History of Process Safety in AIChE


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History of Process Safety in AIChE

  1. 1. History of Process Safety and Loss Prevention in the American Institute of Chemical Engineers D. C. Hendershot (speaker) T. A. Ventrone, R. F. Schwab, R. W. Ormsby, J. A. Davenport, W. J. Bradford American Chemical Society National Meeting August 28 – September 1, 2005 Washington, DC Chemical Safety Past and Future, 1900 to 2015 CHAS 0011
  2. 2. Safety and engineering ν A long history ν Safety has always been an integral part of all engineering, including chemical engineering ν Increasing societal expectations and higher standards
  3. 3. An early example “... an alteration which I think will considerably reduce the quantity of machinery as well as the liability to mismanagement … in their present complicated state they cannot be managed by ‘fools’, therefore they must undergo some alteration or amendment.” - 1828, Robert Stevenson pioneering railway engineer, discussing modifications in the design of the newly developed steam locomotive
  4. 4. What is “Process Safety” ν Process safety considers those aspects of safety related to the chemical and physical processing of materials – generally fire, explosion, reactivity, and toxicity hazards. ν The safety problems in the pictures are important, but they are not really “process safety” problems
  5. 5. Some chemical engineering history ν 1635 – John Winthrop, Jr. opens the first chemical plant what would become the United States, in Boston to manufacture saltpeter ν 1802 - E.I. du Pont bought a site on the Brandywine River in Delaware for a powder mill for $6,740 – Inherent safety features – Safety rules in writing and widely circulated by 1811
  6. 6. Transcontinental Railroad – late 1860s ν Central Pacific Railroad – Sierra Nevada mountain cuts and tunnels through hard granite required high power explosives such as nitroglycerine, traditional black powder was inadequate ν Several incidents in storage and transportation ν In-situ manufacture of nitroglycerine at the construction site by an English chemist, James Howden – Minimize the quantity of hazardous material to what was immediately needed – Substitute “in-situ” production for transport
  7. 7. A better solution ν 1867 - Alfred Nobel discovers that the stability of nitroglycerine is greatly enhanced by absorbing it on an inert carrier (dynamite)
  8. 8. Chemical engineering history ν Claimants to being “the first chemical engineer” – George E. Davis, Manchester, England – Albin Haller, Nancy, France – Lewis Mills Norton, MIT, USA – Fritz Haber, Germany
  9. 9. The first chemical engineering university programs ν Davis, Manchester, England, 1887 – first formal class lectures (series of 12) ν Norton, MIT, 1888 – “Course X” – first 4 year degree program ν University of Pennsylvania – 1892 ν Tulane University – 1894 ν My alma mater, Lehigh University, began granting chemical engineering degrees in 1902
  10. 10. American Institute of Chemical Engineers ν Founded in June 1908 in Philadelphia ν ACS was ~30 years old and had ~ 5000 members ν ACS formed Division of Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering ν Initial rivalry, evolved into cooperation and recognition of synergism ν Safety recognized as critical, but no separate organization within AIChE initially
  11. 11. Safety in Air, Ammonia and Related Facilities ν Series of incidents and problems in ammonia plants and low temperature air separation plants in early 1950s ν Chemical Engineering Progress article in November 1956 on “Safe Design and Operation of Low Temperature Air Separation Plants” invited interested people to discuss subject at December AIChE meeting in Boston ν Over 100 people turned up, had to move to a bigger room
  12. 12. Safety in Ammonia and Related Facilities ν Agreed to organize symposium for September 1957 AIChE Meeting in Baltimore – Norton Walton of Atlantic Refining was a key organizer ν The 50th Safety in Ammonia Plants and Related Facilities Symposium will be held September 25-29, 2005 in Toronto
  13. 13. Loss Prevention Symposium ν In early 1960s, a series of large fires and explosions occurred in oil and petrochemical plants ν Symposium on Loss Prevention in the Chemical Industry organized by Russell Miller (Monsanto) and William Doyle (Factory Insurance Association) ν AIChE National Meeting, Houston, 1967
  14. 14. The first LPS paper - 1967 Case Study of Incident Involving Acetylenic Alcohol Fred Lorentz Hoffman-Laroche
  15. 15. The response “The first meeting was held at the old convention center in Houston…the separating walls for the meeting rooms seemed to be paper thin. The acoustics were not too good and the air conditioning miserable. That could have killed the whole idea right then, but the agenda was filled with great topics by terrific speakers. The audience must have been mesmerized, probably with the thought that we have to continue these meetings. Here we are some 38 years later…” Ted Ventrone Founding editor of Process Safety Progress Attendee at the first Loss Prevention Symposium
  16. 16. Loss Prevention Symposium ν The 40th Annual Loss Prevention Symposium will be held as a part of the 2nd Annual World Congress on Process Safety in April 2006 in Orlando
  17. 17. AIChE Safety and Health Division ν Formed in 1979 ν Assumed responsibility for programming in process safety areas (ammonia safety and loss prevention) ν Currently ~ 1000 members out of an AIChE membership of about 35,000 ν Large fraction of membership have a primary job function in research, process development and design, and plant operations
