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Nurs 508 ass i, pls grounded theory


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Nurs 508 ass i, pls grounded theory

  1. 1. Grounded Theory Sherry Lampard, Cheryl Brace, and Jeanette Bessel Adapted from Jones, A. & Weas, L. (2009)
  2. 2. What is Grounded Theory? Generating Theory Processes in Grounded Theory (Coding) Critiquing Grounded Theory
  3. 3. What is Grounded Theory? Grounded Theory: A specific methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) for the purpose of building theory from data. In their book the term grounded theory is used in the sense to denote theoretical constructs derived form qualitative analysis of data. (Corbin & Strauss, 2008)
  4. 4. Over time, a grounded theory study works through the following mostly-overlapping phases.
  5. 5. Fig. 1. The grounded theory method (Adolph et al., 2011).
  6. 6. Genealogy of Grounded Theory: Major Milestones Glaser & Strauss Discovery (1967) Glaser (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity Glaser (1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006) Glaserian GT Stern (1995) Charmaz (2000, 2006) Constructivist GT Clarke (2003, 2005, 2006) Situational Analysis Schatzman (1991) Dimensional Analysis Bowers (1987), Caron & Bowers, (2000), Bowers & Schatzman (2009) Strauss & Corbin (1990, 1998) Corbin & Strauss (2008) Glaser Strauss Strauss (1987) Qualitative Analysis Straussian GT (Morse et al, 2009)
  7. 7. Developing Grounded Theory Glaserian GT Approach is not a qualitative research method, but claims the dictum "all is data". This means that not only interview or observational data but also surveys or statistical analyses or whatever comes the researcher's way while studying a substantive area can be used in the comparative process as well as literature data from science or media or even fiction. Thus, the Glaserian method emphasizes conceptualization abstract of time, place and people.
  8. 8. Straussian GT Approach posts that important concepts of grounded theory are categories, codes and coding's. The research principle behind grounded theory is neither inductive nor deductive, but combines both in a way of abductive reasoning . This leads to a research practice where data sampling, data analysis and theory development are not seen as distinct and disjunct, but as different steps to be repeated until one can describe and explain the phenomenon that is to be researched.
  9. 9. The Grounded Theory Process: (Charmaz) (Charmaz, 2006) Writing the first draft Integrating memos diagramming concepts Sorting memos Advanced memos refining conceptual categories Theoretical sampling seek specific new data Initial memos raising codes to tentative categories Research Problem and opening research questions Further theoretical sampling if needed Theoretical memo-writing and further refining of concepts Adopting certain categories as theoretical concepts Data Collection Focused Coding Sensitizing concepts and general disciplinary perspectives Initial coding data collection Re-examination of earlier data
  10. 10. Generating Theory Glaser & Strauss (1967) suggested their theory generation, “puts a high emphasis on theory as process; that is, theory as an ever-developing entity, not as a perfected product” (p. 32). Substantive Theory- empirical inquiry i.e. race relations or education Formal Theory- conceptual inquiry i.e. privilege and power, social capital
  11. 11. Generating Theory Elements of a Theory Conceptual categories & conceptual properties Hypothesis or relationships between categories and properties
  12. 12. Generating Theory – Key Aspects -Category – stands by itself as a conceptual element of a theory -Property - is a conceptual element of a category -Both category and property are indicated by the data (not data itself) -Constant comparing draws the researchers attention to similarities and differences -Generating theory should aim at achieving diversity in categories -Comparison of differences generates relationships or hypothesis -Concepts should be analytic (generalized to designate characteristics and sensitizing (have meaning)
  13. 13. Generating Theory Suggestions for researchers Glaser & Strauss (1967) Ignore existing theory and focus on the study Work in areas that have little to no literature already Collection, coding, and analysis should be done together as much as possible
  14. 14. Processes In Grounded Theory: Phases
  15. 15. Processes In Grounded Theory: Coding - Naming segments of data to categorize, summarize and account for data - Generates the bones of your analysis - Basis to build the analysis - Make your codes fit your data rather than forcing your data to fit them Questions grounded theorists use when coding data: What is happening? (Glaser, 1978) What theoretical category does this data indicate? (Glaser, 1978) What does the data suggest? Pronounce? From whose point of view?
  16. 16. Cycles in Coding
  17. 17. Critiquing Grounded Theory Studies What was the focus of the study? What was the purpose of the study? What significance does the study have to the profession being studied, and what is already known about the topic of study? Method: Is there an explanation of how Grounded Theory best guides the research study? Sampling: Did the study describe the process of data collection, and were themes identified, and if so, how? Was the sampling driven by emerging or purposeful selection? Who were the gatekeepers?
  18. 18. Critiquing Ground Theory Studies Data Generation: What strategies did the researchers employ? (paying close attention to creativity, reflexivity, and theoretical sampling strategy) Data Analysis: How did the researchers analyze the data? (inductive, deductive, abductive) How was precision and clarity in the study maintained? Did the researchers clearly explain how categories were chosen?
  19. 19. Critiquing Grounded Theory Studies Empirical Grounding of the findings: Were the concepts related, were the concepts linkages described, and were they well developed? Were the theoretical findings significant to the profession and were they explained? Were the data-collection strategies comprehensive and were analytical interpretations conceptual and broad? Were the findings applicable to the phenomenon investigated? o Conclusions: Had the study addressed recommendations? Were they appropriate? Any reference to future research? And, were they related to the findings?
  20. 20. References Adolph, S., Kruchten, P., & Hall, W. (2011) Reconciling perspectives: A grounded theory of how people manage the process of software development. Journal of Systems and Software, 85 (6). Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cutcliffe, J. (2000). Methodological issues in grounded theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31 (6), 1476-1484).
  21. 21. Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Glaser, B.G. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of Grounded Theory. Sociology Press Jones, A. & Weas, L. (2012) Grounded Theory. Retrieved from LoBiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J. (2013). Nursing Research in Canada. Elsevier Canada Morse, J. M., Stern, P. N., Corbin, J., Bowers, B., Charmaz, K. & Clarke, A. E. (2009). Developing grounded theory: The second generation. Walnut creek, CA: Left Coast Creek.
  22. 22. Qualitative Research in Psychology, (2012). Coding Diagram. Retrieved from doing-grounded-theory.html.