Assumptions Underlying Content Literacy Subject Matter Role of the Textbook Active Readers Independent Readers
What is Content Literacy? Generally defined as “the ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline” (McKenna & Robinson, 1990, p. 184)
Schema and Comprehension Activating prior knowledge with prereading guides Anticipation guides Content Reading Activities like: KWL, SQ3R, and DRTA Story Impression Vocabulary Exercises
The Impact of Schema on Content LiteracySource: Alvermann, D. and Phelps, S. (2002). Content Readingand Literacy: Succeeding in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. (5thEd.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
More on SchemaThe notes were sour because the seam split. Source: Alvermann, D. and Phelps, S. (2002). Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. (5th Ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
More on Schema The batsmen were merciless against thebowlers. The bowlers placed their men inslips and covers. But to no avail. Thebatsmen hit one in four after another alongwith an occasional six. Not once did a balllook like it would hit their stumps or becaught. Source: Alvermann, D. and Phelps, S. (2002). Content Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. (5th Ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Hints for Struggling Readers Provide readers who struggle to decode with opportunities to hear the text read aloud (tape assist) Give readers for whom word recognition is a problem supplemental materials that include visual clues to word meaning (or use manipulatives in math) Allot additional time for readers who struggle to complete assignments Encourage struggling readers to use the internet because often the symbols and icons that are quite bothersome to good readers provide a means for struggling readers to construct meaning
Components of ReadingAlphabetics: understanding and using the sounds thatmake up words (phonemic awareness) and the letters thatcorrespond to those sounds (decoding) and being able torelate the letters and sounds to the particular words theyrepresent (word recognition)Fluency: identifying words accurately in an effortlessmanner and being able to read them in text with appropriateintonation, stress and phrasingVocabulary: knowing and understanding the meanings ofwords and using them with flexibility and precisionComprehension: the process and product of constructingmeaning from what is read, involving an interaction betweena reader and a text, for a purpose and within a context 10
Sample Reading Activities Before Reading (Pre Reading) During Reading After Reading
KWLK= What the reader already knows L= What the reader wants to learn or know. L= What I learned
“THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO” Edgar Allan Poe----Sample Anticipation GuideDIRECTIONS: Put an “X” in the space to indicate whether or not you agree or disagree with the corresponding statement.AGRE DISAGREE STATEMENTE 1) Revenge is a learned behavior. 2) It is OK to do something as long as you don‟t get caught. 3) Time eases a guilty conscience. 4) Trust no one. 5) Pride goes before a fall. 6) Greed destroys. 7) Keep you friends close and your enemies closer.
Sketch Through TextDaniels, H. and Zimmerman, S. (2004). SubjectsMatter: Every Teachers‟ Guide to Content –AreaReading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, p 121.
Story Impression Step One Make a 3 column chart on a sheet of paper. Label it like this: Word Group The Definition Dictionary Definition 22
Story ImpressionStep TwoIn your group, assign a definition to each word.Step ThreeCreate a story using each word with the definition that your group assigned. 23
Story ImpressionStep FourWe will now read the text from which the words were selected. As we read, write the new definition for each word in the 3rd column. 24
Author‟s Chair Select a reader from your group. Volunteering for the “Author‟s Chair” Clap when author goes to the chair Read the piece Clap when the author has finished reading Discuss what we liked about the story Clap again when the author leaves the Author‟s Chair
Story Impression introduces vocabulary taps into students‟ prior knowledge catapults the reader into active reading and comprehension
Samples are from: McKnight, K. (2010). The Teachers Big Book ofGraphic Organizers: 100 Reproducible Organizers that Help Kids withReading, Writing, and the Content Areas. Jossey-Bass. 28
Samples are from: McKnight, K. (2010). The Teachers Big Book of 29Graphic Organizers: 100 Reproducible Organizers that Help Kidswith Reading, Writing, and the Content Areas. Jossey-Bass.
Concept Sorts What is it? Introduces students to the vocabulary of a new topic or book. Students are provided with a list of terms or concepts from reading material. Students place words into different categories based on each words meaning. Categories can be defined by the teacher or by the students. When used before reading, concept sorts provide an opportunity for a teacher to see what his or her students already know about the given content. When used after reading, teachers can assess their students understanding of the concepts presented.
Concept MapYou or the student selects a word or concept for the center box of the organizer.In the box directly above, students should write the dictionary definition of theword or concept.Students should record key elements of the word or concept in each of the boxeson the upper left side.In each of the boxes on the upper right side, the students should recordinformation that is incorrectly assigned to the word or concept.Examples of the word or concept are recorded in the boxes along the bottom ofthe page.The „„What is it like?‟‟ and „„What is it NOT like?‟‟ boxes can be particularlychallenging.Be sure to model responses to these or allow students to work in pairs so thatthey will have greater success in completing this activity.
Word Detective The importance of encouraging students to study words cannot be emphasized enough. In this center, students are prompted to research the etymology of words (and content area terms) and connect visual images to the words that they encounter.
Creating Slide Shows www.photopeach.com Sample from an Algebra teacherhttp://photopeach.com/album/tculv0?invitecode=b684ea3b5c
Visuals Graphic Organizers and other visuals support student comprehension and understanding of text. Here is an example from a Social Studies teacher http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/contentarea/
Six Ways to Use Textbooks More Effectively1. Empathy- Do you remember when you had difficulty in a subject and the text was difficult?2. Help the students to get started. We need to “front- load” our teaching.3. Don‟t leave kids alone with their textbooks.4. Choose wisely. Be selective with assignments. Be strategic about what is most important.5. Supplement richly.
How to Reach Me Email: Katie@KatherineMcKnight.com Website: www.KatherineMcKnight.com Twitter: @literacyworld Facebook: Katie McKnight LiteracyFor more materials and updated powerpoint,see my blog at www.KatherineMcKnight.comand http://goo.gl/J242X for additionalmaterials. 41