Grounded theory methodology of qualitative data analysis


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Grounded Theory Methodology of Qualitative data analysis

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Grounded theory methodology of qualitative data analysis

  1. 1. Grounded Theory Methodology in Qualitative Research Shiv S Tripathi Asst. Professor Calcutta Business School
  2. 2. Types of Qualitative Research According to Punch (1998) there are the following approaches to qualitative Research: • Case Studies • Ethnography & Participant Observation • Phenomenology • Ethnomethodology & Interpretive Practice • Grounded Theory • Biographic Method • The Historical Method • Applied and Action Research & • Clinical Models 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 2
  3. 3. Types of Qualitative Research • According to Creswell (2007) there are five main approaches to Qualitative Data Analysis. These are: • Biography : the study of an individual and her or his experiences as told to the researcher or found in documents and archival material. • Phenomenology : emphasizes the meaning of an experience for a number of individuals. • Grounded Theory : is to generate or discover a theory, an abstract analytical schema of a phenomenon that relates to a particular situation. Grounded theory is an iterative process by which the analyst becomes more and more grounded in the data and develops increasingly richer concepts and models of how the phenomenon being studied really works. • Ethnography : helps understand the social world from the vantage point of those residing in it. Ethnographies provide understanding of ‘what’s going on’ of those who inhabit a range of naturally occurring settings. • Case Study : is an exploration of a “bounded system” or a case (or multiple cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context. 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 3
  4. 4. Approaches to QDA 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 4 Dimension Biography Phenomenology Grounded Theory Ethnography Case Study Focus Exploring the life of an individual Understanding the essence of experiences about a phenomenon Developing a theory grounded in data from the field Describing and interpreting a cultural and social group Developing an in- depth analysis of a single case or multiple cases Discipline origin -Anthropology -Literature -History -Psychology -Sociology -Philosophy -Sociology -Psychology Sociology Cultural anthropology Sociology Political science, sociology, evaluation, urban studies, other social sciences Data collection Primarily interviews and documents Long interviews with up to 10 people Interviews with 20-30 individuals to “saturate” categories and detail a theory Primarily observations and interviews with additional artifacts during extended time in the field Multiple sources document, archival records, interviews, observations, physical artifacts Data analysis -Stories -Epiphanies -Historical content -Statements -Meanings -Meaning themes -General description of the experience -Open coding -Axial coding -Selective coding -Conditional matrix -Description -Analysis -Interpretation -Description -Themes -Assertions Narrative form Detailed picture of an individual’s life Description of the ‘essence’ of the experience Theory or theoretical model Description of the cultural behavior of a group or an individual In-depth study of a “case” or “cases” Approaches to Qualitative Method (Source: Creswell, 2007)
  5. 5. Development of Grounded Theory Methodology 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 5 Source: Genealogy of Grounded Theory: Major Milestones (Morse, Stern, Corbin, Bower, Charmaz, & Clarke, 2009, p. 17)
  6. 6. Comparison between the two major schools of thoughton GTM 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 6 ‘Glaserian’ School of GT ‘Straussian’ School of GT Beginning with an Empty Mind Having a general idea of where to begin Emerging Theory, with neutral questions Forcing the theory, with structured questions Development of a Conceptual Theory Conceptual Description (description of situations) Theoretical Sensitivity (the ability to perceive variables and relationships) comes from immersion in the data Theoretical sensitivity comes from methods and tools The theory is grounded in the Data itself The theory is interpreted by the observer The credibility of the theory, or verification is derived from its grounding in the data The credibility of the theory comes from the rigour of the method A basic social process should be identified (what is happening?) Basic social processes need not be identified (Source: Onions, 2006; Jones & Alony, 2011)
