaviour in offshore operations • Stricter regulatory control • Improved asset design • Meeting the demand for control of human error • Meeting the demand for competence assurance • A framework for organisational integrity
  3. 3. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Introduction to Lloyd’s Register • Global provider of advisory, technical & assurance solutions • Enhance clients’ quality, safety, environmental & business performance • Origins dating back to 1760 • Employs approx 8000 staff, drawn from over 90 nationalities • 240 offices • 80 countries
  4. 4. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Introduction • Human Engineering is the human factors and ergonomics consultancy of Lloyd’s Register. • Our customers operate complex asset intensive, systems. • We provide services in: • Physical ergonomics, • Cognitive ergonomics, • Sociotechnical systems analysis. • Includes design and safety assurance
  5. 5. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Assets are sociotechnical systems The interactions between: The Sociotechnical Approach A system comprises property, processes and people, and the interactions between these three components. • People and people, • People and property, and • People and processes Property Technology Equipment Processes Procedures Risk assessment Communications Are crucial to the success of the asset. People Roles & responsibilities Leadership Competence Culture
  6. 6. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Weak Organisational Integrity multiplies risk • Between 70% and 90% of failures are attributable to human and organisational failure Human & Organisational failures Human & Organisational failures Technical Technical failures failures
  7. 7. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Fragile Optimising Deviation Failure The ND Space Real Men Don’t Use Procedures! Normalisation
  8. 8. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Organisational drift - consequences • Technical standards and procedures are missing or inappropriate • Competence and understanding are insufficient • Commitment to technical integrity is lost • Safety management processes degrade • Supervisory decision making is weak • Inability to detect and respond to potential failures
  9. 9. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited REGULATORY CONTROL
  10. 10. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited DOI 30 day review recommendations II.B. Recommendation 4 & III.A. Recommendation 1 • Increased emphasis on training and competence III.B. Recommendation 2 • Enhanced requirements for organisational and safety management III.C. Recommendation 3 • Increased focus on personal accountability and the control of human error
  11. 11. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Pull through to legislation • Performance based safety case regime • Safety and environmental responsibility placed with the lessee Ensure that all personnel involved in well operations are properly trained and capable of performing their tasks under both normal drilling and emergency well control operations. IADC’s Health and safety and Environmental case guidelines... will help operators and drilling contractors demonstrate their ability to operate safely and handle the risks associated with drilling on the OCS. DOI safety measures report, 27 May 2010 30 CR 250 and NTL 2010-N05
  12. 12. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Implications for people and organisations • Organisation: There should be clearly defined roles and responsibilities, particularly for decisionmaking and major accident hazard safety management. • Competence: People should be comprehensively trained and capable. • Processes: Procedures should be fit for purpose and practical. • Usability: Facilities, technology and equipment should be fit for purpose and usable. • Error: The risk of human error should be controlled.
