What is Accident?• Unwanted and undesirable• Unexpected• Involves a deviation from what was intended, i.e. a planned safe operation• Involves injury to people and/or damage to plant and equipment or materials, including the finished product - or at least the potential for injury/damage (an event labeled a ‘near miss accident’)• Involves a chain of events, rather than one isolated event
Why Managing Safety and Health?• Moral and Ethical Issues -Respect Human Resources - morale, commitment, image -Respect their family – pride, - Ethical Issues AS A PROFESSIONAL• Legal Issues -Claims for compensation -Disruption during the legal process• Financial Issues - is not a JUST legal, moral and ethicalobligation; it also makes good business sense!!!!!. -Increase of Insurance Premium -Direct Lost -Indirect Lost
ETHICAL ISSUES REGISTRATION OF ENGINEERS ACT 1967 (Revised – 2002) Act 138An Act to provide for the registration of Engineers and for purposes connected therewith.
ETHICAL ISSUES Functions of the Board - on Ethics -For the purposes of this Act there is hereby established a board tobe called "Board of Engineers", Malaysia (BEM). The functions of the Board shall be among others:– to hear and determine disputes relating to professionalconduct or ethics of registered Engineers;– to determine and regulate the conduct and ethics of theengineering profession;
ETHICAL ISSUESWhy do Engineers need to know about Ethics?• With knowledge & skills, engineers have thecapability to do services to the public.• With this capability, engineers have a tremendousresponsibility to clients, individuals and society.• Ethics help engineers to guide their decisions toensure they act responsibly.
ETHICAL ISSUESBasic Ethical Concepts• Ethical considerations are an integral part of makingengineering decisions.• The professional obligations of engineers go beyondfulfilling a contract with a client or customer.• Codes of ethics can provide guidance in the decision-making process.
ETHICAL ISSUESBasic Ethical Concepts•Ethical obligations do not stop at any country’s border; theyare global.•Wherever engineers practice, they should hold paramount thehealth, safety, and welfare of the public.•How an engineer fulfils those obligations may depend on thesocial and economic context of engineering practice.
ETHICAL ISSUESCODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCTREGISTRATION OF ENGINEERS REGULATIONS 1990• Conduct of Registered Engineer. – 23. Every registered Engineer shall at all times uphold the dignity, high standing and reputation of his profession.• Responsibility to employer, clients or profession. – 24. A registered Engineer in his responsibility to his employer, client or the profession shall have full regard to the public interest.• Discharge of duties. – 25. (1) A registered Engineer shall discharge his duties to his employer or client as the case may be with complete fidelity.
ETHICAL ISSUESCODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCTREGISTRATION OF ENGINEERS REGULATIONS 1990• Reputation etc. of a Registered Engineer not to beinjured. – 26. A registered Engineer shall not maliciously injure orattempt to maliciously injure whether directly or indirectly, theprofessional reputation, prospects or business of anotherregistered Engineer.
ETHICAL ISSUESBOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSBIA (BEM)GUIDELINES FOR CODE OF PROFESSIONALCONDUCTFive (5) Main SECTIONS for CODE of ETHICS(27 Sub-Sections)1/5. A Registered Engineer shall at all timeshold paramount the safety, health and welfare ofthe public. - 5 SUB-SECTIONS
ETHICAL ISSUESBOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSBIA (BEM)GUIDELINES FOR CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCTFive (5) Main SECTIONS for CODE of ETHICS(27 Sub-Sections)2/5. A Registered Engineer shall undertake assignments only if he isqualified by education & experience in the specific technical fieldsin which he is involved. 2 SUB-SECTIONS3/5. A Registered Engineer shall issue public statements only in anobjective and truthful manner. 3 SUB-SECTIONS
ETHICAL ISSUESBOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSBIA (BEM)GUIDELINES FOR CODE OF PROFESSIONALCONDUCTFive (5) Main SECTIONS for CODE of ETHICS(27 Sub-Sections)4/5. A Registered Engineer shall act for each employeror clients as faithful agent or trustee. 7 SUB-SECTIONS
ETHICAL ISSUESBOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSBIA (BEM)GUIDELINES FOR CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCTFive (5) Main SECTIONS for CODE of ETHICS(27 Sub-Sections)5/5. A Registered Engineer shall conduct himselfhonourably, responsibly, ethically and lawfully so as to enhancethe honour, reputation and usefulness of the profession. 10 SUB-SECTIONS
HazardHAZARD –condition with the potential of causing: • Injury • Diseases • Damage to equipment or structures • Loss of material or lessening of the ability to perform a prescribed function • Damage to the environment • Or a combination of the above - It is something that can cause harm if not controlled - the outcome is the harm that results from an uncontrolled hazard.
