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Human nutrition

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Human nutrition

  1. 1. Permaculture & Human Nutrition
  2. 2. Fair Share What the World Eats – From ‘Hungry Planet’ Peter Menzel
  3. 3. Soil Health
  4. 4. Nutritional Content of Fruit and Vegetables <ul><li>Fibre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant starch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A (retinol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B-carotene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron & zinc (legumes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antioxidants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lycopenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins A, C, E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carotenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lutein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavonoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isoflavonoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthocyanins </li></ul></ul>Nutritional Content of Fruit and Vegetables
  6. 6. Nutrients Carbohydrate Vitamins Fat Minerals Protein Water
  7. 7. The Two Classes of Nutrients <ul><li>1. Energy Yielding: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Non-energy Yielding: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins, Minerals, Water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nutrient Depletion over Time Broccoli Source: www.choice.com.au
  9. 9. Dietary Reference Intakes Include the Following: <ul><li>1. E stimated A verage R equirements </li></ul><ul><li>2. R ecommended D ietary A llowances </li></ul><ul><li>3. A dequate I ntakes </li></ul><ul><li>4. Tolerable U pper L evel Intake Levels </li></ul>
  10. 10. Energy Recommendations <ul><li>Estimated Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate: 45% - 65% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat: 20% - 35% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein: 10% - 35% </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  11. 11. What is a Healthy Diet? Atkins Diet? Vegetarian/Vegan? Zone Diet? Macrobiotic? South Beach Diet? Juicing? Food Combining? Metabolic Typing? All Raw?
  12. 12. Or is it the US Government Official Diet. . . . . . designed to promote the products of commodity agriculture?
  13. 14. Traditional Diets?
  14. 15. Primitive Aborigine Women
  15. 16. Primitive South Pacific Boys
  16. 17. Great Variety in Traditional Diets Some had no plant foods Some had few animal foods Some had mostly cooked foods Some had large amounts of raw foods Some had milk products; some did not Some had grains; some did not Some had fruits; some did not What are the underlying characteristics of these healthy diets?
  17. 18. 1. No refined or denatured foods Refined and Denatured Food Components 1930's Refined Sugar White Flour Vegetable Oils Canned Foods Condensed Milk Refined and Denatured Food Components Today Refined Sugar High Fructose Corn Syrup White Flour Pasteurized Milk Skim and Low Fat Milk Hydrogenated Fats Refined Vegetable Oils Isolated Protein Powders Additives
  18. 19. FISH AND SHELLFISH : including organs, oil, bones, heads, etc. Weston Price found the best bone structure among those eating seafood BIRDS : Chicken, ducks, geese, etc., including the organs, fat and skin. RED MEAT : Beef, goat, sheep, game, etc., with ORGAN MEATS and FAT preferred. MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS EGGS REPTILES INSECTS 2. Most diets contained animal products
  19. 20. THESE NUTRIENTS ARE MOSTLY or ONLY IN ANIMAL PRODUCTS Vitamin A Vitamin D Cholesterol Vitamin B12 Very Long Chain, Superunsaturated fatty acids (AA, EPA and DHA) Key Animal Food Nutrients THESE NUTRIENTS ARE MORE EASILY ABSORBED FROM ANIMAL PRODUCTS Calcium B6 Magnesium Iron Zinc Copper
  20. 21. 3. Calcium, Minerals and Fat-Soluble Vitamins “ Primitive” Diets contain 4 times the calcium and other minerals , and 10 times the fat-soluble vitamins as the modern American diet.
  21. 22. Bricks and Mortar The body is like a house or temple, built of bricks and mortar Bricks = Minerals Mortar = Fat-Soluble Activators A and D
  22. 23. Some Sources of Vitamins A and D SEAFOODS Fish Eggs Fish Livers Fish Liver Oil Fish Heads Shell Fish Oily Fish Sea Mammals LAND ANIMALS GRASS-FED! Insects Butter and Cream Egg Yolks Liver, Organ Meats Animal Fat (Especially mono-gastric animals such as (birds, pig, bear, Guinea pig)
  23. 24. Food Sources of Vitamin K TESTED SOURCES Natto (fermented soy) Goose Liver Cheeses Egg Yolk Butter Chicken Liver Fatty Meats Sauerkraut OTHER PROBABLE SOURCES Goose, Duck and Chicken Fat Crustacean “Butter” (Hepatopancreas) Bone Marrow Other Organ Meats Fish Eggs Fermented Cod Liver Oil
  24. 25. Calcium PRIMITIVE DIETS: At least 1500 mg per day US GOV’T RECOMMENDATION: 800-1200 mg per day 1500 Mg Calcium is in: 5 Cups Whole Milk = 805 calories 7-8 Ounces Cheese = 900 calories 40 Carrots = 1680 calories 9 Cups Ice Cream = 2517 calories 32 Chocolate Cupcakes = 4117 calories 4.5 Cups Almonds = 4077 calories 78 Slices Whole Wheat Bread = 4305 calories
  25. 26. 4. All cultures cooked some or most of their food… but they always ate some of their foods raw .