  13. 13. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Safety & Environmental Management Systems • Compliance deadline for mandatory BOEMRE regulation, 15 November 2011 • Focus attention on the influences that human error and poor organization have on accidents worker safety and pollution control are largely dependent on proper human behavior API RP 75 (1998) • API RP 75 (1998) • 13 elements: to enhance the safety and cleanliness of operations by reducing the frequency and severity of accidents
  14. 14. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited SEMS 13 elements General Management Program Principles Safety and Environmental Information Hazards Analysis Management of Change Operating Procedures Safe Work Practices Training Quality Assurance/Mechanical Integrity Pre-Startup Review Emergency Response and Control Incident Investigation SEMS Element Audit Documentation and Recordkeeping
  15. 15. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Applicable Phases SEMS applies to all OCS oil and gas operations on new and existing facilities under BOEMRE jurisdiction including • Design • Construction • Start-up • Operation • Inspection • Maintenance
  16. 16. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Job Safety Analysis  Prepare JSA for all OCS activities identified in your SEMS Step 1 Site Procedure Screening  Must include: NO – consider next site procedure Submit procedure to Procedure Screening Matrix. Is procedure considered safety critical? YES – proceed to Step 2 • Job steps • Existing or potential hazards • Step 2 Safety Critical Task Identification Are these consequences safety critical? i.e. Could they contribute to a MAH Identify the consequences of failure at a sub task level. Task step / task description. Mitigation Generate task analysis from procedure / observation. Potential consequences of task failure YES – proceed to Step 3 Step 3 Human Failure Analysis NO – consider next step in the task analysis Identify the human failures which would cause this (from Table 2) Identify the likelihood of a failure of this sub task occurring (from Table 3) Identify the performance influencing factors that could contribute (from Table 4) Possible human failures. Likelihood of failure occurring. Performance influencing factors. Identify any current processes / mechanisms which reduce risk of failure or enable recovery. Existing Risk Management Measures Potential to recover from failure before consequences occur. Identify any future measures to reduce risk of failure or improve recovery. Additional Risk Management Measures Additional measures to improve recovery
  17. 17. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Audit requirements • 2 years after initial implementation • Then every 3 years • Comprehensive audit of 13 elements • Designated and Qualified Personnel (DEP) • 30 day audit plan, API RP 75 section 12.1 thru 12.4 • Deficiencies addressed in Corrective Action Plan (CAP) • Non-compliance can result in sanctions up to and including disqualification as an OCS operator
  18. 18. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited ASSET DESIGN
  19. 19. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Objectives for Human Factors Integration To define a feasible role for people • HFI helps to specify the role for people, the manpower requirements, job design and training plans. To specify usable interfaces and equipment • HFI helps to define requirements for the usability of workspaces, equipment and control system interfaces and to support their verification during construction leading to lean commissioning and sustainable performance. To ensure the reliability of human performance • HFI helps to assess the human error potential within the system, its processes and procedures, and to identify workplace hazards for personnel; and so to meet the human factors requirements for regulatory compliance as well as providing operational assurance.
  20. 20. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited HFI goals for project phases System lifecycle or maturity stages HFI goals All phases Primary goal for HFI: The optimisation of skilled behaviour. Concept definition Main goal 1: To define a feasible role for people. Feasibility engineering Preliminary engineering Detailed engineering Manufacture/fabrication Commissioning Operation Main goal 2: To specify usable interfaces to workspaces, equipment and technology. Main goal 3: To assure the reliability of human performance.
  21. 21. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited HFI Objectives for project phases Key questions: • Is the role of people in the system feasible? • Are the human-machine interfaces usable? • Will the required level of human performance be sustainable? • Will the organisation support the business objectives for the system? Concept/feasibility Prelim/detailed design Manuf./Commission Operation
  22. 22. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited HFI questions related to main goals HFI goals Key questions To define a feasible role for people. Is there a concept of operations for the role to be performed by people? Has the target workforce been defined? How many people are needed? What will be their jobs? What are the knowledge and skill requirements? Is there a training plan? How will competence be assured? Stopping rule: The human role is shown to be practicable To specify usable interfaces to workspaces, equipment and technology. Are reference anthropometric data available? What are the requirements for facilities and workspaces? Are the requirements for physical interfaces defined? Is the user population defined? Are the requirements for HCI defined? Is there a plan for testing and acceptance by users? Stopping rule: The facilities and interfaces are fit for purpose. To assure the reliability of human performance. Have occupational hazards been identified? Is there a risk control plan for hazards? Have all safety critical tasks been identified? Have the opportunities for human error in critical tasks been identified? Has the risk from human error been controlled? Have the requirements for a safety culture been defined? Stopping rule: The risks from human error and health hazards are ALARP.
  23. 23. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited CONTROLLING ERROR
  24. 24. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Control of human error – the wider view • DOI Safety measures report... Management and leadership Communications Procedures Knowledge and skills Fatigue and workload Usability of equipment ... unsafe offshore drilling operations often result from human error III.C. Recommendation 3.
