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WASHEQ 2012 conference ppt slides


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2nd WASHEQ conference ppt slides, conference too place in Accra, Ghana

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WASHEQ 2012 conference ppt slides

  1. 1. Improving Health & Safety Management P ti in West M t Practices i W t Africa’s Construction Industry Africa s Daniel A Anoff; MSc. Pg. Dip Civil Eng. MIDE; D i l A. A ff MS P Di Ci il E MIDE ICIOB Senior Projects Coordinator Brown and Mason Limited - United Kingdom
  2. 2. Introduction Intr d ti n  Accident in the construction industry is considered very high; the working environment is usually conceived as ‘chaotic, fragmented ‘chaotic, g y , and constantly changing.’ changing.’  Consequently it put workers, employers and Consequently, workers the public at risk to injuries, incidents and accidents; some of which end in fatality.
  3. 3. Objectives Obj ti  To raise health & safety awareness in the construction industry.  To challenge the Government, professionals and stakeholders involve in the construction industry to do more in an effort to prevent y p accidents on construction sites.  T turn our focus on developing, promoting To f d l i i and implementing best practices in health and
  4. 4. Accidents Cultural and Behavioural Differences Behavioural Safety y Creating Health & Safety Management Model The Law Company’s Health and Safety Policy Creating a Safety Culture
  5. 5. Accidents: Definition A id nt D finiti n The term "accident" is defined in the HSE* publication S bli i Successful h l h and safety f l health d f management (HS(G)65) as: as: "any undesired circumstances which give rise to ill health or injury; damage to property, plant, products or the environment; production losses or increased liabilities" losses, liabilities
  6. 6. Accidents: C A id nt Causal F t r l Factors The Th construction i d i industry’s poor safety record can ’ f d be attributed to some of the following:       Lack of management commitment Poorly trained site managers No safety knowledge Timework complexity Work not properly planned Exposure to risk/hazards
  7. 7. Accidents: Oth r Factors A id nt Other F t r Most M construction companies l k or h i i lack have:  No health and safety policy yp y  No documented or organised Safety Management System (SMS)  No risk management plan  No safety training plan  Inadequate welfare facilities for workers q  Insufficient resources/no safety budget
  8. 8. Accidents: F r A id nt Forecast t  I 1976 the UK Chi f I In 1976, h Chief Inspector of Factories fF i made a then controversial forecast, which unfortunately is still true. He said and I quote; f l i ill H id d “Unless there is a radical change in the g effectiveness of accident prevention in the ( (construction) industry, about 2000 men will die ) y, and about 400,000 will be injured over the next 10 y years” Dalton, 1989 , During 2010/11, eight workers were killed and
  9. 9. Accidents: St ti ti A id nt Statistics Fatal injuries to UK workers: l k The provisional figure for the number of workers fatally p g y njured in 2011/12 is 173, and corresponds to a rate of atal injury of 0.6 deaths per 100 000 workers. j y p
  10. 10. Accidents Cultural and Behavioural Differences Behavioural Safety y Creating Health & Safety Management Model The Law Company’s Health and Safety Policy Creating a Safety Culture
  11. 11. Cultural Behavioural Differences C lt r l & B h i r l Diff r  Most local workers in Africa are often very loyal and dedicated. The difference between dedicated them and Americans or Europeans are h distinct. somewhat di i  For example, "If a hammer falls apart, the local p , p , worker will find a way to tape it back together, whereas an American/European worker will come to you and say, 'You gave me this
  12. 12. Cultural Behavioural Differences C lt r l & B h i r l Diff r  The reluctance of many Africans to challenge authority means they may agree to do unsafe jobs, or not stop co-workers from risky behaviour. cobehaviour.  Economic hardship and the cultural aversion to saying ‘no’ may well be one factor behind the no high incident rates among local workers. workers. R Reporting an injury or accident to management or i i j id a supervisor means you are likely to lose your job.
  13. 13. Accidents Cultural and Behavioural Differences Behavioural Safety y Creating Health & Safety Management Model The Law Company’s Health and Safety Policy Creating a Safety Culture
  14. 14. What is Behavioural Safety? Wh t i B h i r l S f t ? Behavioural Safety is “ A process that create a safety partnership between the workforce and management that continually focuses everyone’s attention and action on their own, and i d i h i d others daily safety behaviour”
  15. 15. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t Most accidents are caused by unsafe practices. The reason for this is that unsafe practices involve the Human Mind-sets about hazard(s), that is, they Mindhazard(s) occur because of people s attitudes and behaviours people’s owards occupational safety safety. It is estimated that in up to 80 per cent of workwork-related accidents, employees’ behaviour – , p y in the form of acts or omissions – is a contributing factor.
  16. 16. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t Some of the reasons why workers engage i ’ -risk’ S f h h k in ’at i k’ ’atbehaviour at work are; 1. Cutting corners to save time: How often do employees/workers decide not to use personal protective equipment (PPE) because a ask may only take seconds to complete? In this example, the at-risk behaviour (the failure to use atPPE) has the instant perceived benefit of saving h th i t t i d b fit f i ime. ime. (this ‘time saving’ may potentially cause an injury)
  17. 17. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t 2. Ergonomic factors: Inappropriately placed machine controls may lead o improvised and potentially dangerous access arrangements. arrangements 3. Misunderstanding at-risk behaviour: atEmployees/Workers may be unaware, or have a ow o perception of the risks associated with a ith particular task or activity. This could be due to
  18. 18. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t 4. R i f Reinforcement of at-risk b h i f at- i k behaviour b the by h actions of supervisors: This may also undermine employees’ confidence in he management’s commitment to manage concerns g g such as safety. 5. 5 Accepted practice: “We’ve always done it that way” 6. Instinctive risk taking behaviour: Some people are more naturally inclined than others p p y
  19. 19. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t What do you think can go wrong?
  20. 20. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t se of ‘Safety’ plastic shield y p Use of Safety Goggles y gg One of these men can potentially lose his sight.
  21. 21. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t ‘Safe’ Lifting Props Safe Lifting Jacks Which condition would you like to work under? y
  22. 22. Behavioural Safety B h i r lS f t No Protection in contact with fresh wet concrete, ortar or screed may cause chemical rns to develop without p being felt. p pain g Fully Protected
  23. 23. Safety Phil ph S f t Philosophy & Challenges Ch ll Recent fortunes in Ghana s oil (exploration) industry Ghana’s have increased interest from international firms.  To mention j st few, we have firms from just fe e ha e Germany, US, UK, India, China, South Africa d Australia working in Ghana. li ki i Gh and A  Each country has brought along their own safety philosophy.  Tullow Oil Company is presently working with GNPC ‘to shape legislation and set standards for y y safety in the oil industry’.
  24. 24. Health Safety Management H lth & S f t M t The Health & Safety Executive (UK) describes health (UK) nd safety management (H&SM) as “The means by which an organisation controls risk through the management process” g process” p
  25. 25. Why is Wh i H&SM so I p rt t? Important? As owner or manager of a business, you know that th t competent employees/workers are valuable. t t l / k l bl Companies need to ensure that workers do not get injured or made ill by the work they do. Preventing accidents and ill health caused by work must be a key priority for everyone at work. k p y y More importantly, it could save your life!
  26. 26. Accidents Cultural and Behavioural Differences Behavioural Safety y Creating Health & Safety Management Model The Law Company’s Health and Safety Policy Creating a Safety Culture
  27. 27. Why Wh H&SM i so Important? is I p rt t? In UK, the law requires that organisations provide whatever i f i i d i i information, i instruction and training needed to ensure, so far as is reasonably , y practicable, the health and safety of workers and employees. rk r nd pl How to create a Health & Safety Management Model?