  26. 27. 5. High Levels of Enzymes and Beneficial Bacteria
  27. 28. Types of Enzymes METABOLIC (1,000s discovered) Delta desaturase Superoxide dismutase Gluththione peroxidase Catalase Lysyl oxidase DIGESTIVE (about 22) Pancreatin Pepsin Trypsin Lactase Galactase Phosphatase FOOD (3 types) Amalyses Lipases Proteases When the diet contains food enzymes, the body is spared from making some digestive enzymes and therefore has more energy. Food enzymes are destroyed at 118 o F wet heat, 150 o F dry heat.
  28. 29. Examples of Enzyme-Rich Foods Raw dairy products Raw meat and fish Raw honey Tropical fruits Cold pressed oils (extra virgin olive oil) Wine and unpasteurized beer Lacto-fermented (enzyme enhanced) vegetables fruits meats fish dairy products beverages
  29. 30. Beneficial Bacteria OLD PARADIGM: Healthy human body is sterile and microbes attack it, making us sick. NEW PARADIGM: Healthy human body lives in symbiotic relationship with microorganisms. SIX POUNDS of healthy bacteria in our digestive tract Digest our food Assist in assimilation Create nutrients Protect us against toxins Help us feel good Without good bacteria, we are dead!
  30. 31. Lacto-Fermented Condiments provide enzymes and good bacteria Beet relish Ginger carrots Cortido (spicy So. American sauerkraut) Pineapple chutney Raspberry syrup Apricot butter
  31. 32. Lacto-Fermented Beverages Kombucha Kvass Sour Grain Drink
  32. 33. 6. Seeds, grains, legumes & nuts are soaked, sprouted, fermented or naturally leavened Deactivates ENZYME INHIBITORS (block digestion) Neutralizes PHYTIC ACID (blocks mineral absorption) Neutralizes TANNINS and LECTINS (irritants) Pre-digests COMPLEX STARCHES & SUGARS (hard to digest) Begins breakdown of GLUTEN (hard to digest; can be toxic) Begins breakdown of CELLULOSE (impossible to digest) Proper preparation makes seed foods more digestible and their nutrients more available.
  33. 34. Proper Preparation of Seed Foods Imitates natural factors that neutralize the seed’s “preservatives” and allow it to sprout: Moisture Warmth Slight Acidity Time
  34. 35. 7. Total fat content of traditional diets varies from 30% to 80% of calories, but only about 4% of calories come from polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  35. 36. Longer-Chain Fatty Acids
  36. 37. 18-Carbon Fatty Acids
  37. 38. Arteries: The Good and the Pathological Good artery - smooth, elastic and pink. Saturated and mono-unsaturated fats do not react or harm arteries. Damaged arteries - crusty and yellowish. Damage caused by free radicals from rancid, processed vegetable oils!
  38. 39. Shorter-Chain Fatty Acids
  39. 40. Triglyceride
  40. 41. Who’s Afraid of Saturated Fat? Clogs arteries! Causes Cancer! Inflammation! Makes you fat! Bad for the liver! Heart attack!
