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Circadian Rhythms
of Food Intake:
Are You Seeing The
Whole Picture?
Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake:
Are You Seeing The Whole Picture?
Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake (John Lighton, PhD)
• What is your Aim?
• Essential Tech, Tools and Approach
• It’s All About Data Resolution (Resting EE, Activity, and Food Intake)
• Environmental Influences
• Some Additional Tech and Closing Thoughts
InsideScientific is an online educational environment
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Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake:
Are You Seeing The Whole Picture?
John Lighton, PhD
President & Chief Scientist,
Sable Systems International
Copyright 2015 InsideScientific & Sable Systems International. All Rights Reserved.
Question: What is Your Aim?
Ultimately, that’s up to you & your research questions!
But -
• Proximately, you probably need to obtain data…
• Now: Describing proximate ends to achieve your ultimate goals
• Also some interesting findings…
– On intake (food, water), and output (metabolic heat and activity)
– These data should be synchronized
– These data should have high temporal resolution
– The data resolution should be high
– Analytical flexibility should be maximal
– The more data modalities, the better…
THE CAGE…
• The ideal is…
• Home Cage
• Ambient RH
• Autoclavable
• BPA-free
• No seal required
• Metabolic
measurement
optional
MASS MONITORING
• Req’d for Gravimetric
Intake Monitoring
• Force Transducer =
Easy, Cheap
• Limited Range
• Poor Resolution
• OK for Student Labs
• The Alternative…
MASS MONITORING
• Real Load Cell (the
standard for accurate
mass measurement)
• Lab Balance
Resolution, Range
• Radical Innovation
(compact, intelligent,
retains individual
calibration)
Addresses Resolution
Challenges and issues
of “dead volume”
FOOD INTAKE
• Universal Load Cell
• Real-time measurement
• Recorded to disc at 1Hz
• 2 mg resolution,
1 kg range
• Crumb tray – no spillage
• Grille spacing reduces
caching = accurate intake
• Multiple grilles available
• Fine granularity gives
insight into behavioral
patterns
Raw Feeding Data
• Stores hopper mass vs. time
• Recorded to disc at 1Hz
One Feeding Episode
• Analyze behavior
• Determine individual
feeding episode intake
rates
Processed
Feeding Data
• Outputs cumulative
intake vs. time
• Shows rate of intake,
structure
• Can output binned data
• Integrates with other
cage data
• Fully traceable
FOOD INTAKE
Processed
Feeding Data
• Outputs cumulative
intake vs. time
• Shows rate of intake,
structure
• Can output binned data
• Integrates with other
cage data
• Fully traceable
Food Selection
• Determine food preference
• Control access to
either/both foods
• Integrates with other
cage data
FOOD INTAKE
FOOD INTAKE ANALYSIS
StartDate StartTime EndDate EndTime InterUp_minUp_min Up_g Up_g_min Stud_t Prob RFID
4/5/2013 18:22:47 4/5/2013 18:24:24 0 1.63 0.017 0.011 10.78 0 45779
4/5/2013 18:24:40 4/5/2013 18:27:02 0.27 2.38 0.004 0.002 2.43 0.029 37355
4/5/2013 18:27:23 4/5/2013 18:28:08 0.35 0.77 0.013 0.017 20.21 0 45779
4/5/2013 18:28:46 4/5/2013 18:29:10 0.63 0.42 0.003 0.008 8.21 0 45779
4/5/2013 18:30:55 4/5/2013 18:32:02 1.75 1.13 0.009 0.008 26.44 0 37355
4/5/2013 18:37:02 4/5/2013 18:41:06 5 4.08 0.089 0.022 8.79 0 37355
4/5/2013 18:41:26 4/5/2013 18:46:00 0.33 4.58 0.068 0.015 77.59 0 45779
4/5/2013 18:48:30 4/5/2013 18:50:40 2.5 2.18 0.06 0.027 302.49 0 37355
4/5/2013 18:58:57 4/5/2013 18:59:08 8.28 0.2 0.006 0.032 16.39 0 37355
4/5/2013 19:27:38 4/5/2013 19:30:36 7.62 2.98 0.083 0.028 164.49 0 37355
4/5/2013 19:31:00 4/5/2013 19:32:44 0.4 1.75 0.072 0.041 150.41 0 45779
4/5/2013 19:35:09 4/5/2013 19:36:23 2.42 1.25 0.114 0.092 11 0 37355
4/5/2013 19:36:53 4/5/2013 19:39:01 0.5 2.15 0.016 0.008 7.64 0 37355
4/5/2013 19:39:11 4/5/2013 19:40:12 0.17 1.03 0.027 0.026 7.89 0 45779
4/5/2013 19:40:50 4/5/2013 19:41:17 0.63 0.47 0.003 0.006 5.99 0 37355
4/5/2013 19:41:32 4/5/2013 19:43:05 0.25 1.57 0.015 0.01 40.12 0 45779
4/5/2013 19:44:50 4/5/2013 19:45:21 1.75 0.53 0.005 0.01 13.2 0 45779
4/5/2013 19:53:24 4/5/2013 19:53:39 6.15 0.27 0.01 0.039 29.99 0 45779
4/5/2013 19:54:15 4/5/2013 19:58:09 0.6 3.92 0.146 0.037 441.09 0 37355
4/5/2013 20:03:56 4/5/2013 20:07:18 5.78 3.38 0.11 0.032 270.45 0 45779
4/5/2013 20:07:27 4/5/2013 20:07:50 0.15 0.4 0.061 0.152 5.23 0 45779
4/5/2013 20:27:15 4/5/2013 20:30:20 19.42 3.1 0.142 0.046 397.8 0 45779
4/5/2013 20:34:13 4/5/2013 20:36:19 3.88 2.12 0.075 0.035 275.58 0 45779
4/5/2013 20:37:13 4/5/2013 20:39:12 0.9 2 0.117 0.058 368.39 0 45779
• Available Over Any
Desired Interval
• Full List Of All Intake
Events
• Resolution 2 mg
• 10-20x Finer Resolution
Than Legacy Systems
• (Highlighted: Events
Visible Only to
Promethion)
• Statistical Verification of
Each Intake Event
• Micro-Intake Events =
30%+ of All Ingestive
Behavior
• Proportion of Micro-
Intake Events is Higher
in the Photophase!