  28. 28. Creating C p ’ C ti a Company’s H&SM M d l Model Company’s p y Safety Policy The Law Towards T d Improving S f Safe Management Practice Need to create a Safety Culture
  29. 29. Accidents Cultural and Behavioural Differences Behavioural Safety y Creating Health & Safety Management Model The Law Company’s Health and Safety Policy Creating a Safety Culture
  30. 30. Safety L i l ti S f t Legislation & Guidance G id n most d l d C developed Countries; i  Ensuring good health and safety practice on gg yp construction sites is a legal requirement.  The law also has provision for setting up a joint health and safety committee or choosing a health d f h l h and safety representative f your i for workplace.  There are health and safety laws that specify g p y rights and responsibilities for everyone in the
  31. 31. Health and Safety Organisations United States he practice of safety in p y onstruction is regulated by a overnmental agencies nown as the Occupational afety and Health dministration (OSHA): It (OSHA): rovides strict rules and gulations to enforce safety l ti t f f t nd health standards on job Enforcement The OSH Act (1970),  Ensures that safe and healthful workplaces are set by the duty holder  Enforce standards by providing training, outreach, outreach education and assistance.
  32. 32. Health and Safety Organisations United Kingdom he HSE (Health & Safety ( y xecutive) UK is the national dependent watchdog for orkork-related health, safety nd illness. They are an illness. dependent regulator and act the public interest to duce work-related death d work- l t d d th k nd serious injury across Enforcement Enforcement ensures that duty holders;  deal immediately with serious risks;  comply with the law; ith la ;  are held to account if they fail f in their responsibilities. b
  33. 33. Ghana’s L i l ti Gh ’ Legislation & G id Guidance Ghana currently has no recognise equivalent of UK’s Health and Safety Executive- HSE, or UK s ExecutiveUS’s OHSA. Ghana do have legislation & guidance that cover Gh d h l il i id h pecific areas; for example; Environmental Protection Agency Act (Act 490) 490) Mining Regulations Act 1970 LI 665 & Factories Offices and Shops Act, LI 328
  34. 34. Ghana’s “Health S f t E Gh ’ “H lth & Safety Executive” ti ” The h ll Th challenge goes t Th G to The Government, Law t L practitioners, professional bodies; (e.g. GhIE, GNPC, CIOB) and S k h ld to continue with their effort d Stakeholders i i h h i ff o provide Ghana with e.g. UK’s equivalent of Health & Safety Executive (HSE) or US’s (OSHA). (HSE) Ghana s Ghana’s HSE or OSHA would be tasked with the OSHA” esponsibility of refining existing legislations, regulations tc. to match international standards. c. o c e o s d ds. n addition, it must be empowered to enforce safety and
  35. 35. Accidents Cultural and Behavioural Differences Behavioural Safety y Creating Health & Safety Management Model The Law Company’s Health and Safety Policy Creating a Safety Culture
  36. 36. Company’s Health Safety Policy C p ’ H lth & S f t P li The li i Th policy is usually made up of three parts:ll d f h parts:-  A Statement of Intent: (What you intend to do) A written policy statement which shows your staff, and anyone else, your commitment to health and safety.  Organisation details: (Who will be involved) This section names those who will have responsibilities for p health and safety matters in your company.  Arrangements: (How you will put it in place) This section explains how you will control the main hazards y that have been identified in your risk assessment.
  37. 37. Health & Safety Policy (1) H lth S f t P li The health & safety policy establishes an overall sense of direction and sets the principles of action for the organisation. I sets goals for the l l of h l h & S f l f h level f health Safety It responsibility and performance required. It demonstrates the formal commitment towards good H&S management particularly management, that of the organisation’s top management.
  38. 38. Health S f t P li H lth & Safety Policy (2) The li Th policy place the management of H S as a prime l h f H&S i esponsibility of line management, from the most enior executive to first line supervisory level. Management have to ensure that the policy g p y statement is understood, implemented and maintained at all levels in the organisation. Management must identify all legal requirements applicable to it as well as any other industry or ppli bl t ll th i d t company specific requirements to which it
  40. 40. Presentation Outline • • • • • What process safety is Elements of PSM (OSHA ) Process safety related incidents Overview of process safety legislations and application Overview of some of the Roles of Employers under the elements of PSM • Process Safety Performance Indicators • Role of Employees • Summary/Conclusion DM
  41. 41. What is Process Safety? Process Safety Management (PSM) is the application of management principles and systems to the identification, understanding and control of process hazards to prevent process-related injuries and accidents. It was developed by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) in the United States but has since been adopted in Canada and other countries. CCPS DEFINITION: Process safety is a disciplined framed work for managing the integrity of hazardous operating systems and processes by applying good design principles, engineering and operating practices. Such incidents can cause toxic effects, fire or explosion and could immediately result in serious injuries, property damage, lost production and environmental impact.
  42. 42. Elements of PSM OSHA’s PSM Structure 1. Employee Participation 2. Process Safety Information 3. Process Hazards Analysis 4. Operating Procedures 5. Training 6. Contractors 7. Pre startup Safety Review 8. Mechanical Integrity 9. Hot Work 10. Management of Change 11. Incident Investigation 12. Emergency Planning And Response 13. Compliance Audits 14. Trade Secrets DM
  43. 43. PSM PSM is not a management program that is handed down by management to their employees and contract workers; it is a program involving everyone. The key word is communication. participation — which is much more than just All managers, employees and contract workers are responsible for the successful implementation of PSM. Management must organize and lead the initial effort, but the employees must be fully involved in its implementation and improvement because they are the people who know the most about how a process really operates, and they are the ones who have to implement recommendations and changes. Specialist groups, such as staff organizations and consultants can provide help in specific areas, but PSM is fundamentally a line responsibility. DM
  44. 44. History of Unsafe Processes-FLIXBOROUGH • • • June 1974 - explosion at a caprolactam process killed 28 people and seriously injured 36 Temporary 20cm bypass pipe ruptured releasing about 40 tons cyclohexane that formed a vapour cloud 100-200m in diameter Ignited, probably by a furnace in a nearby hydrogen plant, releasing equivalent to 15 ton of TNT
  45. 45. History of Unsafe Processes – PIPER ALPHA • • • • Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform operated by Occidental Petroleum Platform began production in 1976 first as an oil platform and then converted to gas production July 6, 1988 Explosion and resulting fire destroyed platform killing 167 men To date the worlds worst offshore oil disaster in terms of lives lost and impact to UK oil and gas industry
  46. 46. History of Unsafe Processes – TEXAS CITY • • March 23, 2005 - during start up of isomerisation unit, a distillation column flooded and over-pressurised causing release from a vent stack resulting in a series of explosions. 15 workers killed and 180 others injured Baker Panel Report :- – Process safety considerations have not been considered adequately – All levels of management and supervision play an important role in process safety performance. – Personnel and contractors need process safety knowledge and competence