  41. 42. The Many Roles of Saturated Fat CELL MEMBRANES – should be 50% saturated fatty acids. BONES – Saturated fats help the body put calcium in the bones. HEART DISEASE – Lower Lp(a), a marker for heart disease. HEART FUNCTION – Saturated fats are preferred food for the heart. LIVER – Saturated fats protect the liver from alcohol & other poisons. LUNGS – Can’t function without saturated fats. KIDNEYS – Can’t function without saturated fats. IMMUNE SYSTEM – Enhanced by saturated fats. ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS – Work together with saturated fats. DETOXIFICATION – Supports body’s detox mechanisms
  42. 43. The Many Roles of Short and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids METABOLISM – Raise body temperature and give quick energy WEIGHT LOSS – Never stored as fat; used for energy IMMUNE SYSTEM – Stimulate the immune system INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION – Help prevent cancer ANTI-MICROBIAL – Kill pathogens including candida in the gut
  43. 44. Modern Edible Oil Processing Source: Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications , Richard D. O’Brien 1998
  44. 45. Problems Associated with Consumption of Polyunsaturated Oils Increased cancer Increased heart disease Increased wrinkles and premature aging Immune system dysfunction Disruption of prostaglandin production Depressed learning ability Liver damage Ceroid storage disease Damage to reproductive organs and the lungs Digestive disorders due to polymerization Increased levels of uric acid Impaired growth Lowered cholesterol Source: Pinckney, The Cholesterol Controversy
  45. 46. Fat Smoke Point °F °C Flaxseed oil 225°F 107°C Extra virgin olive oil 320°F 160°C Hemp seed oil 330°F 165°C Butter 350°F 177°C Coconut oil 350°F 177°C Lard 370°F 182°C Canola oil 400°F 204°C Sesame oil 410°F 210°C Cottonseed oil 420°F 216°C Grapeseed oil 420°F 216°C Almond oil 420°F 216°C Hazelnut oil 430°F 221°C Peanut oil 440°F 227°C Sunflower oil 440°F 227°C Refined Coconut oil 440°F 227°C Ghee 495°F 257°C Soybean oil 495°F 257°C Safflower oil 510°F 266°C Avocado oil 520°F 271°C
  46. 48. Natural Sources of Essential Fatty Acids GRAINS LEGUMES NUTS FISH ANIMAL FATS EGGS VEGETABLES FRUITS Polyunsaturated fatty acids are protected from damage when they are in whole foods.
  47. 49. 8. Nearly Equal Amounts of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  48. 50. Essential Fatty Acids in Primitive and Modern Diets Essential Fatty Acids in Primitive and Modern Diets 8. Equal Amounts
  49. 51. Food Sources of Elongated Fatty Acids Omega-6 GLA (18:3): Evening primrose, borage, black currant oils DGLA (20:3): Liver and other organ meats AA (20:4): Butter, lard, animal fats, brain, organ meats, egg yolks, seaweed Omega-3 EPA (20:5) Fish liver oils, fish eggs DHA (22:5) Butterfat, pastured egg yolks, fish liver oils, fish eggs, liver, brain, organ meats The Sacred Foods!
  50. 52. 9. All diets contained some salt Sea salt Salt flats and mined salt Ashes of marsh grasses Meat and milk products Blood and urine More salt needed with cooked foods
  51. 53. Protein digestion Carbohydrate digestion Development of brain Adrenal function Cellular metabolism Salt is needed for
  52. 54. 10. All traditional cultures made use of bones, usually as bone broth <ul><li>1. Supplies calcium and other minerals in a form easy to assimilate </li></ul><ul><li>2. Supplies nutrients that help build healthy cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies amino acids that help the body detoxify </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supplies gelatin to help digestion </li></ul>
  53. 55. The Solution to Fatigue: Easy Digestion Raw Dairy, not pasteurized Proper Preparation of Grains Lacto-Fermented foods, rich in enzymes and beneficial bacteria Gelatin-rich bone broths Less energy required for digestion = More energy for you!
  54. 56. 11. Traditional cultures made provisions for future generations Special foods for parents-to-be, pregnant women, nursing women & growing children Spacing of children Principles of proper diet taught to the young
  55. 57. 1. Make Your Own Salad Dressing
  56. 58. Salad Dressing 1 Good quality mustard Cold-pressed olive oi Raw vinegar Expeller-expressed flax oil Basic Salad Dressing
  57. 59. 2. Switch to Butter - Avoid Partially Hydrogenated Oils ... And see thou hurt not the oil... Rev 6:6
  58. 60. Good Fats, Bad Fats Good Fats Butter, beef tallow, lamb tallow, lard Chicken, goose and duck fat Cold pressed olive oil, sesame oil and flax oil Tropical Oils—Coconut Oil and Palm Oil Fish Liver Oils, such as cod liver oil Bad Fats All partially hydrogenated fats including margarine and shortening used in processed foods Industrially processed vegetable oils, especially soy, safflower, corn, cottonseed, and canola All fats, especially polyunsaturated oils, heated to very high temperatures
  59. 61. HIGH QUALITY = whole dairy products from pastured cows eggs from pastured chickens meats from pastured animals organ meats from pastured animals fish eggs fish and shellfish cod liver oil 3. Make sure your diet contains sufficient HIGH QUALITY food products, some raw
  60. 62. 4. Refined Sweeteners <ul><li>Eliminate refined sweeteners </li></ul>Sugar Dextrose Fructose Glucose High Fructose Corn Syrup Fruit Juices
  61. 63. Natural Sweeteners (Use in Moderation) Rapadura (Dehydrated Cane Sugar Juice), Maple Syrup and Maple Sugar, Molasses, Stevia Powder and Raw Honey
  62. 64. Cravings Possible causes of sugar cravings Wrong fats in the diet Improper preparation of grains Too few or too many animal foods Mineral deficiencies Neuro-toxic additives (MSG, Aspartame)
  63. 65. 5. Eliminate toxic metals and additives as much as possible
  64. 66. 6. Be Kind to your Grains... and your grains will be kind to you (This rule applies to all seed foods: grains, legumes, nuts and other seeds.)