Workers don’t create hazards.Hazards are often built into workplace. Work processes can be designed to prevent accidents and illnesses. Existing hazards should be removed from the workplace.
• Breakdown of Accident Costs for the Industry• The costs can be categorized into - Direct cost - Indirect cost
Direct costs•payment for work not performed;•medical and compensation payments;•repair or replacement of damagedmachinery and equipment;•reduction or a temporary halt inproduction;•increased training expenses andadministration costs;•possible reduction in the quality of work;negative effect on morale in other workers.
Indirect costsThe costs of an accident or illness can be4 to 10 times greater than the direct costs,or even more!An occupational illness or accident canhave so many indirect costs to workersthat it is often difficult to measure them.One of the most obvious indirect costs isthe human suffering caused to workersfamilies, which cannot be compensatedwith money.
Indirect costs•the injured/ill worker has to be replaced;•a new worker has to be trained and given time toadjust;•it takes time before the new worker is producing atthe rate of the original worker;•time must be devoted to obligatory investigations,to the writing of reports and filling out of forms;•accidents often arouse the concern of fellowworkers and influence labor relations in a negativeway;•poor health and safety conditions in the workplacecan also result in poor public relations.
RiskRisk - a combination of the probability that a particularoutcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved.(Risiko - Kombinasi kemungkinan berlakunya kejadianberbahaya/kemalangan dan kesan akibatnya)- Chance or probability of danger, loss or injury occuring- A measure of economic loss or human injury in terms of both the accident likelihood and magnitude (consequence) of loss or injury- It is a combination of incident, probability and consequences.Danger – expresses the relative exposure to hazard. A hazard may presence, but there may be little danger because of the precaution taken.
Risk management involves the identification,assessment, and prioritization of risksfollowed by coordinated and economicalapplication of resources to minimize, monitor,and control the probability and/or impact ofunfortunate events or to maximize the realizationof opportunities. • Eliminating the hazard, if possible -Controlling the risk • Minimizing, if possible • Controlling the hazardChecking and Reviewing the risk control
Identifying types of HAZARDS and Various Route of Entry
Issues in Managing of Health at Workplace• Difficult to develop strategy due to - Long latency period - Individual susceptibility factor• The difficulties are experienced by - Designers - difficult in taking account of health risks in their specifications - Managers - determining the level of health protection that personnel require - Operatives - being aware of health risks and the systems, whether control or prevention, that are put in place to protect them.
Types of HAZARDS - categoriesi. Physical Hazardsii. Chemical Hazardsiii. Biological Hazardsiv. Electrical Hazardsv. Radiation Hazardsvi. Psychological Hazards
Manual Handling • The lifting and carrying of loads is a big problem in every industry • Manual handling injuries contributed about 25% of all work-related injuriesPHYSICAL HAZARDS
How to reduce the effects? • Bagged materials must be less than 25 kg. • Apart of the weight factor, other factors also affect this manual handling related accident - The individual • Age • Gender • Training • Experience • Previous Injury - The overall operationPHYSICAL HAZARDS
Work Related Upper Limb Disorder• WRULD is caused by repetitive movements Diseases associated - Neck disorder - Shoulder disorder - Elbow disorder - Writs and Hand Lesions (localized area of diseased or injured tissue) - Thoracic Outlet SyndromePHYSICAL HAZARDS
Work Related Upper Limb Disorder• Factors associated with the development of WRULD - Resisting Excessive Force - Frequency and Duration of Movement • Jobs are dictated by machine rather than personnel - Posture - ERGONOMIC - Work Organization • Length of work period without rest breaks, lack of training and inadequate supervision - Psychosomatic Factors (illness due to the interaction of the mind and the body) • Poor awareness by managers and employees • Lack of management to detect problems • Poor ergonomic job design • Lack of training to control WRULDPHYSICAL HAZARDS
Noise • It can cause hearing loss • Factors influencing hearing loss - Intensity of the noise - Frequency - Length of exposure - Individual Tolerance. This factor is also affected by other factors such as • Age • Effect of DrugsPHYSICAL HAZARDS
Sound Level in dB (A) SourcesHarmfull 140 Jet Engine 130 Riveting HammerCritical 120 Propeller Aircraft 110 Rock Drill 100 Typical outdoor construction, plate fabrication noise 90 Heavy VehicleSafe 80 Pile drivers, power lawn mower, very busy traffic 70 Private car 60 Air compressor and concrete mixers 50 Conversation (at 1 m) 40 Average business office 30 Quite WhisperPHYSICAL HAZARDS
How to control noise hazard? • Review the design and change if possible • Change with other processes or equipment • PPE (Personel Protective Equipment): EarmuffPHYSICAL HAZARDS