  47. 47. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Incidents that define Process Safety WHEN WHERE 1966 1974 1976 1979 1982 1984 1984 1986 1986 1986 1987 1987 1988 1988 1989 1992 1994 1998 2001 2001 2003 2004 2005 2005 2005 WHAT Feyzin, France LPG Bleve Flixborough, UK Cyclohexane 28 Seveso, Italy Dioxin 1 Bantry Bay, Ireland Crude ship Ocean Ranger, Canada Platform Mexico LPG Bleve Bhopal, India Methyl isocyanate 20000+ Challenger Space shuttle 7 Chernobyl, USSR Nuclear powerplant Sandoz, Bale, Switzerland Warehouse 0 Texas City, USA HF Grangemouth, UK HCK HP/LP interface Piper Alpha Platform Norco, USA Propane FCCU Pasadena TX, USA Ethylene/isobutane La Mède, France Gasoline/LPG FCCU Milford Haven, UK FCCU feedstock Longford, Australia LPG, brittle fracture Toulouse, France Ammonium Nitrate Petrobras Platform Columbia Space shuttle 7 Skikda, Algeria LNG Texas City, US Gasoline ISOM 15 Buncefield, UK Gasoline Bombay High, India Platform FATALITIES 18 50 84 600+ 100+ 0 1 167 7 23 6 0 2 30 11 27 0 13 REGULATIONS First LPG prescriptive regulations EU Seveso I Directive1982 US Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program 1985 US Emergency Planning and Community Rightto-Know Act 1986 US Chemical Accident Prevention Program 1986 US Chemical Safety Audit Program 1986 EU Seveso I Directive update 1987 US Clean Air Act Amendments 1990 UK HSE Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 US OSHA 1910-119 Process Safety Management 1992 US EPA Risk Management Program1996 EU Seveso II Directive 1996 UK Control of Major Accident Hazard Regulations 1999 EU Seveso II update 2002 UK HSE Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 API RPs on occupied buildings and vents OSHA Refinery National Emphasis Program DM
  48. 48. Process Safety Legislations Europe: Seveso Directive(1982,1996 &???) • • UK: Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards(CIMAH)Regulations 1984 UK: Control of Major Accident Hazards(COMAH)Regulation,1999 UK: Offshore Installation(Safety Case)Regulation,1992  UK: Offshore Installation (Prevention of Fire and Explosion and Emergency Response)Regulations (PFEER),1995  USA:OSHA Process Safety Management,1992  USA:EPA Risk Management Program,1996 DM
  50. 50. WHAT WENT WRONG? The Gulf oil rig explosion – 2010 DM
  51. 51. The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig before the explosion. The rig belongs to Transocean, the world’s biggest offshore drilling contractor. The rig was originally contracted through the year 2013 to BP and was working on BP’s Macondo exploration well when the fire broke out. The rig costs about $500,000 per day to contract. The full drilling spread, with helicopters and support vessels and other services, will cost closer to $1,000,000 per day to operate in the course of drilling for oil and gas. The rig cost about $350,000,000 to build in 2001 and would cost at least double that to replace today. DM
  52. 52. July 17,2010: pipeline explosion at a Chinese port in Dalian in northern China's Liaoning province. The oil pipeline at the busy Chinese port exploded, causing a massive fire that burned for 15 hours before being put out on Saturday. Officials say no one was killed.
  53. 53. OSHA REGULATION 29 CFR 1910.119 “Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals“ Application. This regulation applies to the following: (i) A process which involves a chemical at or above the specified threshold quantities listed in the Regulation; (ii) A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in 1910.1200(c) of this part) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000 pounds (4535.9 kg) or more except for: (A) Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel (e.g., propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle refueling), if such fuels are not a part of a process containing another highly hazardous chemical covered by this standard; (B) Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred which are kept below their normal boiling point without benefit of chilling or refrigeration. DM
  54. 54. OBJECTIVE of Process Safety Management • To Prevent Unwanted Releases of Hazardous Chemicals; especially Into Locations that Could Expose Employees and Others to Serious Hazards • Prevent major accidents in hazardous plants
  55. 55. ROLES OF EMPLOYERS Ensure employee Participation in PSM Development • Employees must have access to PHA’s and All Other Information Required by the Standard • Employers Must Consult With their Employees on the Development of PSM (Part of PHA Teams, Development of Management Of Change(MOC),Pre Startup Safety Review (PSSR), etc.) DM
  56. 56. Employer shall develop process Safety Information (PSI) OSHA 29CFR 1910:119 Requires Safety Information To Be Accessible To All Employees DM
  57. 57. Process Safety Information (PSI) Must Include: Development of Written Safety Information • Information on the Hazards of the Highly Hazardous Chemicals Used or Produced by the Process (Material Safety Data Sheets) • Information On the Technology of the Process (Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&ID’S) • Information On the Equipment in The Process (Safety Instruction Sheets (SIS’S) DM
  58. 58. Where are all these Information Found ? • SIS’s • P & I D’s • PFD’s • Operating Manuals It Is YOUR Responsibility to Ensure That This Information Is Complete and Accurate PRIOR to Start-up of Any New or Modified Facility. DM
  59. 59. Employer shall conduct Process Hazards Analysis-PHA • A Thorough and Systematic Approach to Identifying, Evaluating and Controlling Processes and Their Hazards • A PHA Must be Conducted Every 5 Years DM
  60. 60. Employer shall develop Operating Procedures • Documents the Steps to Operate the Process Safely • Procedures Must Be : • Written • Consistent With the Process Safety Information • Well Communicated to the Employees • Procedures Should : • State the Operating Limits • Discuss the Consequences of Deviation • Address Safety and Health Issues DM
  61. 61. Training • Staff are adequately given relevant PSM trainings • Ensures That Operators Understand the Hazards of the Process and How to Operate It • Refresher Training Must Be Conducted at Least Every Three Years • Must Be Documented That All Training Was Completed and in a Satisfactory Manner • Who Received the Training • The Date of the Training • The Method Used to Verify That the Training Was Understood DM
  62. 62. Contractor Management Employers shall ensure that • That Contractors Work Safely and Understand the Potential Process Hazards • Contractor Safety Orientation Must Be Included As a Requirement of Every Contract DM
  63. 63. Employers Must : • Inform Contractor and their Employees of Known Potential Process Hazards • Review Contractor’s Safety Performance and Safety Training Program • Inform Contractors of Emergency Action Procedures • Maintain an Injury and Illness Log DM
  64. 64. Pre-Startup Safety Review • Ensures That New and Modified Processes Are Safe to Operate • PSSR’s Must Be Conducted Prior to the Induction of Feed • PSSR’s Are Required When There Is a Change to Process Safety Information • Confirms That Procedures, Training and Equipment Records Have Been Updated DM
  65. 65. Mechanical Integrity EMPLOYERs shall establish MI programs and provide applicable Recognized And Generally Acceptable Good Engineering Practices RAGAGEPs. Mechanical Integrity(MI) is a program that manages all activities (monitoring, control, documentation, etc) to assure that all the components works together in a plant or facility in a Safe Condition throughout its operational lifetime. MI • Helps to prevent Loss of Containment-LOC • Helps to ensure that that the Equipment Is Designed, Installed, Operated, and Maintained Properly throughout its life time. Provides window for Regularly Scheduled “Pro-Active” or Preventive Maintenance • DM
  66. 66. Defining/setting operation safe limit Setting the above in a process system could reasonably prevent process deviation that could lead to major accident. DM
  67. 67. Roles of Employers: Management of Change -MOC Change Is Defined As “Any Modification to Process Chemicals, Technology, Equipment, Procedures, or to the Personnel Running the Facility” • Establish and Implement Written Procedures to Manage Changes (Except for “Replacement in-Kind”) to Process Chemicals, Technology, Equipment, and Procedures, and Change to Facilities • Types of Changes: - Installing Bypasses or Rerouting the Flow of the Process - Changes in the Chemicals Used - Changes in the Process parameter - Installing Temporary Leak Repairs, clamps, fittings etc... -- Employers are expected to have an MOC Program in place to effectively monitor, track and implement all changes. DM
  68. 68. Roles of Employers Emergency Planning and Response • Establishes a Plan and Management System for Responding to Emergencies • Addresses Procedures for Emergency Shutdown of Equipment • Addresses Procedures for Emergency Notification, and Evacuation • Should Include Hypothetical Drills DM
  69. 69. Roles of Employers Compliance Audits • Requires That the Other Elements of PSM Are Audited at Least Every Three Years for Compliance, Implementation, and Effectiveness • Verifies That Operating and Maintenance Procedures and Training Are Adequate, Up-to-Date, and are being followed • Requires That the Last two Audits Be Kept on File DM