• Each = Initiation & Early
Termination of Ingestive
Behavior
FOOD ACCESS CONTROL
Access Control
Module
• Computer controlled
access to food
• Available for Mouse or
Rat food hoppers
• Intelligent Obstruction
Detection
• Access Control Door
• Connects to mass
sensor
• Light Source & Bedding
Temperature Sensor
• Customizable assays
(paired/yoked)
Food Access Control
• Select from 8 preset assays
• Customize time and duration
• Individual cage setup
Select
Access
Control
Type
Add to your
custom
assay
Unlimited
number of
variations
WATER INTAKE
Water Intake
Monitor
• 2 µL resolution –
accuracy!
• Real-time measurement
• Key is to reduce leakage
• Increased granularity
gives insight into
behavioral patterns
Raw Drinking Data
• Stores bottle mass vs. time
• Recorded to disc at 1Hz
Processed
Drinking Data
• Analyze
behavior
• Eliminate drift
• Determine
individual episode
intake rates
BODY MASS Body Mass
Monitor
• 2 mg resolution
• Real-time measurement
• Recorded to disc at 1Hz
• Highly accurate
• Provides in-cage
enrichment
• Reduced technician
interaction
Raw Body Mass Data
• Measure mass vs. time
• Ensure data is recorded to disc at sufficient
rate (1Hz) – typical log is every 15 min
• Is used about every 15 minutes
Track body
mass over
time
Processed
Body Mass
Data
• Stores most recent
body mass for each
timestamp
• Synchronized with
other data
• No handling stress
Circadian Cycle
Clearly Visible
VOLUNTARY EXERCISE
• Real-time measurement
• Magnetic Reed Switch
• Wheel Stop available
• Increased granularity
gives insight into
behavioral patterns
• Correlates with metabolic
data
Running
Wheel
Raw Running Wheel Data
• Stores RPS vs. time
• Recorded to disc at 1Hz
Processed Running
Wheel Data
• Shows cumulative
distance run
• Can be binned and
synchronized with
metabolic data
TOTAL ACTIVITY
• XY and Z IR arrays
• 1 cm beam spacing
• 0.25cm calculated centroid
• Real-time measurement
• Intelligent obstruction
detection
• Rearing captured with
Z-axis
• Highly accurate
• Not affected by static
obstructions
• Correlated with metabolic
data
• Fine & coarse motion are
separable
Activity Analysis
• Total Activity
• Total Distance Traveled
• Rearing
• Activity associated with in-cage devices
• In cage position vs. time
• Customizable assays
• Position histograms
Activity Comparison
• WT vs. ob/ob
• Interaction with FH-MB
• Time spent time spent near food hopper
• Time spent at cage perimeter vs. inside
CALORIMETRY
Flow Generators
& Gas Analyzers
• Automated calibration
• Sequential or continuous
monitoring
• Can group for 4, 8,16, 24,
32 etc. cages
• Expandable and modular
• Water vapor dilution
correction
• Integrated O2, CO2, WVP
analyzers
• Pull-mode (negative
pressure)
PULL MODE…
MULTIPLEXED CALORIMETRY
• Metabolic measurement of multiple animals in
sequence
• Economical – shares analyzers between animals
• We can reduce dwell time to < 15 sec, yielding a cycle
time of 2 minutes/8, 16 or 24 animals
• This is < 50% of the time constant of the cages!