  18. 18. Sharing information ν For many years, LPS Proceedings published in a high quality, glossy booklet format ν In early 1980s, economic constraints forced AIChE to stop publication of full proceedings of Loss Prevention Symposia ν In 1982, AIChE and the Safety and Health Division sponsored publication of the journal Plant/Operations Progress (subsequently changed to Process Safety Progress) to publish the best of the Loss Prevention papers, and papers from other sources
  19. 19. Process Safety Progress ν Now published by Wiley for AIChE and the Safety and Health Division ν Entire contents for Volumes 1-24 are available on line from the Wiley web site
  20. 20. AIChE Safety and Health Division ν Publishing economics permitted resumption of Loss Prevention Proceedings in 1990s ν Thanks to John Davenport of Industrial Risk Insurers, ALL papers presented at all Loss Prevention Symposia, including the years when no formal proceedings book was published, were preserved ν ~ 1998 the Division approved a project to digitize all Loss Prevention Symposium papers
  21. 21. LPS/CCPS CD ν All papers presented at Loss Prevention Symposium and CCPS Conferences through 2003 ν Currently being updated to include 2004-2005 ν Full text searchable
  22. 22. Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) ν Formed as an AIChE industry alliance in early 1976 by 29 companies to develop methods for design of emergency relief systems for runaway reactions ν Initial project complete in 1985, developed mathematical modeling tools and analytical equipment (Vent Sizing Package [VSP] calorimeter) ν Continues to promote technology development and sharing as DIERS Users Group ν Periodic technical meetings and symposia – AIChE National Meeting, October 30 – November 4, 2005 in Cincinnati
  23. 23. Center for Chemical Process Safety ν Bhopal – December 1984 ν In response, AIChE formed CCPS as an industry alliance to promote process safety ν Technical focus – not intended to promote policies or regulations ν Initially, 13 corporate sponsors
  24. 24. The first CCPS product ν Sold over 2000 copies in first year (1985) ν Second edition with significantly expanded content in 1992, continues to be a primary reference ν Proposal for 3rd edition in next couple of years
  25. 25. CCPS Today ν Over 80 sponsors ν Over 70 publications and software products related to process safety – For example, process safety management, risk assessment, vapor cloud dispersion, reactivity hazards, incident investigation, batch processing, inherently safer design, etc. – Available on line by subscription through Knovel Corp. ν Sponsors SACHE (Safety and Chemical Engineering Education) to promote process safety content in chemical engineering university curricula ν 20 annual international conferences – all content available on Loss Prevention/CCPS Conference CD
  26. 26. CCPS Collaborative Activities ν Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA) – developed guidelines and made available on line at no charge, close collaboration with DHS, ACC, SOCMA, API, ASME, others. ν Reactive Chemistry hazards – Developed “Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards” available for on line viewing with sponsorship by OSHA, EPA, SOCMA, ACC, and Knovel Corporation ν Process Safety Beacon – monthly safety messages aimed at operating personnel, distributed electronically free of charge ν Safety Alerts – available for free download from CCPS web site ν Reactivity Management Roundtable – collaboration with EPA and OSHA to share information on reactive chemistry hazard management
  27. 27. Process Plant Safety Symposium ν First held in 1992 as a local event by the South Texas Section of AIChE in Houston ν Participation from all over the US, and even overseas ν Focus more on practical, “hands on” safety information for chemists and engineers involved in day to day operation of plants ν Enthusiastic response, sessions had to be repeated because rooms filled to capacity
  28. 28. Process Plant Safety Symposium ν Continued to be held every two years, at first by South Texas Section, subsequently sponsored by AIChE Safety and Health Division ν Now part of Global Congress on Process Safety, along with Loss Prevention Symposium and CCPS Annual Conference
  29. 29. Global Congress on Process Safety ν First held in April 2005 in Atlanta at AIChE Spring National Meeting – Loss Prevention Symposium – CCPS Annual Conference – Process Plant Safety Symposium ν Nearly 100 technical papers covering all aspects of process safety over a three day period, mostly in 3 parallel sessions on specific topics
  30. 30. Future plans ν 2nd Global Congress in April 2006 in Orlando, FL ν As a result of attendee feedback, Process Plant Safety Symposium frequency increased to annual from every two years
  31. 31. What next – future challenges ν Globalization of the chemical industry – Establishing safety culture in developing countries ν Continued economic pressures – need to do more with less resources ν Maintaining a good process safety culture and management system at a time of frequent mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and other business environment changes ν Chemical process safety in industries other than the traditional Chemical Process Industry (biotechnology, electronics, food, pharmaceuticals, etc.)
  32. 32. What next – future challenges ν Complacency – Do some people think that process safety is a problem which has been solved? – Will good experience threaten the programs that are responsible for that good experience? ν Education and awareness in broad industry community – Walt Howard (Monsanto) 1984 paper in Plant/Operations Progress “We Ain’t Farmin’ As Good As We Know How” – Examples – reactivity hazards, dust explosions
  33. 33. New problems, or modern versions of the same old problems?