  70. 70. Process Safety Performance Indicators-PSPI employers shall establish suitable PSPI Operational controls Lagging Indicators • • Identify challenges to integrity Select the lowest detectable event –(breach of process control envelope) e.g.: –Overfilling –Overpressure –Over temp –Low flow –Excessive corrosion • Set indicator at the earliest point of deviation Leading Indicators Critical operator Actions to: • set process controls/operating envelope correctly • take remedial action if process deviation from operating envelope • routine operation control – monitoring actions • Inspection and maintenance of process control instruments and alarms DM
  71. 71. AUDITS Role of Employers shall conduct PSM compliance audit to; • Verify That there is PSM Program in place. • Verify That the Program Is Effective (Quality). • Verify That the Program Is Communicated to All Employees. The above is usually done by Reviewing of Procedures and Conducting Employee Interviews DM
  72. 72. Leading and lagging indicators set to detect defects in important risk control systems DM
  73. 73. Setting tolerances A tolerance should be set for each leading indicator. This represents the point at which deviation in performance should be flagged up for attention of senior management. For example, for a leading indicator, ‘percentage of overdue safety critical maintenance actions’ DM
  74. 74. Roles of Employees Basically, much of PSM responsibilities rely on employers to provide effective and quality PSM program through top management staff/ line managers. However, employees are obliged to adhere strictly to laid down PSM programs. e.g monitoring of process equipment to prevent process deviations, Carryout Preventive Maintenance as at when due etc DM
  75. 75. Summary • • • • • • • • • Process safety management program is required by operators of chemical plants and processes that are highly hazardous. PSM involves participation of all stake holders and wider consultation is required for effective implementation. Employers plays a major role in managing PSM to prevent process related incidents. Employees’ positive response to stipulated PSM regulations is essential in preventing PSM related incidents. Implementation of lessons learnt from previous incidents plays an important role in preventing accidents Process safety incidents often result to major accidents Effective management of PSM programs will significantly prevent or reduce process related incidents. Choosing and Setting the right Process Safety Performance Indicators is vital in measuring progress/performance of PSM programs PSM compliance auditing is essential in checking the degree of PSM compliance ,Identification of gaps and creates windows for closing the loop and also ,to ensure continuous improvement. DM
  76. 76. Reference: • • • • • • • • • • Petroleum Refinery Process Safety Management National Emphasis Program (OSHA Instruction, Directive No. CPL 03-00-004) process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals, OSHA 1910.119 HSE Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005. Lees 1996, Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, volume 1,Vol-2,Vol-3 F.P.Lees, Butterworth & Co. Ltd., 1996 Process Risk and Reliability Management-operational integrity management, Ian Sutton. What went wrong –Trevor Kletz Still going Wrong-Trevor Kletz Chemical Process Safety, Learning from Case Histories-3rd Edition, Roy E. Sanders. Process Hazards Analysis, Ian S. Sutton -Second Edition, 2003. Developing process safety indicators –Health and Safety Executive UK. DM
  77. 77. Thank You! PSM IS A GOOD BUSINESS Okudor Emmanuel Principal Consultant, DM SHEFFIELD Ltd T: +234-8026944107 E: W: DM
  78. 78. by Principal Consultant, Zub - Chord Tech Ventures (HSE CONSULTANTS), Lagos, Nigeria 2348120505968, 2348051441112 and SAFETY QUALITY CREATIVITY & INNOVATION INTERVENTION MORALE COST 2348033432081, 2348075996632 West African Safety, Health, Environment & Quality (WASHEQ), 31st August 2012. Accra, Ghana
  79. 79. What Will We Talk About? • What is an Safety Management? • What is an accident? • Accident prevention program • Basic elements of ISMS • Where to get more help
  80. 80. Abstract As SH&E professionals, we hear a lot about "the system" – those core components that make up how we manage safety within our organization. The increasing importance of health and safety at the workplace is prompting organisations to devise means of accident prevention at work. There is a notion that “every workplace accident is preventable”. For this to be realised, the organisation’s occupational health and safety management systems need to be proactive. An Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) enables the organization to identify hazards, assess risks and place the necessary risk control measures in place to prevent accidents. This presentation suggests integrated Safety management systems (ISMS) as one of the solution to accident prevention in workplaces
  81. 81. Safety is absence of danger. Safety is an attitude, a frame of mind. It is the awareness of one’s environment and actions, all day, everyday. Safety is knowing what is going on; knowing what can injure anyone or anything; knowing how to prevent that injury and then acting to prevent it. All it requires is intelligence and a reasonable amount of native ability to see, to hear, to smell and to think.
  82. 82. What is an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS)? An Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) is a set of plans, actions and procedures that assist an organisation to systematically manage health and safety risk associated with their business. It aims at providing a method to assess and improve performance in the prevention of workplace incidents and accidents via the effective management of hazards and risks in the workplace.
  83. 83. What is an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS)? The OSHMS approach ensures that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. the implementation of preventive and protective measures is carried out in an efficient and coherent manner; pertinent policies are established; commitments are made; all the workplace elements to assess hazards and risks are considered, and management and workers are involved in the process at their level of responsibility.
  84. 84. DEMING CYCLE (PDCA), DESIGNED IN THE 1950S CSA Z 1000 & ANSI Z10 ILO OSHMS 2001 OHSAS 1800 series 2007
  85. 85. •Functions Planning Direction Leadership Results Organizing Structure Measurement Controlling of Management System Implementing
  86. 86. Why a OHSMS? 
  87. 87. Why a OHSMS?
  88. 88. Why a OHSMS?
  89. 89. Why a OHSMS?
  90. 90. Advantages of a Systems Approach 1. A system that will meet your specific hazards & risks: - Can prioritize planning, organizing, controlling, monitoring & reviewing components of the program - Can allocate resources as “reasonable & practicable” 2. Legal compliance issues 3. Best industry practices 4. Equal focus of safety with other objectives –production, quality, ... 5. A management system provides initiatives that are sustainable.
  91. 91. “An unexpected, unplanned event in sequence of events, that occurs through a combination of causes. It results in injury or disease to an individual, damage to property or equipment, a near-miss, a loss or any combination of these effects”.
  93. 93. Workers, unions and employees don’t always agree on why accident happen. Workers may say that the workplace is : HAZARDOUS * UNSAFE * DANGEROUS * BADLY ORGANISED THE WORKPLACE IS TO BLAME.
  95. 95. Some accidents may be due to human errors. But the work environment must recognise that the workers are human and sometimes make mistakes – this must be acknowledged during workplace design. Employers can improve the workplace so that stress, fatigue and poor working conditions do not cause mistakes. HAS BLAMING EACH OTHER SOLVED THE PROBLEM ? NO, AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THE ACCIDENT FIGURES.
  98. 98. THE ACCIDENT STUDIES MANAGEMENT Through Supervision Controls MAN FAILURE Knowledge, Attitude, Fitness, Ability •Which Behavioural Causes or Permits UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSONS UNSAFE MECHANICAL OR PHYSICAL CONDITIONS INEXPLICABLE 88% 10% 2% •Which Cause ACCIDENTS 2% are unpreventable 50% are practically preventable 98% are of a preventable type
  99. 99. CHAIN OF ACCIDENT CAUSATION •Management Basic Causes Safety Policy & Decisions •Supervisory Performance •Personal Factors •Job Factors Human Factor Immediate causes Substandard Practices Incident - Contact Substandard Conditions ACCIDENT unplanned release of Energy and/or hazardous material Accident Results Personal injury Property damage Uninsured Costs
  100. 100. •DIRECTLY •INDIRECTLY INVOLVED INVOLVED  Fatigue  Stress  Taking shorts cut  Lack of experience  Lack of training  Lack of concentration  Not wearing appropriate PPE  Using incorrect tool  Not following work practices  Fault with the original design of a piece of equipment.  Inappropriate purchasing decisions.  Behavior of fellow individuals in the workplace.