• Excellent for determining mean, resting, and active EE
• Even possible to correlate EE with activity
CONTINUOUS CALORIMETRY
• Metabolic measurement of multiple animals
simultaneously
• One analyzer chain per animal
• Time resolution for metabolic signals = 1 second
• This allows mathematical removal of washout effects
• Excellent for determining even the most fleeting and
subtle metabolic signals
DATA ANALYSIS Data
Synchronization
• Overlay metabolic data
with other continuously
monitored parameters
• All data are perfectly
synchronized and can be
exported to other
programs if required
(open formats)
It’s All About Data Resolution
BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS
Raw Data Synchronization - Zoomed
•Body mass (black), food intake (red), wheel (gold), and water intake (blue)
Automatic
Behavior
Extraction
EFODA Intake from food hopper A (significant intake found)
TFODA Interaction with food hopper A (no significant intake)
DWATR Intake from water dispenser (significant intake found)
TWATR Interaction with water dispenser (no significant intake)
WHEEL Interaction with wheel (>= 1 revolution)
IHOME Entered habitat (stable mass reading)
THOME Interaction with habitat (no stable mass reading)
LLNGE Long lounge (> 60 sec, no non-XY sensor interactions)
SLNGE Short lounge (5 - 60 sec, no non-XY sensor interactions)
EFODB Intake from food hopper B (significant intake found)
TFODB Interaction with food hopper B (no significant intake)
• Based On Sensor
Interactions
• Fully Automated
• No Video Analysis
Required
• All Animals
Simultaneously
EACH BEHAVIOR HAS:
1. Date and time of start, end of behavior
2. Seconds duration
3. Mean X, Y position during behavior
4. Total distance in cm moved during behavior
5. Percent of time spent rearing during behavior
6. Quantification of behavior (behavior-dependent), e.g.:
1. Mass of food or water intake
2. Meters run on wheel
3. Body mass (in habitat)
7. Optional parameters (e.g. EE, RQ, Tb, HR, etc. etc.) as specified
BEHAVIOR DATA LIST
Start_Date Start_Time End_Time Durat_Sec Activity Amount Rear% X_cm Y_cm S_cm
5/26/2012 18:33:33 18:33:53 22 IHOME 21.896 0 8.8 22.3 0
5/26/2012 18:33:54 18:34:05 13 SLNGE 17 100 8.8 18.4 17
5/26/2012 18:34:06 18:35:46 107 WHEEL 56 0 9.1 3.8 0
5/26/2012 18:35:47 18:36:07 23 SLNGE 38 100 8.6 12.3 38
5/26/2012 18:36:08 18:37:51 110 WHEEL 79 0 9.1 3.8 0
5/26/2012 18:37:52 18:38:00 10 SLNGE 8 100 9.3 4.6 8
5/26/2012 18:38:01 18:38:07 7 DWATR 0.013 85.7 8.7 24.2 8
5/26/2012 18:38:08 18:38:25 19 SLNGE 29 100 8.3 22 29
5/26/2012 18:38:26 18:42:52 284 WHEEL 184 0 9.1 4.1 0
5/26/2012 18:42:52 18:43:03 12 SLNGE 4 100 9 4.3 4
5/26/2012 18:43:04 18:43:08 5 DWATR 0.052 80 8.3 16 17
5/26/2012 18:43:08 18:43:15 8 SLNGE 0 12.5 8.1 22.2 0
5/26/2012 18:43:16 18:43:21 6 THOME 0 83.3 8.7 21.8 0
5/26/2012 18:43:22 18:43:42 23 SLNGE 18 65.2 10.2 17.5 18
5/26/2012 18:43:43 18:43:45 3 WHEEL 44 0 9.6 4.8 0
5/26/2012 18:43:46 18:43:51 6 TFODA 0 100 9.5 16.1 18
5/26/2012 18:43:52 18:44:54 67 WHEEL 44 0 9.1 4.1 0
5/26/2012 18:44:55 18:45:18 26 SLNGE 20 69.2 9.9 6.5 20
5/26/2012 18:45:19 19:59:49 4756 IHOME 21.971 0 8.8 22 0
5/26/2012 19:59:50 19:59:57 9 SLNGE 1 100 8.8 21.9 1
5/26/2012 19:59:58 20:03:39 236 EFODA 0.058 42.4 9 20.2 2
TIME BUDGETS
Behavior Minutes Percent
efoda 153.2 11.51
tfoda 3.6 0.27
dwatr 9.5 0.71
twatr 1.3 0.1
wheel 212.2 15.94
ihome 596.2 44.78
thome 5.6 0.42
llnge 281.4 21.13
slnge 68.3 5.13
LOCOMOTION BUDGET (-WHEEL)
Behavior Meters Percent
efoda 13.5 14.37
tfoda 3.3 3.56
dwatr 6.4 6.79
twatr 0.8 0.82
ihome 0 0
thome 2.4 2.55
llnge 36.2 38.63
slnge 31.2 33.28
LOCOMOTION BUDGET (+WHEEL)
Behavior Meters Percent
efoda 13.5 0.4
tfoda 3.3 0.1
dwatr 6.4 0.19
twatr 0.8 0.02
wheel 3241.2 97.19
ihome 0 0
thome 2.4 0.07
llnge 36.2 1.08
slnge 31.2 0.93
TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRIX
efoda tfoda dwatr twatr wheel ihome thome llnge slnge
efoda 0 0 10.64 2.13 2.13 6.38 0 12.77 65.96
tfoda 0 0 7.14 3.57 14.29 0 0 7.14 67.86
dwatr 5.13 2.56 0 0 0 2.56 0 2.56 87.18
twatr 11.11 22.22 0 0 11.11 0 0 22.22 33.33
wheel 0 3.06 0 1.02 0 0 0 5.1 90.82
ihome 0 0 0 1.39 0 0 0 34.72 63.89
thome 0 2.44 0 0 2.44 0 0 26.83 68.29
llnge 13.21 20.75 1.89 1.89 11.32 20.75 30.19 0 0
slnge 14.8 4 12.4 1.6 34 22.8 10.4 0 0
EthoScan: Can Extract Behavior-Specific Data!
