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Ppt on feed formulation


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Technical considerations in the preparation and formulation of farm-made fish foods.

Published in: Technology

Ppt on feed formulation

  1. 1. FEED FORMULATION Lito A. Apelo Fishermen’s Training Institute Khabura, Sultanate of Oman
  2. 2. Factors to Consider in Farming Fish Species  Healthy fry/fish seeds  Optimum stocking density  Proper pond preparation  Correct water management  Feeds and feeding system  Pest/predator control and proper fertilization  Proper stocking procedure
  3. 3. Food and Feeding Habits of Fish  Feeding habits of fishes differ from species to species  Fishes can be classified according to what they often eat  They are herbivores when they eat mostly plant sources nutrients  They are carnivores if they eat more animal than plant sources  They are omnivores if they eat both plant and animal sources  Those that eat detritus are called detritivores
  4. 4.  Most fishes are carnivores  Sea bass, shrimps and groupers are carnivores  Siganids(rabbitfish) are herbivores  Tilapia and milkfish are omnivores  Milkfish eat more during the day  Shrimps eat more during the night(Nocturnal)  Sea bass & milkfish gulp their food  Shrimps are nibblers  Thus the type of food, amount of food, frequency of feeding and time of feeding will depend on the specie being fed
  5. 5.  Shrimps generally eat more at night-more food should be offered in the late afternoon or evening than during the morning feeding  Finfishes eat more during the day as the sun rises-more food should be given early in the morning  Shrimps nibble their food slowly, therefore pellets have to be more water stable  Feeds should be water stable such that they do not disintegrate readily and pollute the water environment  Leaching of nutrients is minimized by having a water-stable pellet  Fishes not only use their eyes to find food, but have chemoreceptors to locate them. Therefore, feeds should also be attractive if they are to be consumed in the right time
  6. 6. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF FISHES  Protein and amino acids  Lipids and fatty acids  Carbohydrates  Vitamins  Minerals
  7. 7. Proteins and amino acids  Most important for growth  Helps maintain life  Gives heat and energy  Estimated protein requirement for finfishes range between 30% to 55%  Amino acids are known as the building blocks for protein  There are 18 amino acids that form protein, of which, 10 are considered indispensable or essential for fish growth(if 1 is not present, the formation of protein can be delayed or reduced resulting in a poor or less effective diet)
  8. 8. SOURCES OF PROTEIN  Can be found in animals and plants  Animal protein sources include fish meal, fish heads, shrimp head, squid meal, squid liver, meat & bone meal, mussel meat, chicken entrails, snails and earthworm meals.  Plan protein sources include yeast, defatted soybean meal, cottonseed meal, sunflower seed meal, peanut meal and cowpea meal
  9. 9. Lipids and fatty acids  Gives energy and essential fat acids needed for growth  Carriers of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K  Finfishes need between 5-10% lipids  Shrimps need around 0.5-1% cholesterol and 2-4% lecithin in their diets
  10. 10. SOURCES OF FATS  Cod liver oil and other fish liver oils  Pollack residue oil  Squid oil  Soybean oil  Corn oil  Sunflower seed oil  Palm oil
  11. 11. Carbohydrates  Like fats, carbohydrates are “sparer's of protein”-when there is a lack of these 2 nutrients, protein is used for energy instead of carbohydrates, for growth  Also acts as binders in the diet
  12. 12. SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATES  Corn flour  Potato flour  Sago palm starch  Wheat flour  Rice flour  Copra(coconut) meal  Rice bran  Corn meal  Bread flour  Algae and carrageenan are better used as binding agents rather than as primary source of energy
  13. 13. Vitamins  Required in small amounts  Are regulators of body processes  Needed for proper utilization of protein, carbohydrates and fats  Helps build resistance to infection
  14. 14. Types of Vitamins Water soluble vitamins  Ascorbic acid(Vitamin C)  Thiamin  Riboflavin  Pyridoxine  Pantothenic acid  Niacin  Biotin  Folic acid  Cyanocobalamin  Myo-inositol  Choline  Lipoic acid
  15. 15. Fat Soluble  Vitamins A, D, E and K  Generally, lack of these vitamins in a diet can cause poor appetite, slow growth and low survival
  16. 16.  Vitamin levels added to fish diets are higher than required because allowance should be made for leaching out in water, destruction during preparation and storage, possible presence of anti-nutritional factors in some feed ingredients and the fact that vitamin contents of feed stuffs are quite variable
  17. 17. Minerals  Needed for bone development, teeth, scales and exoskeleton  Necessary for proper acid-base balance in body fluids  In shrimps, a 1:1 ratio of calcium to phosphorous is needed to prevent “soft-shell” syndrome
  18. 18. Macronutrient minerals include:  Calcium  Phosphorous  Magnesium  Sodium  Potassium  Chloride
  19. 19. Trace minerals elements:  Iron  Copper  Manganese  Zinc  Iodine  Selenium  Cobalt  Chromium  Fish meal, whole grain cereals and meat meals are good sources of minerals. Iodine is obtained from seaweeds.
  20. 20. Complete Diet usually contains:  Protein source  Lipid source  Carbohydrates source  Vitamins  Minerals  Binder  Additives such as attractants, antioxidants, enzymes, hormones, fungicides, etc.
  21. 21. Most feed ingredients for fish are also used in poultry and livestock. Although there are many formulations available, there is no “Best” diet. The farmer can try as many formulations and compare their effectiveness under his own pond conditions. Feeding depends on the number of fish stocked. In the extensive culture method, fertilization for luxuriant growth of natural food may be sufficient, but as the stocking density increases, supplemental feeding might be needed.
  22. 22. It is wise to choose locally available feed ingredients, as long as they are available at all times and are cheaper to use than commercial feeds. Ideally, these feed ingredients should be analyzed for their chemical composition before they are to be included in the diet.