  101. 101.  Operating without clearance/failure to secure or warn.  Operating or working at unsafe speed.  Making safety devices inoperative.  Using unsafe equipment or equipment unsafely.  Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, combining, etc.  Taking unsafe position of posture.  Working on moving of dangerous equipment.  Distracting, teasing, abusing, startling, etc.  Failure to use safe attire or personal protective devices.
  102. 102.  Inadequately guarded, guards of improper height, strength, mesh, etc.  Unguarded absence of required guards.  Defective, rough, sharp, slippery, decayed, cracked, etc.  Unsafely designed machines, tools, etc.  Unsafely arranged, poor housekeeping, congestion, blocked exits, etc.  Inadequately lighted, sources of glare, etc.  Inadequately ventilated impure air sources, etc.  Unsafely clothed, no goggles, gloves, masks, wearing high heels, etc.  Unsafe processes, mechanical, chemical, electrical, nuclear, etc.
  103. 103. Management System Pressures •Financial restrictions •Lack of commitment •Lack of policy •Lack of standards •Lack of training Social Pressures •Group •Trade attitude customs •Tradition •Society attitudes to risk taking •‘Acceptable’ behaviour in the workplace
  105. 105. Accident Prevention Man + Machine + Uncontrolled Energy Release = Accident*** Energy Source • Associated Hazards •Gravity •Chemical •Thermal •Residual Stored •Pneumatic •Hydraulic •Pressurized Liquids / Gases •Mechanical Accident Triangle Man Machine ***Removing one element or creating effective barriers will reduce risk of having accident.
  106. 106. Accident Prevention Objectives • Moral • • • • Duty of Care Environmental Affairs Physical and Emotional pain Worker Morale • Legal • Enforcement and Prosecution • Civil Law
  107. 107. Accident Prevention Objectives Economic Direct Costs and Indirect Costs £1 £8 -£36 Insured Costs – Injury, Ill health, damage Uninsured Costs – Product and material damage, Plans and Building damage, Legal Costs, Emergency Supplies, Cleaning Site, Production Delays, Temp Labour, Fines etc etc
  108. 108. So how do I Do all This????
  109. 109. The first minute in an area concentrate entirely on the actions of the people in the work area and ask yourself three questions: 1) Are they doing the job right? – Right from safety and health standpoint 2) Could they get injured or cause damage to property? 3) Does anything look different, out of place?
  110. 110. Stakeholder Involvement
  111. 111. PROACTIVE SAFETY MANAGEMENT Proactive Safety Management measures progress by % Safe Behavior not by accident rates Fatalities Lost-time Accidents REGULATORY Recordables Reactive Safety Management First Aid BEHAVIOR PROACTIVE Safety Management
  112. 112. Fatalities Lost-Time Accidents Recordable Accidents First Aid Accidents Unsafe Behaviors How to Measure Safety Performance? Where to Focus Safety Efforts?
  114. 114. Thank You
  116. 116. PRESENTED by Dr Olugbenga O. Bejide
  117. 117. @ WASHEQ 2012 La Palm Beach Hotel, Accra August 31, 2012
  118. 118. OUTLINE • • • • • • Introduction What do we want to achieve? Cause and effect of accidents Safety Improvements Safety Pillar Management Summary & Conclusion
  119. 119. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • To identify main causes of workplace accidents • To be able to prioritise means of accident prevention • To detect human and environmental risk factors in the work environment • To design and implement a safety pillar management system
  120. 120. WHY WORKPLACE SAFETY? • To protect workers against risk factors • To reduce risk causes to a minimum level making human life safer • To increase the quality of work activities • To assure workplace safety • To create new and better environmental and work conditions
  121. 121. ICEBERG THEORY serious accidents 1 reportable accidents 29 minor accidents 300
  123. 123. SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS • • • • • • Illumination Heat Humidity Noise Equipment Slippery floor
  124. 124. SOME HUMAN FACTORS • • • • • • • Negligence Tiredness Distractions like phones, music, etc Lack of relevant skill Lack of experience Deviation from SOP Short cuts
  126. 126. CATEGORIES OF ACCIDENTS • • • • • • • Violation of safety rules MAN Poor housekeeping ENVIRONMENT Poor machine design MACHINE Poor tool or equipment condition MATERIALS People not trained enough MAN Using wrong/inappropriate method METHOD Oil leaks MACHINE/ENVIRONMENT
  127. 127. ATTAINING ‘ZERO’ ACCIDENT LEVEL • Supervision by the person responsible for management • Train people to be safety-conscious • Create an environment in which safety rules are respected • Ability to foresee danger • Techniques to avoid danger • Established restoration procedure
  128. 128. ELIMINATION OF ACCIDENTS (‘0’ level) • Training • Promotion • Risk assessment • Accident and near-miss analysis
  129. 129. 7 OTHER PILLARS • • • • • • • AM Pillar autonomous maintenance PM Pillar planned maintenance Focused improvement Pillar Quality Maintenance Pillar T & E Pillar training and education Initial Phase Control Pillar TPM Office Pillar
  130. 130. BASIC TPM TOOLS • • • • • • • • 5Y 5S RCFA root cause failure analysis Countermeasures Collaboration with other PILLARS Define KPI and standards Near-miss and accident analysis Restoration
  131. 131. SIX STEPS OF SAFETY PILLAR MANAGEMENT • Identify safety priorities • Analyse every accident and implement improvement actions • Reduce accidents through restoration of physical workplace safety standards • Reduce accidents through restoration of discipline • Implement the safety system • Further safety improvement
  132. 132. 1. IDENTIFYING SAFETY PRIORITIES • Formalise KPI and targets • Assess all actual activities carried out for safety • Introduce the accident mode and first aid recording system • Introduce and spread the concept of near misses and implement a recording system • Carry out accident and near misses deployment • Link deployments to areas to attack. Prioritise the areas and draw up a plan
  133. 133. 2. ANALYSE EVERY ACCIDENT & IMPLEMENT IMPROVEMENT ACTIONS • Select and train safety experts and safety teams • Introduce single accident and first aid analysis to find out root causes • Introduce near misses analysis • Support a plan of countermeasures • Start horizontal expansion of actions on similar situations
  134. 134. 3. REDUCE ACCIDENTS THROUGH RESTORATION OF PHYSICAL WORKPLACE SAFETY STANDARDS • Carry out hazard identification and risk assessment in critical areas • Assess and restore workplace compliance with safety standards carrying out 5S • Introduce the safety tagging system • Carry out safety-oriented cleaning activities in conjunction with AM PILLAR
  135. 135. 4. REDUCE ACCIDENTS THROUGH RESTORATION OF DISCIPLINE • Assess the know how of safety with the aid of T & E PILLAR • Carry out focused training to fill the gaps • Understand behavioural standards • Understand and analyse behavioural anomalies • Eliminate anomalies through training and fool-proof devices • Introduce checklists to audit safety standard application
  136. 136. 5. IMPLEMENT THE SAFETY SYSTEM • Introduce safety audit system • Introduce accident simulation • Support the plan of horizontal expansion of implementation of countermeasures • Check the implementation of long term actions • Check the effectiveness of
  137. 137. 6. FURTHER SAFETY IMPROVEMENT • Carry out residual risk analysis • Further improve environmental conditions • Achieve excellent balance between behaviours and safety devices • Introduce a safety preventive assessment for process and machine modification
  138. 138. TPM TEAM
  141. 141. SUMMARY & CONCLUSION is a world class manufacturing (WCM) systematic and integrated approach to manufacturing safety, health and environment management which has been proven to be result-oriented tool in achieving zero accident level TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT (TPM)
  142. 142. RECAP • • • • • • Introduction What do we want to achieve? Cause and effect of accidents Safety Improvements Safety Pillar Management Summary & Conclusion
  145. 145. August 2012 Tullow Ghana Limited Influencing EHS through Local Content
  146. 146. Tullow Safety Rules Tullow Safety Rules – what we will cover today… • • • • • LOCAL CONTENT IN TULLOW CEO MESSAGE ON EHS COMMITMENT AND EXPECTATION FOUNDATION FOR OPERATIONS TULLOW SAFETY RULES Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule 3: Rule 4: Rule 5: Rule 6: Rule 7: Rule 8: Rule 9: Rule 10: Rule 11: Rule 12: Rule 13: Slide 2 Permit to Work Energy Isolation Working at Height Lifting Operations Excavation Work Confined Space Entry Process Safety Management of Change Driving Safety Hazardous Materials Contractor Management Environmental Management Health and Hygiene