Activity Amount Rear% X_cm Y_cm S_cm temp light kcal_hr_2 RQ_2
LLNGE 28 14.8 8.4 7.6 28 21.10325 0.734515 0.34031 0.764798
EFODA 0.081 49.4 9.1 20.1 13 21.10951 0.739017 0.48767 0.800055
SLNGE 7 100 9.7 6.9 7 21.14026 0.738523 0.484761 0.790139
WHEEL 6 0 9.1 4 0 21.14551 2.797765 0.52275 0.817151
SLNGE 2 100 9 4.2 2 21.15659 3.756291 0.569091 0.818588
THOME 0 100 9 4.8 0 21.16365 3.747151 0.569289 0.80943
SLNGE 0 100 9 4.4 0 21.15832 3.740504 0.542788 0.822751
WHEEL 54 0 9.1 3.8 0 21.16305 3.725633 0.612379 0.826051
SLNGE 2 100 9.2 3.9 2 21.11449 3.715779 0.629385 0.832367
TFODA 0 100 12.3 17.3 5 21.11274 3.714397 0.642374 0.837089
SLNGE 29 77.8 7.6 10.7 29 21.10952 3.712675 0.642436 0.842363
DWATR 0.017 0 8.3 22 4 21.09149 3.712122 0.628371 0.843027
Resting EE…
Cause of this
variation?
• Short Visits to Habitat
Correlate with High EE
• Long Visits = Separate
Data Population
• Why?
• To Answer – Need High
Temporal Resolution of
Metabolic Signals
IN ENRICHMENT HABITAT
ACTH &
Cortisol spike?
DETAIL OF EE IN HABITAT
• Cool-Down Period Lasts
~15 Min
• Variable Low Activity
Duration Correlates with
Low EE
• ANY Movement is
Detectable in Habitat
• EE Rises PRIOR to
Activity (Leaving
Habitat)
• How Can You Apply
This?
CONSISTENT > of EE before activity begins!
It’s All About Data Resolution
Activity…
Variation
caused by
different
running
speeds
RUNNING WHEEL
• Most Energy-
Intensive
Behavior in Cage
• C57BL/6J Mice
Run ~6km in
Scotophase
• Variable
Metabolic
Signature
MEASURING RUNNING ENERGETICS
Steve Wickler & Horse Rosemary Gillespie & Ant
RUNNING MICE = DIFFICULT!
Frustrated mouse… Scared mouse…
CORTISOL!!
We had a thought! Instead of a Treadmill…
Mouse 1 of 8
C57BL/6J male
Body mass 24.89 g
Ambient 21.04 °C
100% voluntary, stress-free locomotion
• muscle function
• coordination
• cardiovascular condition
• free of stress bias
STRESSLESS LOCOMOTION ENERGETICS
… AND SELF-CONSISTENT (8 MICE, 1 NIGHT)
Data Also
Consistent
with
Literature
Values
Food Intake…
SHORT INTAKE DURATION = LOW INTAKE AMOUNT
FOOD INTAKE – HIGH EE AT SHORT INTAKES
• Micro-Intakes More
Common in Photophase
• Often Occur After Brief
High EE (e.g. Wheel
Running) Episodes
• Feedforward?
LEGACY INTAKE EVENT DETECTION…
• Adequate for Total Food
Intake Measurements
• Miss a Significant
Proportion (>30%) of
Ingestive Events
HIGH RESOLUTION INTAKE EVENT DETECTION
• Full Complexity of
Ingestive Behavior is
Captured
• Made Possible by
Advanced Data
Acquisition Techniques
(1:500,000 Resolution)
• Statistically Verified
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
• Sound Level
• Light Level
• Occupancy
• Temperature
• RH%
• Barometric Pressure
“darkness” (not)
Office
light is on
Move
around
office
Lights off,
close door,
then open it
ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMPLE
• This is from my office
• Moving around
• Closing the door
• Opening the door
• Exit sign down the
hall very dimly
illuminates the room
(practically darkness)
OMG!
OMG!
OMG!
LOL
ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMPLE
• Environmental
factors influence
animal behavior and
metabolism
• Without recording
environmental
factors, such effects
add noise to the data
(= unexplained
variations)
ENVIRONMENT EXPLAINED
Result: Cleaner
data with fewer
outliers
• Possible to explain
otherwise mysterious
responses by
experimental animals
PROMETHION
Light Field Camera
= Raw Light Data
Light Field Camera
= Raw Light Data
Light Field Camera
= Raw Light Data
It’s All About Resolution
Worried about
Raw Data
Information
Overload?
The Exact Information
You Require
SCRIPT ACCESS…
Chapter 1. A Brief History of Metabolic Measurement
Chapter 2. Constant Volume and Constant Pressure Respirometry
Chapter 3. Coulometric Respirometry
Chapter 4. Constant Volume Techniques Using Gas Analysis
Chapter 5. Aquatic Oxygen Analysis
Chapter 6. Direct Calorimetry
Chapter 7. Measuring Field Metabolic Rates
Chapter 8. Flowthrough Respirometry: Overview
Chapter 9. Flowthrough Respirometry: The Equations
Chapter 10. Flowthrough Respirometry Using Incurrent Flow Measurement
Chapter 11. Flowthrough Respirometry Using Excurrent Flow Measurement
Chapter 12. Validating Flowthrough Respirometry
Chapter 13. Metabolic Data Analysis and Presentation
Chapter 14. The Varieties Of Gas Analyzers
Chapter 15. The Varieties Of Flow Meters
Chapter 16. The Varieties Of Activity Detectors
Chapter 17. The Varieties Of Scrubbers, Tubing And Tubing Connectors
Thank You!