Vibration • Result in tissue damage • Two kinds of vibration - Whole body vibration: vehicles -Segmental vibration: pneumatic handheld tools (white knuckles) • How to control this hazard? - Use of vibration isolator - Select equipment that produces less vibrationPHYSICAL HAZARDS
PHYSICAL HAZARDS - examples Electronics assembly worker – Eye problems from doing close work, especially in poor light Long periods with inadequate seating, can suffer from back and other musculoskeletal problems. Solder fumes or solder “flecks” in the eye when the excess solder is cut off with pliers.Source: International Labor Organization (ILO)
Types of Effect • Acute - A lot of exposure - The reaction happen in short period of time • Chronic - Repeated small exposure - Long period of timeCHEMICAL HAZARDS
Common Types of Toxic Effect • Irritations - Lung • By inhaling some chemicals, e.g. ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide - Skin: chemical, physical, mechanical and biological • Central Nervous System (CNS) Depression - Headache, Drowsiness, Unconsciousness - Organ affected: brain - Many solvents (toluene, xylene, ether, acetone) produce this effect if the vapor concentration is highCHEMICAL HAZARDS
Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont • Asphyxia - Interfere with the transfer of oxygen - Suffocated because the bloodstream cannot supply enough oxygen - When the oxygen level of 21% drop to 16% - Sources • Gas from sewerage • Argon, propane, methane • Carbon monoxide • Hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen cyanideCHEMICAL HAZARDS
Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont • Cancer - The effect is about 20-30 years - Sources • Benzene Leukemia • Chromium, Beryllium and Arsenic Trioxide Lung Cancer • Asbestos Larynx, Lung and Abdomen cancer • Vynil Chloride Liver Cancer • Coal Tar Pitch Skin Cancer • Benzidine Bladder CancerCHEMICAL HAZARDS
Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont • Pneumoconiosis -Dusts retained in the lung - Reduce the elasticity of the lung - Sources • Silica, beryllium, asbestos, iron oxide, tin • Reproductive Effect - Cause the ability to reproduce and fetal development • Mercury Low birth weight • PCBs Brown patches • Lead Miscarriage • X-Rays and Some Pesticides (e.g., DBPC) Decreased sperm cell and sterilityCHEMICAL HAZARDS
Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont • Systemic Poisons (effect whole body or at least a multiple of organs - Affect to more than one organ - Sources • Cadmium: - causes lung irritation, - impairs kidney normal function and - may cause sterility • Mercury: - Accumulation in the brain causes tremors and mood changes - Decreased kidney efficiency - Gum inflammation and excess salivaCHEMICAL HAZARDS
Factors Affecting Toxic Effect • Factors related to the agent - Chemical Composition - Physical properties - Solubility in body fluids • Factors related to the Exposure Situation - Dose: how much and how long? - Co-factors: Presence of other materials • Factors related to the individuals - Individual differences: genetic status and allergic status - Age - Presence of predisposing disease: • Angina (Heart Disease) cannot tolerate carbon monoxide • Emphysema (lung ailment)CHEMICAL HAZARDS
Construction Materials Causing Occupational Diseases Asbestos • It can cause lung cancer • The disease develops 20-40 years after exposure • Problems with asbestos in construction - Many construction contracts are being awarded without the contractors being informed of the presence of asbestos materialsCHEMICAL HAZARDS
CHEMICAL Hazard …..cont - IdentificationHazards related materials- Workplace Hazardous Material Information System (WHMIS) (Canada’s National Workplace Hazard Communication Std) The key elements of the system are cautionarylabelling of containers of WHMIS "controlledproducts", the provision of Material SafetyData Sheets (MSDSs) and worker educationand training programs
Hazard Identification chemical …..contHazards related materials • Hazardous material usually has WHMIS symbols link • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) link
Class A: Compressed Gas Class B: Flammable& Combustible WHMIS SymbolClass C: Oxidizing Material Class D: Poisonous and Infectious Material
Material Safety Data Sheets - MSDS A form with data regarding the detailed properties of a particular hazardous material An important component of product stewardship and workplace safety, it is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner
What is an MSDS?• A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides detailed information about a specific hazardous material. An MSDS contains the following information: - Identity (name of substance) - Physical Hazards (target organ) - Health Hazards - Routes of Body Entry - Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) - Carcinogenic Factors (cancer causing) - Safe-Handling Procedures
What is an MSDS?- Data of Sheet Preparation- Control Measures (personal protective equipment)- Emergency First Aid Procedures (emergency telephonenumber)- Contact Information (for the preparer of the sheet)- Special Instructions
Sample MSDS Page - Nitric Acid, 70%• This is a sample page from the MSDS for Nitric Acid, 70 percent. The product is made by the ABC Rubber Company, Science Products Division, P.O. Box M, Altonia, Illinois 40361. Effective date is 8- 21-85.
