Tenets of Differentiated Instruction • Students differ in their learning profiles. • Classrooms in which students are active learners, decision makers, and problem solvers are more natural and effective than those in which students are served a "one-size- fits-all“ curriculum and treated as passive recipients of information. • "Covering information" takes a backseat to making meaning out of important ideas.
What we will do in this session….• Introduce learning centers as an instructional tool for mathematics, social science, and science.• Examine a wide variety of content literacy focused learning centers for mathematics, social science, and science.• Discuss assessment strategies for learning centers.
Assumptions Underlying Content Literacy• Subject Matter• Role of the Textbook• Active Readers• Independent Readers
What is Content Literacy?–Generally defined as “the ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline” (McKenna & Robinson, 1990, p. 184)
The Impact of Schema on Content LiteracySource: Alvermann, D. and Phelps, S. (2002). Content Readingand Literacy: Succeeding in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. (5thEd.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
More on SchemaThe notes were sour because the seam split. Source: Alvermann, D. and Phelps, S. (2002). Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. (5th Ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
More on Schema The batsmen were merciless against thebowlers. The bowlers placed their men inslips and covers. But to no avail. The batsmenhit one in four after another along with anoccasional six. Not once did a ball look like itwould hit their stumps or be caught. Source: Alvermann, D. and Phelps, S. (2002). Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. (5th Ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
What do we know aboutour students’ reading? 11
What do we know about readers? At or Above Proficient on 2002 NAEP Reading 100 80 60 White Black 40 Hispanic 20 0 Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12Grigg, W.S., Daane, M.C., Jin, Y., & Campbell, J.R. (2003). The nation’s report card: Reading 2002. Jessup, MD: EducationPublications Center. 12
Students Most At Risk Below Basic on 2002 NAEP Reading 100 80 60 White Black 40 Hispanic 20 0 Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12Grigg, W.S., Daane, M.C., Jin, Y., & Campbell, J.R. (2003). The nation’s report card: Reading 2002. Jessup, MD: Education Publications Center. 13
Components of ReadingAlphabetics: understanding and using the sounds thatmake up words (phonemic awareness) and the letters thatcorrespond to those sounds (decoding) and being able torelate the letters and sounds to the particular words theyrepresent (word recognition)Fluency: identifying words accurately in an effortlessmanner and being able to read them in text with appropriateintonation, stress and phrasingVocabulary: knowing and understanding the meanings ofwords and using them with flexibility and precisionComprehension: the process and product of constructingmeaning from what is read, involving an interaction between 14a reader and a text, for a purpose and within a context
What are Learning Centers?• Synonymous with Learning Stations.• Learning Stations are locations that a teacher designs for students to work in small groups or individually.• Each center has a clearly articulated learning activity.
Getting Started: A Checklist1. Write out all directions for the students for each station.2. Explain procedures and have them written out and posted in your classroom.3. Create a “make up station” at the end of the rotation so that students can complete any unfinished work. Review and revision are key in the development of literacy skills sets. 16
Getting Started: A Checklist (cont’d)4. The teacher should circulate among the groups to facilitate answers and questions about the work.5. Formal assessment occurs when the students have finished the novel.6. When possible, give students a choice at each station.I like to make a poster for each station.Let’s look at a model for learning centers. 17
A Classroom Picture Sample Stations for First Rotation Content Reading StudyVocabulary StrategyActivity Practice Listening or Make with Viewing Content Center Up Center 18
Sample Learning CentersDirections: Circulate around the room to thedifferent learning stations.Consider the following questions:1. How can you use this learning center activity for your content area and classroom?2. As you consider your content area and a specific learning center, what adaptations and suggestions do you have for the activity?Note: These learning centers focus on vocabulary.When you create center activities for yourstudents, you will have a variety of activities, notjust vocabulary.
Learning Center StationVocabulary Samples are from: McKnight, K. (2010). The Teachers Big Book of Graphic Organizers: 100 Reproducible Organizers that Help Kids with 21 Reading, Writing, and the Content Areas. Jossey-Bass.
Learning Center StationVocabulary Samples are from: McKnight, K. (2010). The Teachers Big Book of Graphic Organizers: 100 Reproducible Organizers that Help Kids with Reading, Writing, and the Content Areas. Jossey-Bass. 22
Concept Sorts• What is it?• Introduces students to the vocabulary of a new topic or book.• Students are provided with a list of terms or concepts from reading material.• Students place words into different categories based on each words meaning.• Categories can be defined by the teacher or by the students.• When used before reading, concept sorts provide an opportunity for a teacher to see what his or her students already know about the given content. When used after reading, teachers can assess their students understanding of the concepts presented.
Concept MapYou or the student selects a word or concept for the center box ofthe organizer. In the box directly above, students should write thedictionary definition of the word or concept.Students should record key elements of the word or concept in eachof the boxes on the upper left side.In each of the boxes on the upper right side, the students shouldrecord information that is incorrectly assigned to the word orconcept.Examples of the word or concept are recorded in the boxes along thebottom of the page.The ‘‘What is it like?’’ and ‘‘What is it NOT like?’’ boxes can beparticularly challenging.Be sure to model responses to these or allow students to work inpairs so that they will have greater success in completing this activity.
Word Detective• The importance of encouraging students to study words cannot be emphasized enough.• In this center, students are prompted to research the etymology of words (and content area terms) and connect visual images to the words that they encounter.
Creating Slide Shows• www.photopeach.c om• Sample from an Algebra teacherhttp://photopeach.com/album/tculv0?invitecode=b684ea3b5c
Inquiry ChartThe Inquiry Chart (I-Chart) is a strategy thatenables students to generate meaningfulquestions about a topic and organize their writing.Students integrate prior knowledge or thoughtsabout the topic with additional information foundin several sources.The I-Chart procedure is organized into threephases: (1) Planning, (2) Interacting, and (3)Integrating/Evaluating. Each phase consists ofactivities designed to engage students inevaluating a topic. http://www.adlit.org/strategies/21826/
I Do, We Do, You Do• http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/com prehension/• Comprehension Demonstration
Visuals• Graphic Organizers and other visuals support student comprehension and understanding of text.• Here is an example from a Social Studies teacher• http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/cont entarea/
Feedback• I need feedback from you about next steps.• What do you need in order to experiment with content based centers?