For additional information on continuous or
multiplexed metabolic measurements and
behavioral systems please visit:
http://sablesys.com

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Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake: Are You Seeing The Whole Picture?

  • 1. Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake: Are You Seeing The Whole Picture?
  • 2. Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake: Are You Seeing The Whole Picture? Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake (John Lighton, PhD) • What is your Aim? • Essential Tech, Tools and Approach • It’s All About Data Resolution (Resting EE, Activity, and Food Intake) • Environmental Influences • Some Additional Tech and Closing Thoughts
  • 3. InsideScientific is an online educational environment designed for life science researchers. Our goal is to aid in the sharing and distribution of scientific information regarding innovative technologies, protocols, research tools and laboratory services.
  • 4. Circadian Rhythms of Food Intake: Are You Seeing The Whole Picture? John Lighton, PhD President & Chief Scientist, Sable Systems International Copyright 2015 InsideScientific & Sable Systems International. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Question: What is Your Aim? Ultimately, that’s up to you & your research questions! But - • Proximately, you probably need to obtain data… • Now: Describing proximate ends to achieve your ultimate goals • Also some interesting findings… – On intake (food, water), and output (metabolic heat and activity) – These data should be synchronized – These data should have high temporal resolution – The data resolution should be high – Analytical flexibility should be maximal – The more data modalities, the better…
  • 6. THE CAGE… • The ideal is… • Home Cage • Ambient RH • Autoclavable • BPA-free • No seal required • Metabolic measurement optional
  • 7.
  • 8. MASS MONITORING • Req’d for Gravimetric Intake Monitoring • Force Transducer = Easy, Cheap • Limited Range • Poor Resolution • OK for Student Labs • The Alternative…
  • 9. MASS MONITORING • Real Load Cell (the standard for accurate mass measurement) • Lab Balance Resolution, Range • Radical Innovation (compact, intelligent, retains individual calibration) Addresses Resolution Challenges and issues of “dead volume”
  • 10. FOOD INTAKE • Universal Load Cell • Real-time measurement • Recorded to disc at 1Hz • 2 mg resolution, 1 kg range • Crumb tray – no spillage • Grille spacing reduces caching = accurate intake • Multiple grilles available • Fine granularity gives insight into behavioral patterns
  • 11. Raw Feeding Data • Stores hopper mass vs. time • Recorded to disc at 1Hz One Feeding Episode • Analyze behavior • Determine individual feeding episode intake rates
  • 12. Processed Feeding Data • Outputs cumulative intake vs. time • Shows rate of intake, structure • Can output binned data • Integrates with other cage data • Fully traceable FOOD INTAKE
  • 13. Processed Feeding Data • Outputs cumulative intake vs. time • Shows rate of intake, structure • Can output binned data • Integrates with other cage data • Fully traceable Food Selection • Determine food preference • Control access to either/both foods • Integrates with other cage data FOOD INTAKE
  • 14. FOOD INTAKE ANALYSIS StartDate StartTime EndDate EndTime InterUp_minUp_min Up_g Up_g_min Stud_t Prob RFID 4/5/2013 18:22:47 4/5/2013 18:24:24 0 1.63 0.017 0.011 10.78 0 45779 4/5/2013 18:24:40 4/5/2013 18:27:02 0.27 2.38 0.004 0.002 2.43 0.029 37355 4/5/2013 18:27:23 4/5/2013 18:28:08 0.35 0.77 0.013 0.017 20.21 0 45779 4/5/2013 18:28:46 4/5/2013 18:29:10 0.63 0.42 0.003 0.008 8.21 0 45779 4/5/2013 18:30:55 4/5/2013 18:32:02 1.75 1.13 0.009 0.008 26.44 0 37355 4/5/2013 18:37:02 4/5/2013 18:41:06 5 4.08 0.089 0.022 8.79 0 37355 4/5/2013 18:41:26 4/5/2013 18:46:00 0.33 4.58 0.068 0.015 77.59 0 45779 4/5/2013 18:48:30 4/5/2013 18:50:40 2.5 2.18 0.06 0.027 302.49 0 37355 4/5/2013 18:58:57 4/5/2013 18:59:08 8.28 0.2 0.006 0.032 16.39 0 37355 4/5/2013 19:27:38 4/5/2013 19:30:36 7.62 2.98 0.083 0.028 164.49 0 37355 4/5/2013 19:31:00 4/5/2013 19:32:44 0.4 1.75 0.072 0.041 150.41 0 45779 4/5/2013 19:35:09 4/5/2013 19:36:23 2.42 1.25 0.114 0.092 11 0 37355 4/5/2013 19:36:53 4/5/2013 19:39:01 0.5 2.15 0.016 0.008 7.64 0 37355 4/5/2013 19:39:11 4/5/2013 19:40:12 0.17 1.03 