  147. 147. Tullow Safety Rules What does local content mean to Tullow? Slide 3
  148. 148. Tullow Safety Rules Some benefits of driving local content • Reduces time in the SCM cycle • Cost reduction in the inventory & stock management • Reduces reliance on international suppliers • Leaves a good legacy for the promoters • Creates shared prosperity Slide 4
  149. 149. Tullow Safety Rules Influencing HSE through local content • Our personnel, • The environment • Surrounding communities Tullow Ghana Limited: • is committed to supporting the effective implementation of these rules. • expects that everyone give their own commitment to adhering to these requirements in their work. Slide 5
  150. 150. Tullow Safety Rules Message from CEO Safety is of paramount importance to Tullow and we all have a personal responsibility to look after ourselves and the people we work with. The Tullow Safety Rules have been set out to protect you and manage the day-to-day risks associated with our operations, so please take the time to understand the rules and apply them to your work. I encourage you all to speak up and stop any operations which may be unsafe, as there is nothing more important than ensuring all our staff return home safely every day. Thank you for your support in pro-actively managing safety across our Tullow operations Slide 6
  151. 151. Tullow Safety Rules Commitment and Expectation Tullow is committed to the safety and wellbeing of its people, the environment and surrounding communities. Tullow will: • Identify risks associated with the execution of Tullow’s business • Develop a set of mandatory rules that must be applied • Communicate Tullow’s expectations and requirements to everyone engaged in the execution of Tullow’s business • Allocate sufficient competent resources to support the effective implementation of these rules • Require everyone to comply with these rules • Require everyone to report any variances and/or violations • Undertake assurance activities influencing HSE through local content
  152. 152. Tullow Safety Rules Commitment and Expectation (cont.) Tullow expects that each employee and contractor is able to return home at the end of the working day without having suffered or caused harm in any way to themselves, others, the environment or surrounding communities. Tullow expects: • The Tullow Safety Rules form part of induction processes • All employees and contractors are conversant with the Tullow Safety Rules • Employees and contractors will only undertake work for which they have been trained and deemed competent • All employees and contractors are personally accountable for the implementation of these Tullow Safety Rules as they apply to their specific role. • Any variance and/or violation is immediately reported • All employees and contractors to intervene and stop work for instances where these Tullow Safety Rules are not adequately managing the risks. Slide 8
  153. 153. Tullow Safety Rules Foundation for Operations Fundamental requirements which are the foundation for EHS aspects of operations include: • Work will not be conducted without a task risk assessment and a safety discussion appropriate to that level of risk • People will be trained, competent and fit to conduct the activity • Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) will be worn as detailed in the risk assessment and minimum site requirements • All equipment to be utilised is proven to be fit for purpose Equipment found to be damaged or defective is removed from service. • Rescue, recovery and emergency response plans and specified equipment, developed from a review of potential emergency scenarios, is in place before commencement of the activity • Everyone has an obligation to stop work that is unsafe Slide 9
  154. 154. Tullow Safety Rules
  155. 155. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 1 – Permit to Work Application Applies to confined space entry, excavation work, work on energised systems (electrical, mechanical, hydraulical, thermal), hot work, heavy lifts, working at heights, work with hazardous materials (including radioactive materials) and any non-routine activities. Hazards Requirements • Failure to recognise hazards and controls • Permits must: − Specify activity and location • Uncontrolled activities within hazardous environments − Identify hazards and controls • Ineffective communication of hazards and controls − Be approved by the accountable and responsible parties • Loss of control of hazardous work activities during an emergency Slide 11 − Reference any associated certificates and risk assessments − Identify any conflicting work activities • • • • • ! Permits must be issued and controlled by the permit control centre Permits must be displayed at the work site and permit control centre A task risk assessment must be conducted Hazards and controls must be communicated to all involved persons Permits must be closed-out upon completion or suspension of the activity
  156. 156. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 1 – Permit to Work Roles and Responsibilities Supervisor • Provide fit-for-purpose permit system and control centre • Provide training and competency assessments • Verify that controls are in place Individual • • • • • Identify the need for a permit Identify all hazards and controls Identify work interfaces Communicate hazards Ensure controls are in place Slide 12
  157. 157. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 2 – Energy Isolation Application Applies to the identification, isolation and testing of energy (electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, thermal) sources to dissipate any residual energy and secure the isolation by using a lock out device. Requirements Hazards • Unexpected start-up • Inadequate isolation • Failure of isolation • Inadvertent / malicious de-isolation ! Slide 13 • Work must be conducted under an isolation certificate and task risk assessment • Equipment must be shut down using the standard stopping procedure • Equipment must be isolated from all energy sources • Isolation(s) must be secured using a lock out device • Stored or residual energy must be dissipated to a zero energy state • Equipment must be disconnected from the energy source(s) by first checking that no personnel are exposed and then verified by testing to ensure the equipment will not operate • Isolation and de-isolation of energy sources must be communicated to all involved persons • All personnel involved in the isolation of energy sources must be suitably trained and competent
  158. 158. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 2 – Energy Isolation Roles and Responsibilities Supervisor • Provide fit-for-purpose lock devices • Provide training and competency assessments • Provide a system for the management of isolations and de-isolations • Verify that controls are in place Individual • Identify all hazards and controls • Identify affected personnel / groups and communicate hazards • Use appropriate isolation points • Ensure controls are in place Slide 14
  159. 159. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 3 – Working at Height Application Applies to work conducted at 2 metres (or 6 feet) or higher above a working surface, or where a fall could result in a significant injury. Note: Risk of significant injuries may occur from heights less than 2 meters (or 6 feet), as such, appropriate controls and mitigation measures must be in place to manage such risks. Requirements Hazards • Consider an alternative approach other than working at height • Fall from height • Man overboard • Any erected fixed platforms or scaffold structures must be inspected and approved by a competent person prior to use • Dropped object • A task risk assessment must be conducted • Work must be conducted using a personal fall arrest system, consisting of a full body harness, shock absorber and lanyard • Individuals must remain attached to a suitable anchor point at all times. • Fall arrest equipment must be visually inspected prior to every use • Fall arrest equipment must be maintained and fit-for-purpose • Work must not be conducted alone • Areas below must be cordoned off below and tools always secured at height • Rescue plans must be developed and in place ! Slide 15 • All personnel involved in working at height activities must be suitably trained and competent
  160. 160. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 3 – Working at Height Roles and Responsibilities Supervisor • Provide fit-for-purpose fall arrest equipment • Provide training and competency assessments • Provide system to manage the periodic maintenance of equipment • Verify that controls are in place Individual • • • • • Visually inspect equipment and report defects Identify all hazards and controls Identify work interfaces Communicate hazards Always secure tools at height and remove from work area • Ensure controls are in place Slide 16