  65. 67. <ul><li>Make Stock once a week </li></ul><ul><li>Make stock </li></ul><ul><li>(bone broth) </li></ul><ul><li>at least once a week </li></ul>
  66. 68. 8. Variety Vegetables <ul><li>Eat a </li></ul><ul><li>variety of fresh </li></ul><ul><li>vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>and fruits , </li></ul>
  67. 69. Some Vegetables Might Best Be Eaten Cooked Green Leafy Vegetables (Spinach, Chard, Beet Greens, etc.) Cooking neutralizes calcium-blocking oxalic acid. Cruciferous Vegetables (Cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Broccoli) Cooking neutralizes goitrogens.
  68. 70. Other Cooked Vegetables Many vegetables provide more nourishment when cooked.
  69. 71. 9. Reduce Stresses to the Body AVOID caffeine and other drugs exposure to pesticides & environmental toxins extremes of heat and cold dirty food, water and clothes stale air synthetic fabrics partial spectrum fluorescent lights microwaved food
  70. 72. 10. Put the Principles of Lacto-Fermentation to Work for You FAMILIAR LACTO-FERMENTED FOODS Natural cheese and yoghurt Old-fashioned pickles and sauerkraut Gravlox (lacto-fermented salmon)
  71. 73. Fermentation ALCOHOLIC Fermentation (Action of Yeasts on Sugars): C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) 2C 2 H 5 OH (alcohol) + 2CO 2 LACTIC ACID Fermentation (Action of Bacteria on Sugars) C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) 2CH 3 CHOHCO 2 H (lactic acid)
  72. 75. Summary Traditional diets maximized nutrients while modern diets minimize nutrients TRADITIONAL DIETS MODERN DIETS Foods from fertile soil Foods from depleted soil Organ meats over muscle meats Muscle meats, few organs Animal fats Vegetable oils Animals on pasture Animals in confinement Dairy products raw and/or fermented Dairy products pasteurized Grains and legumes soaked/fermented Grains refined, extruded Bone broths MSG, artificial flavorings Unrefined sweeteners (honey, maple syrup) Refined sweeteners Lacto-fermented vegetables Canned vegetables Lacto-fermented beverages Modern soft drinks Unrefined salt Refined salt Natural vitamins in foods Synthetic vitamins added Traditional Cooking Microwave, Irradiation Traditional seeds/Open pollination Hybrid seeds, GMO seeds
  73. 76. Worst Thing to Eat: The Thing You Feel Bad About
  74. 77. Good Breakfasts Fried eggs with no-nitrate bacon and fruit Scrambled eggs with sautéed potatoes Smoothie made with whole yoghurt, egg yolks, fruit and coconut oil
  75. 78. Good Grain Breakfast 1. Soak rolled oats in warm water and 1 tablespoon of something acidic (whey, yoghurt, vinegar or lemon juice) overnight.
  76. 79. Oatmeal 2 <ul><li>2. Next morning, bring water and salt to a boil. </li></ul><ul><li>Add soaked oatmeal, bring to a boil and cook, stirring, for one minute. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cover and let sit several minutes. </li></ul>
  77. 80. Oatmeal 3 5. Serve oatmeal with plenty of butter or cream and a natural sweetener. Sprinkle coconut and/or crispy nuts on top if desired.
  78. 81. Sourdough Pancakes I
  79. 82. Sourdough Pancakes II
  80. 83. Yogurt Dough Yoghurt Freshly ground whole grain flour Butter Salt
  81. 84. Quiche
  82. 85. Empanadas
  83. 86. Preparation of Crispy Nuts Soak raw nuts in salted water 6-8 hours to neutralize enzyme inhibitors, Drain Dry out in warm oven or dehydrator.
  84. 87. Crispy Nuts Crispy Cashews Crispy Almonds Crispy Pecans Crispy Slivered Almonds Pepitas

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