0.027 0.026 7.89 0 45779 4/5/2013 19:40:50 4/5/2013 19:41:17 0.63 0.47 0.003 0.006 5.99 0 37355 4/5/2013 19:41:32 4/5/2013 19:43:05 0.25 1.57 0.015 0.01 40.12 0 45779 4/5/2013 19:44:50 4/5/2013 19:45:21 1.75 0.53 0.005 0.01 13.2 0 45779 4/5/2013 19:53:24 4/5/2013 19:53:39 6.15 0.27 0.01 0.039 29.99 0 45779 4/5/2013 19:54:15 4/5/2013 19:58:09 0.6 3.92 0.146 0.037 441.09 0 37355 4/5/2013 20:03:56 4/5/2013 20:07:18 5.78 3.38 0.11 0.032 270.45 0 45779 4/5/2013 20:07:27 4/5/2013 20:07:50 0.15 0.4 0.061 0.152 5.23 0 45779 4/5/2013 20:27:15 4/5/2013 20:30:20 19.42 3.1 0.142 0.046 397.8 0 45779 4/5/2013 20:34:13 4/5/2013 20:36:19 3.88 2.12 0.075 0.035 275.58 0 45779 4/5/2013 20:37:13 4/5/2013 20:39:12 0.9 2 0.117 0.058 368.39 0 45779 • Available Over Any Desired Interval • Full List Of All Intake Events • Resolution 2 mg • 10-20x Finer Resolution Than Legacy Systems • (Highlighted: Events Visible Only to Promethion) • Statistical Verification of Each Intake Event
  • 15. • Micro-Intake Events = 30%+ of All Ingestive Behavior • Proportion of Micro- Intake Events is Higher in the Photophase! • Each = Initiation & Early Termination of Ingestive Behavior
  • 16. FOOD ACCESS CONTROL Access Control Module • Computer controlled access to food • Available for Mouse or Rat food hoppers • Intelligent Obstruction Detection • Access Control Door • Connects to mass sensor • Light Source & Bedding Temperature Sensor • Customizable assays (paired/yoked)
  • 17. Food Access Control • Select from 8 preset assays • Customize time and duration • Individual cage setup Select Access Control Type Add to your custom assay Unlimited number of variations
  • 18. WATER INTAKE Water Intake Monitor • 2 µL resolution – accuracy! • Real-time measurement • Key is to reduce leakage • Increased granularity gives insight into behavioral patterns
  • 19. Raw Drinking Data • Stores bottle mass vs. time • Recorded to disc at 1Hz Processed Drinking Data • Analyze behavior • Eliminate drift • Determine individual episode intake rates
  • 20. BODY MASS Body Mass Monitor • 2 mg resolution • Real-time measurement • Recorded to disc at 1Hz • Highly accurate • Provides in-cage enrichment • Reduced technician interaction
  • 21. Raw Body Mass Data • Measure mass vs. time • Ensure data is recorded to disc at sufficient rate (1Hz) – typical log is every 15 min • Is used about every 15 minutes Track body mass over time
  • 22. Processed Body Mass Data • Stores most recent body mass for each timestamp • Synchronized with other data • No handling stress Circadian Cycle Clearly Visible
  • 23. VOLUNTARY EXERCISE • Real-time measurement • Magnetic Reed Switch • Wheel Stop available • Increased granularity gives insight into behavioral patterns • Correlates with metabolic data Running Wheel
  • 24. Raw Running Wheel Data • Stores RPS vs. time • Recorded to disc at 1Hz Processed Running Wheel Data • Shows cumulative distance run • Can be binned and synchronized with metabolic data
  • 25. TOTAL ACTIVITY • XY and Z IR arrays • 1 cm beam spacing • 0.25cm calculated centroid • Real-time measurement • Intelligent obstruction detection • Rearing captured with Z-axis • Highly accurate • Not affected by static obstructions • Correlated with metabolic data • Fine & coarse motion are separable
  • 26. Activity Analysis • Total Activity • Total Distance Traveled • Rearing • Activity associated with in-cage devices • In cage position vs. time • Customizable assays • Position histograms Activity Comparison • WT vs. ob/ob • Interaction with FH-MB • Time spent time spent near food hopper • Time spent at cage perimeter vs. inside
  • 27.
  • 28. CALORIMETRY Flow Generators & Gas Analyzers • Automated calibration • Sequential or continuous monitoring • Can group for 4, 8,16, 24, 32 etc. cages • Expandable and modular • Water vapor dilution correction • Integrated O2, CO2, WVP analyzers • Pull-mode (negative pressure)
  • 30. MULTIPLEXED CALORIMETRY • Metabolic measurement of multiple animals in sequence • Economical – shares analyzers between animals • We can reduce dwell time to < 15 sec, yielding a cycle time of 2 minutes/8, 16 or 24 animals • This is < 50% of the time constant of the cages! • Excellent for determining mean, resting, and active EE • Even possible to correlate EE with activity