Sample MSDS Page - Nitric Acid, 70%Product identification, synonyms, other names for nitric acid are:aqua fortis, azotic acid, nitric acid 70 percent. Formula CASNumber 7697-37-2. Molecular weight 63.00. Hazardousingredients, not applicable. Chemical formula, HNO3.Precautionary measures, danger, strong oxidizer, contact with othermaterials may cause fire. Causes sever burns, may be fatal ifswallowed. Harmful if inhaled. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or onclothing. Avoid breathing mist, use only with adequate ventilation.Wash thoroughly after handling. Do not store near combustiblematerials. Store in a tightly closed container. Remove and washcontaminated clothing properly.
When Do You Use an MSDS? • You should use an MSDS whenever you need additional information about a hazardous material that is not included on the product label. • For example, you have spilled nitric acid on the floor, and you need to know how to clean it up safely. You need only refer to the "Safe-Handling Procedures" section of the nitric acid MSDS.
Safe-Handling Procedures Section - Nitric Acid, 70%Isolate or enclose the area of the leak or spill. Clean-up personnelshould wear protective clothing and respiratory equipment suitable fortoxic or corrosive fluids or vapors. For small spills:Flush with water, and neutralize with alkaline material (soda ash, lime,et cetera). Sewer with excess water.For larger spills and lot sizes:Neutralize with alkaline, pick up with absorbent material (sand, earth,vermiculite) and dispose in a RCRA approved waste facility or sewerthe neutralized slurry with excess water if local ordinances allow.Provide forced ventilation to dissipate fumes.Reportable Quantity (RQ) (CWA/CERCLA): 1000 poundsInsure compliance with local, state and federal regulations.
When Do You Use an MSDS?• Some chemicals, such as sodiumhydroxide, are very dangerous. If you have anaccident, you may not have time to look upthe information you need in an MSDS.• You should read the MSDSs for thehazardous materials present in your work areabefore you work with them.
Types of HAZARDS - categoriesi. Physical Hazardsii. Chemical Hazardsiii. Biological Hazards – living organism or once-living organism eg. Fungi, Bacteria, Virusesiv. Electrical Hazardsv. Radiation Hazardsvi. Psychological Hazards
Types of HAZARDS - categoriesiii. Biological Hazards a. Microorganism -Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses route –in contact with bacteria thro’ improper treated cooling towers b. Arthropods – mosquitoes, spiders route – bitten by infected mosquitoes c. Animals – crocodiles, snakes d. Plant allergens and toxins – pollen e. Protein allergens – food, urine, feces, hair route – rodent dropping/urine - route -> infection, needle stick injury, handling of waste
Types of HAZARDS - categoriesi. Physical Hazardsii. Chemical Hazardsiii. Biological Hazardsiv. Electrical Hazards eg current, voltage, sparks - route -> direct electrocution, contact with overhead or underground cablesv. Radiation Hazardsvi. Psychological Hazards
Ultraviolet• UV can damage eyes and skin - Skin cancer - Skin burn - Eye discomfort• Where is the exposure of this hazard? - Outdoor job - Welding - Work using high intensity lamp• How to reduce the hazard? - Sun block - UV Protection Sunglasses - Blue color costume
Occupational Stress • Three types of occupational stress - Physical - Mental - EmotionalPSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Causes of Occupational Stress • Uncertainty and lack of control (low job discretion) • Lack of support from others, including co-workers • Conflicts • High demands of working environment, e.g. long hours, high responsibility, commitment • Very low demands: boredom, lack of meaning in work • Work station: noise, poor lighting, lack of space, extreme temperatures, poor ergonomics • Chemical hazards, fumes, passive smokingPSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Causes of Occupational Stress …cont • Organizational culture • Repetitive Tasks • Low pay leading to overtime and piecework • ChangePSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
How do humans react? 3 stages • Alarm Stage -Immediate reaction - Fight or Flight? - Human body coordinates the readiness of action, influencing mood, causing heart palpitation, shallow fast breathing, muscle tension, dryness of throat, dizziness and light- headedness, numbness of the limbs, nausea, anxiety and sweatingPSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
How do humans react? • Resistance Stage Alarm stage cannot be maintained indefinitely At one point, resistance stage occurs in which humans develop survival strategies and a way of fighting the stress Typically, short-term relief is preferable • Exhaustion Stage -Stress response is healthy and a motivator - When expectations are not realistic, humans become sufferPSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
HAZARDS – can you identify them? Welder can be burnt from the sparks PHYSICAL the danger of the work process starting a fire. the intense light can cause permanent eye damage Heat fumes given off by the process which can damageSource: International Labor Organization (ILO) the lungs CHEMICAL