  7. 7. Comparison between the two major schools of thoughton GTM 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 7 ‘Glaserian’ School of GT ‘Straussian’ School of GT The researcher is passive, exhibiting disciplined restraint The researcher is active Data reveals the theory Data is structured to reveal the theory Coding is less rigorous, a constant comparison of incident to incident, with neutral questions and categories and properties evolving. Coding is more rigorous and defined by technique. The nature of making comparisons varies with the coding technique. Labels are carefully crafted at the time. Codes are derived from ‘micro-analysis which consists of word- by-word data analysis’ Two coding phases or types, simple (fracture the data then conceptually group it) and substantive (open or selective, to produce categories and properties) Three types of coding, open (identifying, naming, categorizing and describing phenomena), axial (the process of relating codes to each other) and selective (choosing a core category and relating other categories to that) Regarded by some as the only ‘true’ GTM Regarded by some as a form of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) (Source: Onions, 2006; Jones & Alony, 2011)
  8. 8. Salient Features of GTM • For analyzing theoretical data. • It uses Theoretical Sampling. • Having ‘a priori’ knowledge or not. • The data is grounded in the theory itself. • The sample size should be extended upto the point when there are no more categories emerging out of analysis. • Findings are validated by the actual responses or quotations. • Typically 20-30 or maximum 50-60 interviews are sufficient for analysis (Creswell, 2007). In addition to that, survey data, audio, video and GPS data can also be analysed through Grounded Theory. • Compatibility with software packages like Atlas.ti, InVivo, MaxQDA that support Grounded Theory Methodology of Qualitative Data Analysis using diagrams, network views, excel sheets, density clouds, export to SPSS etc. 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 8
  9. 9. TypicalFlow Diagramfor conductingresearch usingGroundedTheory 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 9 Source: Adopted from Goulding, 2002)
  10. 10. Reliability & Validity It is determined by the rigour or trustworthiness of the qualitative research which has four aspects viz.: • Credibility – Triangulation (for internal validity) • Transferability – application in other areas with similar settings (for external validity) • Dependability – can it be replicated (for reliability) • Confirmability - reflexive journal, without any bias from the researcher (for Objectivity) 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 10
  11. 11. How to achieve trustworthiness? It can be achieved through: • Audit Trail • Triangulations • Authenticity • Privacy & Confidentiality • Informed Consent 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 11 Reliability & Validity
  12. 12. An example through QDA Software - Atlas.ti 7.0 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 12
  13. 13. References & Further Reading• Charmaz, K. (1983). The Grounded Theory Method: An explication and interpretation, in R, Emerson (ed.), Contemporary Field Research: A Collection of Readings, Boston: Little Brown. • Charmaz, K. C. (2009). Constructivist grounded theory. In J. M. Morse, P. N. Stern, J. Corbin, B. Bower, & A. E. Clarke. (Eds.). Developing grounded theory: The second generation (pp. 236-247). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. • Creswell, J. W. (2007 ). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions, (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. • Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed • Glaser, B and Strauss, A. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine. • Glaser, B. G. (1992). Basics of grounded theory: Emergence vs. forcing. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press. • Glaser, B. G. (2007). Doing formal theory, In A. Bryant & K. Charmaz (Eds.). The SAGE handbook of: grounded theory. (pp. 97-113). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. • Goulding, C. (2000), Grounded Theory Methodology and consumer behavior, Procedures, Practices and Pitfalls, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 27, pp. 261-266. • Goulding, C. (2002). Grounded Theory: A Practical guide for Management, Business & Market Researchers. Sage, London. • Jones, M. and Alony, I. (2011). Guiding the use of Grounded Theory in Doctoral Studies – An Example from the Australian Film Industry, International Journal of Doctoral Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 95-114. • Onions, P. E. W. (2006). Grounded theory applications in reviewing knowledge management literature. Leeds Metropolitan University Innovation North Research Conference, Leeds, 24 May. • Strauss, A. & Corbin J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Publications • Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990), Basics of Qualitative Research, Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. New York: Sage Publications. 05/07/13SST/CBS/GTM/RM 13