  161. 161. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 8 – Management of Change Application Applies to the identification, evaluation, and approval of change that ensures risks associated with a specific change are managed prior to the commencement and/or continuation of activities. Requirements Hazards • A management of change process must in place, and must ensure that: • Inappropriate change, increasing risk to operations − − − − Hazards associated with the change are identified Controls are in place Procedures, plans and specifications are appropriately revised Managers approve • Ineffective implementation of change • An approval framework commensurate with the risk must be in place • Poor communication of change • Controls must be verified as being in place prior to the continuation and/or commencement of operations. ! Slide 17
  162. 162. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 8 – Management of Change Roles and Responsibilities Supervisor • Provide a process for the management of change • Approve execution of change • Verify that controls are in place prior to the continuation and/or commencement of activities Individual • Perform change risk assessment • Update relevant procedures, plans and specifications, as appropriate • Ensure all controls are in place Slide 18
  163. 163. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 9 – Driving Safety Application Applies to all the control of people and equipment transport by vehicles used to support all parts of Tullow operations. Requirements Hazards • Vehicles must be fit for purpose, inspected and confirmed to be in safe working condition • Collision with fixed structure or other vehicle • Daily and pre-use inspections must be conducted on all vehicles • Individual struck by vehicle or transported load • Vehicles must have driver’s airbags, and where manufacturer fitted, passenger airbags fitted • Vehicle roll-over • Individuals must establish visual contact or communication with vehicle operator to ensure safe approach • All occupants must wear three point seat belts • Vehicle safety devices (warning lights, reverse alarms, speedometers) must be operational • Loads must be secured and must not exceed vehicle load specifications • Number of passengers must not exceed the manufacturer’s maximum specification ! Slide 19 • Drivers must: − Be trained, certified and medically fit to operate the class of vehicle − Obey speed limits and applicable site and road rules − Adjust their speed and journey plan based prevailing weather conditions − Not be under the influence of alcohol, drugs or suffer from fatigue − Not use hand-held cell phones or radios while driving − Not drive at night outside city limits
  164. 164. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 9 – Driving Safety Roles and Responsibilities Supervisor • Provide fit-for-purpose vehicles • Provide training and medical assessments • Provide system for to manage the periodic maintenance of vehicles • Verify that controls are in place Individual • Visually inspect vehicles and report defects • Ensure training, competency and licensing requirements are satisfied • Ensure all passengers comply with relevant controls Slide 20
  165. 165. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 10 – Hazardous Materials Application Applies to all materials that when released into the environment or comes in contact with an individual could cause illness, injury, or death to people or impact on the environment if improperly treated, stored, transported or discarded. Requirements Hazards • Ignition – fire / explosion • Corrosion – degradation of equipment • Toxic – inhalation, contact with skin • Reactive – release of hazardous materials ! Slide 21 • Consider an alternative approach other than using hazardous materials • A register of all hazardous materials on the site/facility must be maintained • Work involving the use of hazardous materials must be conducted under a written permit and task risk assessment • Up-to-date MSDS must be readily available and used • Appropriate PPE must be readily available and worn • First aid equipment must be fit-for-purpose and operational • Hazardous material storage and transport vessels must be adequately labelled • Hazardous materials must be segregated from incompatible materials and hazardous areas
  166. 166. Tullow Safety Rules RULE 10 – Hazardous Materials Roles and Responsibilities Supervisor • Provide a system for managing hazardous materials on a site/facility • Provide appropriate PPE and first aid equipment • Verify the use of up-to-date MSDS • Verify controls are in place Individual • Review and use MSDS • Ensure written permit and task risk assessment identify all hazards and controls • Ensure controls are in place Slide 22
  167. 167. Tullow Safety Rules Tullow’s Policy on Offshore Travel, Training & Medical TGL has a strict Policy on anyone travelling offshore. • MUST have completed Basic Offshore Survival Induction and Emergency Training (BOSIET) with a valid, in date, BOSIET Certificate. • MUST have completed a UKOOA standard OFFSHORE medical and have a valid, in date, UKOOA Medical Certificate that confirms your fitness for working offshore. Slide 23
  168. 168. Tullow Safety Rules BOSIET Training SMTC Training Centre which is part of the Regional Maritime University (RMU) inTema (the only OPITO Approved Training School in Ghana for BOSIET training) The training is a three day course and includes the following elements:• Sea Survival (Helicopter Ditching) • Simulated Helicopter Underwater Escape Training (HUET) • Basic Fire Fighting • Elements of First Aid training The BOSIET Training Certificate is valid for FOUR years and is accepted for any offshore working worldwide. BOSIET Certificate must be submitted to Tullow at the Helicopter Base in Takoradi. Slide 24
  169. 169. Tullow Safety Rules BOSIET Training – this could be you ☺ Slide 25
  170. 170. Tullow Safety Rules Fitness For Travel Offshore – UKOOA Offshore Medical Tullow accepts offshore medical certificates from the following Medical Examiners in Ghana. • West African Rescue Association (WARA), Accra/Takoradi • International SOS, Accra/Takoradi • The Cocoa Clinic, Accra • Sycamore Medical Centre, Takoradi • Port Medical Centre, Tema The Certificate is valid for TWO years and is accepted for working offshore worldwide. A copy of this certificate MUST be submitted to Tullow before travelling offshore. Slide 26
  171. 171. Tullow Safety Rules Thank you! Tullow Ghana Limited NO. 71 GEORGE BUSH HIGHWAY, NORTH DZOWULU Tel:+233 (0) 302 215400 / 742200 Fax: +233 (0) 302 766370
  172. 172. WASHEQ Conference: Striving for HSE Excellence August 2012 Iykay Onyemaobi Health Safety & Environment (HSE) Regulatory Model Lessons from UK Regulations and Recommendations
  173. 173. Presentation Outline • Introduction • Overview • History of UK Health & Safety Legislation • EU Influence on UK Health & Safety • Components of UK H & S Legislation • E.g of a UK Sector H & S Legislation • E.g of Key Health & Safety Regulations • UK H & S Enforcement Model • Challenges of UK H & Safety Regulatory Framework • H&S Legislation in West Africa • Recommendations • Conclusion
  174. 174. Introduction Why Manage Health & Safety? • Costs (Financial Loss) • To Avoid Prosecution • Humanitarian and Moral reasons
  175. 175. Introduction Why is Health & Safety legislation important? • Major accidents still happen • To set the necessary framework • Ensure sensible health and safety practices
  176. 176. Overview 1 The legal status sets the framework for health and safety legislation 6 Responsibility for health and safety lies with those who own, manage and work within the environment 5 The standard of health and safety regulations in UK are achieved due to flexible regulatory system UK health and safety regulations dates back over 150 years 2 Health and Safety enforcement is spear headed by the Health and Safety Executives (HSE) 3 HSE ‘s job is to prevent 4 people being killed, injured In order to enforce the law, or made ill by work health and safety inspectors have important statutory powers
  177. 177. History of UK Health & Safety 1802 First Legislation 1833 First Factories Act 1843 First Mines Legislation 1863 First Railways Legislation 1901, 1937,1961 New Factories Acts 1952 First Agricultural legislation 1959 Nuclear installations covered by H&S legislation 1971 First offshore plant covered by H & S legislation 1974 Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 1975 Health and Safety Executives (HSE) created 1980s EU Directives implemented as UK legislation