  • 31. CONTINUOUS CALORIMETRY • Metabolic measurement of multiple animals simultaneously • One analyzer chain per animal • Time resolution for metabolic signals = 1 second • This allows mathematical removal of washout effects • Excellent for determining even the most fleeting and subtle metabolic signals
  • 32. DATA ANALYSIS Data Synchronization • Overlay metabolic data with other continuously monitored parameters • All data are perfectly synchronized and can be exported to other programs if required (open formats)
  • 33. It’s All About Data Resolution
  • 34. BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS Raw Data Synchronization - Zoomed •Body mass (black), food intake (red), wheel (gold), and water intake (blue)
  • 35. Automatic Behavior Extraction EFODA Intake from food hopper A (significant intake found) TFODA Interaction with food hopper A (no significant intake) DWATR Intake from water dispenser (significant intake found) TWATR Interaction with water dispenser (no significant intake) WHEEL Interaction with wheel (>= 1 revolution) IHOME Entered habitat (stable mass reading) THOME Interaction with habitat (no stable mass reading) LLNGE Long lounge (> 60 sec, no non-XY sensor interactions) SLNGE Short lounge (5 - 60 sec, no non-XY sensor interactions) EFODB Intake from food hopper B (significant intake found) TFODB Interaction with food hopper B (no significant intake) • Based On Sensor Interactions • Fully Automated • No Video Analysis Required • All Animals Simultaneously
  • 36. EACH BEHAVIOR HAS: 1. Date and time of start, end of behavior 2. Seconds duration 3. Mean X, Y position during behavior 4. Total distance in cm moved during behavior 5. Percent of time spent rearing during behavior 6. Quantification of behavior (behavior-dependent), e.g.: 1. Mass of food or water intake 2. Meters run on wheel 3. Body mass (in habitat) 7. Optional parameters (e.g. EE, RQ, Tb, HR, etc. etc.) as specified
  • 37. BEHAVIOR DATA LIST Start_Date Start_Time End_Time Durat_Sec Activity Amount Rear% X_cm Y_cm S_cm 5/26/2012 18:33:33 18:33:53 22 IHOME 21.896 0 8.8 22.3 0 5/26/2012 18:33:54 18:34:05 13 SLNGE 17 100 8.8 18.4 17 5/26/2012 18:34:06 18:35:46 107 WHEEL 56 0 9.1 3.8 0 5/26/2012 18:35:47 18:36:07 23 SLNGE 38 100 8.6 12.3 38 5/26/2012 18:36:08 18:37:51 110 WHEEL 79 0 9.1 3.8 0 5/26/2012 18:37:52 18:38:00 10 SLNGE 8 100 9.3 4.6 8 5/26/2012 18:38:01 18:38:07 7 DWATR 0.013 85.7 8.7 24.2 8 5/26/2012 18:38:08 18:38:25 19 SLNGE 29 100 8.3 22 29 5/26/2012 18:38:26 18:42:52 284 WHEEL 184 0 9.1 4.1 0 5/26/2012 18:42:52 18:43:03 12 SLNGE 4 100 9 4.3 4 5/26/2012 18:43:04 18:43:08 5 DWATR 0.052 80 8.3 16 17 5/26/2012 18:43:08 18:43:15 8 SLNGE 0 12.5 8.1 22.2 0 5/26/2012 18:43:16 18:43:21 6 THOME 0 83.3 8.7 21.8 0 5/26/2012 18:43:22 18:43:42 23 SLNGE 18 65.2 10.2 17.5 18 5/26/2012 18:43:43 18:43:45 3 WHEEL 44 0 9.6 4.8 0 5/26/2012 18:43:46 18:43:51 6 TFODA 0 100 9.5 16.1 18 5/26/2012 18:43:52 18:44:54 67 WHEEL 44 0 9.1 4.1 0 5/26/2012 18:44:55 18:45:18 26 SLNGE 20 69.2 9.9 6.5 20 5/26/2012 18:45:19 19:59:49 4756 IHOME 21.971 0 8.8 22 0 5/26/2012 19:59:50 19:59:57 9 SLNGE 1 100 8.8 21.9 1 5/26/2012 19:59:58 20:03:39 236 EFODA 0.058 42.4 9 20.2 2
  • 38. TIME BUDGETS Behavior Minutes Percent efoda 153.2 11.51 tfoda 3.6 0.27 dwatr 9.5 0.71 twatr 1.3 0.1 wheel 212.2 15.94 ihome 596.2 44.78 thome 5.6 0.42 llnge 281.4 21.13 slnge 68.3 5.13
  • 39. LOCOMOTION BUDGET (-WHEEL) Behavior Meters Percent efoda 13.5 14.37 tfoda 3.3 3.56 dwatr 6.4 6.79 twatr 0.8 0.82 ihome 0 0 thome 2.4 2.55 llnge 36.2 38.63 slnge 31.2 33.28
  • 40. LOCOMOTION BUDGET (+WHEEL) Behavior Meters Percent efoda 13.5 0.4 tfoda 3.3 0.1 dwatr 6.4 0.19 twatr 0.8 0.02 wheel 3241.2 97.19 ihome 0 0 thome 2.4 0.07 llnge 36.2 1.08 slnge 31.2 0.93
  • 41. TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRIX efoda tfoda dwatr twatr wheel ihome thome llnge slnge efoda 0 0 10.64 2.13 2.13 6.38 0 12.77 65.96 tfoda 0 0 7.14 3.57 14.29 0 0 7.14 67.86 dwatr 5.13 2.56 0 0 0 2.56 0 2.56 87.18 twatr 11.11 22.22 0 0 11.11 0 0 22.22 33.33 wheel 0 3.06 0 1.02 0 0 0 5.1 90.82 ihome 0 0 0 1.39 0 0 0 34.72 63.89 thome 0 2.44 0 0 2.44 0 0 26.83 68.29 llnge 13.21 20.75 1.89 1.89 11.32 20.75 30.19 0 0 slnge 14.8 4 12.4 1.6 34 22.8 10.4 0 0