  25. 25. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Safety Critical Task Review Method Step 1 Site Procedure Screening NO – consider next site procedure Submit procedure to Procedure Screening Matrix. Is procedure considered safety critical? YES – proceed to Step 2 Step 2 Safety Critical Task Identification Are these consequences safety critical? i.e. Could they contribute to a MAH Generate task analysis from procedure / observation. Identify the consequences of failure at a sub task level. Task step / task description. Potential consequences of task failure YES – proceed to Step 3 Step 3 Human Failure Analysis NO – consider next step in the task analysis Identify the human failures which would cause this (from Table 2) Identify the likelihood of a failure of this sub task occurring (from Table 3) Identify the performance influencing factors that could contribute (from Table 4) Possible human failures. Likelihood of failure occurring. Performance influencing factors. Identify any current processes / mechanisms which reduce risk of failure or enable recovery. Existing Risk Management Measures Potential to recover from failure before consequences occur. Identify any future measures to reduce risk of failure or improve recovery. Additional Risk Management Measures Additional measures to improve recovery
  26. 26. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited MANAGING COMPETENCE
  27. 27. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Trained isn’t necessarily competent Job Analysis Competence must be measured independently of training... Define Competencies Competence Assessment Ability Assessment Knowledge Assessment Decompose role in to the competencies required to be successful in the role Identify the most critical competencies Develop assessment methods that assess each critical competency Behavioural Assessment
  28. 28. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited The assessments Technical Knowledge 1, 2 and 3 Mechanical Comprehension Following Procedures Fault Diagnosis Management Assessment Assessment Interview Work Shadowing/ tours of equipment
  29. 29. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Knowledge assessments
  30. 30. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Ability assessment
  31. 31. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Ability assessments = normalisation
  32. 32. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Behaviourally anchored competencies
  33. 33. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT
  34. 34. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Organisational integrity – bringing it all together Tasks critical To the Strategic aims Leadership Of the Critical Tasks Manage the Commitment, Enterprise DecisionMaking, trust Changes To systems And Change Management Leadership And common values processes Define Just Attitude to Circle Learning & Improving Practicable Policy & Procedures Practices and Of Blame and procedures Learning culture Integrity 2-way Communic Build -ations Workforce Organisation Optimise Effective Manpower 2-way And Communic- Responsibilities ations Usable technology & equipment COW Ensure competence Provide facilities, Define equipment & training technology Needs and that is fit Standards of for purpose competence For safety and performance
  35. 35. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Measuring Organisational Integrity Organisational Integrity Dimension Performance Crtical Task 100% Management of Change 80% 60% 40% Change Management 20% Learning & Improving 0% Factor Performance Leadership and Job Design Processes and Procedures Ensure Competence Workload Management 80% Equipment Design 60% Incident Investigation Communications Critical Task 100% 40% Process & Procedure 20% 0% Fatigue Leadership Manpower Recruitment Training Dimension Performance % Approach % Implementation % Outcome % Review %
  36. 36. Lloyd’s Register: Human Engineering Limited Summary • New safety regulations demand an increased focus on: • Organisational processes and safety culture • The control of human error • The assurance of competence for key workers • Human factors integration can deliver improved asset design • Organisational integrity offers a framework for the improved management of human factors in offshore operations. • It is a data-based assessment process • Supports error assessment for safety critical tasks • Supports competence assessment for key roles • Improves organisational safety management
  37. 37. For more information, please contact: W Ian Hamilton & Michael Suerth Lloyd’s Register Americas 1505 Hwy 6 South Suite 250 Houston TX 77077 USA T +1 281 649 2237 E michael.suerth@lr.org or ian.hamilton@lr.org w www.humaneng.co.uk Services are provided by members of the Lloyd's Register Group. For further information visit www.lr.org/entities

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