  178. 178. EU Influence on UK H&S legislation The main categories of European law that have binding influence on UK Health and Safety Legislation are: • EU Regulations – direct application /binding on member states eg REACH is an EU regulations • EU Directives – indicate the results to be achieved, but implementation leads to national legislation eg dangerous substance and dangerous preparations directives led to CHIP, COSHH in UK
  179. 179. Components of UK H&S legislation Acts / Statutes • They are written law; passed into law by Parliament; thus are legal document • It is the primary legislation • Breach leads to court/fine/imprisonment Regulations / Statutory Instrument • They are written by HSE • They are passed into law by Parliament; thus are legal documents • They are secondary legislation permitted by an ‘enabling’ act • Breach leads to court/fine/imprisonment Approved Codes of Practice (ACOPs) • They are Quasi-legal documents • They have no legal standing , but may be taken into account in the court of law • They explain the regulations in greater detail Guidance • They are specific to a particular health and safety problem • They help people achieve compliance with legal requirements • They give technical advice
  180. 180. Components of UK H&S legislation Approved Codes of Practice (ACOPs) Statutory Instruments (Regulations) Number of ACOPs- ~52 Number of Regulations- ~150 Key ACOPs 1. COSHH Approved Code of Practice 2.MHSWR Approved Code of Practice 3. Safe Use of Equipment ACOP 4. Safety in installation and use of gas systems ACOP Key Regulations 1. Management of H & S at Work Regs 2. Control of Noise at Work Regs 3. Manual Handling Operations Regs 4. Provision & Use of Work Equipment Regs ACTS Guidance Number of Guidance- ~65 Key Guidance 1. A guide to RIDDOR 2. A short guide to PPE at Work Regs 3. Memorandum of guidance on Electricity At work regs 4. Workplace H, S & W: a short guide for managers Health and Safety at work Act 1974 EU Regulations Number of EU Regulations- ~4 Key Regulations 1. EEC Council Regulations relating to Safety & Health at work 2. EEC Council Regulations – REACH 9
  181. 181. EU / UK H & S Regulatory Framework Health & Safety at Work Act SUPPORTING LEGISLATION - PUWER, LOLER, PSR, etc APPROVED CODES OF PRACTICE Guidance Notes, API, NFPA, BS, EN, EU Direc irectives PFEER General Regs Major Hazard Regs Health Regs Construction Regs Workplace Regs EU Regulations
  182. 182. Example of a UK Sector H & S Legislation UK Offshore Safety Legislations
  183. 183. E.G of Key Health & Safety Regulations The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 Employers’ Duty: General duties on Employers to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety of their employees, and others who might be affected by their undertaking. Employees’ Duty: It is also the general duty of employees to take reasonable care for the health & safety of himself and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work.
  184. 184. E.G of Key Health & Safety Regulations Management of Health & Safety at Work 1999 (MHSW) Employers responsible for: • Risk assessment of the risk to the health & safety of employees and others who might affected by his/her work. • Preventive and protective measures on H&S of employees. (E.g. health surveillance, information for employee, training, contacts with external emergency services.) Employees responsible for: • Complying with the employer procedures and trainings requirements. Special requirement on the employees below: New/expected mothers: A complete risk assessment is needed. If necessary, alter the work hour to reduce any risks. Young person: They should be protected at work due to their lack of experience and awareness. No young person should be employed if the work might impose high risk to his H&S.
  185. 185. Health & Safety Executive (HSE) 1974 1975 Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 Health and Safety Executives (HSE) created HSE was created as part of the recommendation for all government safety regulators to be brought under one umbrella with a common statute / act ie HSW Act 1974 Role of HSE is prevent people from being killed, injured or made ill at work. To achieve this, HSE inspectors.... • • • • • Inform / Advice Inspect Enforce Investigate, and Prosecute
  186. 186. UK H & S Enforcement Model • Enforcement management model (EMM) provides the framework which helps inspectors make enforcement decisions • Provides a common language to discuss enforcement • provides an auditable trail for enforcement decisions •Protects the Inspector
  187. 187. Challenges to UK H&S Regulatory Framework Societal: EU Influence Organisation •EU requirements due to treaty •EU legislations duplicate HSWA • EU doe not like ACOP concept • Trade v social Directives • EU does not like ‘reasonably practicality’ • Too many regulations • Aging population • Skills gap • Compensation driven society • Insurance overkill approach • Massive cost to organisations • Climate of fear approach • Legislation & new technology • Skills gap • Cooperate memory
  188. 188. H & S Legislation in West Africa • Benin • Burkina Faso • Cape Verde • Cote d'Ivoire • Gambia • Ghana • Guinea • Guinea-Bissau • Liberia • Mali • Mauritania • Niger ANY ? • Nigeria • Senegal • Sierra Leone • Togo
  189. 189. Recommendations • • • • • • • • • Better and smarter regulations Necessary legal framework Independence from political interference Work in partnership – need to Fair system of compensation Targeted intervention approach Look out for each other culture Competency- knowledge/capacity building is key Lessons learnt
  190. 190. Conclusion Sensible health and safety legislation is a cornerstone of a civilised society
  192. 192. STRESS MANAGEMENT We will discuss two important aspects: Understanding Stress Practical Guidelines to Stress Management
  193. 193. Stress The No.1 disease of the modern age All pervasive The Hidden Enemy Uniquely different from other diseases Underlying factor for a variety of physical & mental illnesses
  194. 194. What is STRESS ? The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure or other types of demand placed on them - HSE
  195. 195. It is a state of mind which distorts comfortable way of living
  196. 196. A state of DIS - EASE
  197. 197. Distress due to any kind of burden, pressure or hardship
  198. 198. Any condition that gives rise to worry, tension & frustration
  199. 199. How does STRESS arise? Work Stressors People Stressors Mind Stressors         Body Stressors    Always too much work; never able to relax Efforts often seem for nothing – Don’t get satisfying results Tension with family, friends or romantic partner Incompatibility with colleague’s habits, schedule, lifestyle Interpersonal conflict; trouble expressing needs or standing up for rights Worry about what people think? More time spent thinking about what did go wrong than where you can go from here Motivation problems, difficulty getting started Insufficient sleep Inadequate nutrition, missed meals, reliance on junk food Aversive environment
  200. 200. STRESS ARISES… from a transaction between an individual and the environment when the individual perceives the stimuli as : Damaging Threatening Challenging
  201. 201. Effects of Stress Behavioral Physiological Emotional Cognitive • Over-eating • Excess alcohol • etc. • Rapid heartbeat • High BP • Anxiety • Depression • Instability • Decreased concentration • Obesity • Alcoholism etc. • Headache • Heart Disease • Hyper tension • Asthma • Chronic anxiety • Depression • Phobia • Temper tantrum • Amnesia • Sleep disorders Decreased Productivity, Decreased enjoyment, Instability of Mind
  202. 202. Human Function Curve E = Exhaustion I = Ill Health B = Breakdown E Performance I Arousal B
  203. 203. Stress arises when: Demands Resources Demands > Resources
  205. 205. Why do we need to tackle stress? When stress goes The productivity will go AND The sickness/absence will go
  206. 206. Different people resort to different ways to tackle stress Drinking Tranquilizers & Other drugs Smoking Gambling
  207. 207. Do they really help ? No No No!!!!!!!!!
  208. 208. TACKLING STRESS Some practical guidelines
  209. 209. Managing Stress Learn to say no!! Don’t work too long hours Plan regular breaks Express your feelings Make time for social activities Separate work from home Don’t become addicted Appreciate your colleagues Seek support Exercise regularly Don't be a perfectionist Don’t do all things by yourself
  210. 210. ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH Establish a strategy Managing Occupational STRESS Redesign the organization’s structure Reshape the organization’s culture
  211. 211. THANK YOU