  • 42. EthoScan: Can Extract Behavior-Specific Data! Activity Amount Rear% X_cm Y_cm S_cm temp light kcal_hr_2 RQ_2 LLNGE 28 14.8 8.4 7.6 28 21.10325 0.734515 0.34031 0.764798 EFODA 0.081 49.4 9.1 20.1 13 21.10951 0.739017 0.48767 0.800055 SLNGE 7 100 9.7 6.9 7 21.14026 0.738523 0.484761 0.790139 WHEEL 6 0 9.1 4 0 21.14551 2.797765 0.52275 0.817151 SLNGE 2 100 9 4.2 2 21.15659 3.756291 0.569091 0.818588 THOME 0 100 9 4.8 0 21.16365 3.747151 0.569289 0.80943 SLNGE 0 100 9 4.4 0 21.15832 3.740504 0.542788 0.822751 WHEEL 54 0 9.1 3.8 0 21.16305 3.725633 0.612379 0.826051 SLNGE 2 100 9.2 3.9 2 21.11449 3.715779 0.629385 0.832367 TFODA 0 100 12.3 17.3 5 21.11274 3.714397 0.642374 0.837089 SLNGE 29 77.8 7.6 10.7 29 21.10952 3.712675 0.642436 0.842363 DWATR 0.017 0 8.3 22 4 21.09149 3.712122 0.628371 0.843027
  • 44. Cause of this variation? • Short Visits to Habitat Correlate with High EE • Long Visits = Separate Data Population • Why? • To Answer – Need High Temporal Resolution of Metabolic Signals IN ENRICHMENT HABITAT
  • 45. ACTH & Cortisol spike? DETAIL OF EE IN HABITAT • Cool-Down Period Lasts ~15 Min • Variable Low Activity Duration Correlates with Low EE • ANY Movement is Detectable in Habitat • EE Rises PRIOR to Activity (Leaving Habitat) • How Can You Apply This?
  • 46. CONSISTENT > of EE before activity begins!
  • 47. It’s All About Data Resolution
  • 49. Variation caused by different running speeds RUNNING WHEEL • Most Energy- Intensive Behavior in Cage • C57BL/6J Mice Run ~6km in Scotophase • Variable Metabolic Signature
  • 50. MEASURING RUNNING ENERGETICS Steve Wickler & Horse Rosemary Gillespie & Ant
  • 51. RUNNING MICE = DIFFICULT! Frustrated mouse… Scared mouse… CORTISOL!!
  • 52. We had a thought! Instead of a Treadmill…
  • 53. Mouse 1 of 8 C57BL/6J male Body mass 24.89 g Ambient 21.04 °C 100% voluntary, stress-free locomotion • muscle function • coordination • cardiovascular condition • free of stress bias STRESSLESS LOCOMOTION ENERGETICS
  • 54. … AND SELF-CONSISTENT (8 MICE, 1 NIGHT)
  • 57. SHORT INTAKE DURATION = LOW INTAKE AMOUNT
  • 58. FOOD INTAKE – HIGH EE AT SHORT INTAKES • Micro-Intakes More Common in Photophase • Often Occur After Brief High EE (e.g. Wheel Running) Episodes • Feedforward?
  • 59. LEGACY INTAKE EVENT DETECTION… • Adequate for Total Food Intake Measurements • Miss a Significant Proportion (>30%) of Ingestive Events
  • 60. HIGH RESOLUTION INTAKE EVENT DETECTION • Full Complexity of Ingestive Behavior is Captured • Made Possible by Advanced Data Acquisition Techniques (1:500,000 Resolution) • Statistically Verified
  • 61. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES • Sound Level • Light Level • Occupancy • Temperature • RH% • Barometric Pressure
  • 62. “darkness” (not) Office light is on Move around office Lights off, close door, then open it ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMPLE • This is from my office • Moving around • Closing the door • Opening the door • Exit sign down the hall very dimly illuminates the room (practically darkness)
  • 63. OMG! OMG! OMG! LOL ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMPLE • Environmental factors influence animal behavior and metabolism • Without recording environmental factors, such effects add noise to the data (= unexplained variations)
  • 64. ENVIRONMENT EXPLAINED Result: Cleaner data with fewer outliers • Possible to explain otherwise mysterious responses by experimental animals
  • 66. Light Field Camera = Raw Light Data
  • 67. Light Field Camera = Raw Light Data
  • 68. It’s All About Resolution
  • 70. The Exact Information You Require SCRIPT ACCESS…
  • 71. Chapter 1. A Brief History of Metabolic Measurement Chapter 2. Constant Volume and Constant Pressure Respirometry Chapter 3. Coulometric Respirometry Chapter 4. Constant Volume Techniques Using Gas Analysis Chapter 5. Aquatic Oxygen Analysis Chapter 6. Direct Calorimetry Chapter 7. Measuring Field Metabolic Rates Chapter 8. Flowthrough Respirometry: Overview Chapter 9. Flowthrough Respirometry: The Equations Chapter 10. Flowthrough Respirometry Using Incurrent Flow Measurement Chapter 11. Flowthrough Respirometry Using Excurrent Flow Measurement Chapter 12. Validating Flowthrough Respirometry Chapter 13. Metabolic Data Analysis and Presentation Chapter 14. The Varieties Of Gas Analyzers Chapter 15. The Varieties Of Flow Meters Chapter 16. The Varieties Of Activity Detectors Chapter 17. The Varieties Of Scrubbers, Tubing And Tubing Connectors
  • 72. Thank You! For additional information on continuous or multiplexed metabolic measurements and behavioral systems please visit: http://sablesys.com