Waste leg man_finland saarinen 6-2011

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Waste leg man_finland saarinen 6-2011

  1. 1. Waste Legislation and Management in Finland Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) Risto Saarinen 8.6.2011
  2. 2. SYKE roles in Waste Management Expert institution, providing data and advice for administration and the private sector: Prepares waste data (with Statistics Finland) Drafts policies and strategies for Ministry Participates in drafting of new law Prepares guidelines for waste issues, including BAT Issues permits for transfrontier waste shipments
  3. 3. Finnish Legislative SystemInternational National EC law law law Primary Constitution lawInternational LAW Secondary agreements law Presidential Government Decrees Decrees
  4. 4. Definition by EuropeanWaste framework directive:“Waste" shall mean anysubstance or object in thecategories set out in Annex Iwhich the holder discardsor intends or is required todiscard
  5. 5. ANNEX ICATEGORIES OF WASTEQ1 Production or consumption residues not otherwise specified belowQ2 Off-specification productsQ3 Products whose date for appropriate use has expiredQ4 Materials spilled, lost or having undergone other mishap, including anymaterials, equipment, etc., contaminated as a result of the mishapQ5 Materials contaminated or soiled as a result of planned actions (e.g. residues from cleaningoperations, packing materials, containers, etc.)Q6 Unusable parts (e.g. reject batteries, exhausted catalysts, etc.)Q7 Substances which no longer perform satisfactorily (e.g. contaminated acids, contaminatedsolvents, exhausted tempering salts, etc.)Q8 Residues of industrial processes (e.g. slags, still bottoms, etc.)Q9 Residues from pollution abatement processes (e.g. scrubber sludges, baghouse dusts, spentfilters, etc.)Q10 Machining/finishing residues (e.g. lathe turnings, mill scales, etc.)Q11 Residues from raw materials extraction and processing (e.g. mining residues, oil fieldslops, etc.)Q12 Adulterated materials (e.g. oils contaminated with PCBs, etc.)Q13 Any materials, substances or products the use of which has been banned by lawQ14 Products for which the holder has no further use (e.g.agricultural, household, office, commercial and shop discards, etc.)Q15 Contaminated materials, substances or products resulting from remedial action withrespect to landQ16 Any materials, substances or products which are not contained in the abovementionedcategories.
  6. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS Environmental Policy Strategy and plans Evaluation of Laws, regulations,the instruments COMPANY ITSELF: economic instr. Self Monitoring, Quality Systems, EMS, Environmental Labels Compliance control, Permits,monitoring emissions, notifications, prohibitionswastes and environment
  7. 7. Environmental permits Regional State  Municipal Administrative Environmental Agencies authorities • Major activities: • Minor activities: Small Paper mills, Large wastewater treatment wastewater treatment plants, Treatment of plants, Landfills etc. contaminated soil etc.
  8. 8. Environmental Permit Authorities Supreme Administrative Court Vaasa Administrative CourtRegional State Municipal EnvironmentAdministrative Protection Authorities inAgencies the municipalities
  9. 9. General principles in environmental permits • Integrated approach • Polluter pays principle • Best Available Techniques/Best Environmental Practice • Precautionary principle • Prevention principle • The operator must be aware of impacts, risks and mitigation methods
  10. 10. Permitting procedure APPLICATION Negotiations Informing the public Inspections ComplaintsStatements Opinions Rejoinder of the Applicant Permit Consideration DECISION Information of the Decision APPEAL Legally valid decision APPELATE COURTS
  11. 11. Environmental Permit Conditions Consideration case-by-case Water and air emission limit values (based on BAT, kg/d, mg/l or mg/m3 n) and other requirements Minimum standards for certain emissions to air, water and noise in the Government Decrees Waste utilization, management and prevention Monitoring of operation, emissions and impacts Measures to manage risks and exceptional situations Energy efficiency aspects Compensations of damages to water use Termination of operations
  12. 12. Openness in the Procedure Statements are requested from the following authorities: • the municipality where the installation is located • all the municipalities in the impact area • all the supervision authorities (environmental, fishery...) Other institutes case by case Complaints and opinions can be expressed by: • all the parties (persons) affected by the application • NGO’s and other registered associations Applicant’s rejoinder
  13. 13. Monitoring at industrial plants –defined in the environmental permits  Monitoring of the processes, purification units, chemicals and operative parameters  Monitoring of emissions and waste • quality and quantity • direct 21.6.2011 measurements, sampling, calcula tions • continuous, periodic • includes end–of-pipe, diffuse and exceptional emissions  Impact monitoring • water bodies, ground water and soil • possibly biotests • air quality, deposition • terrestrial ecosystems • often joint monitoring by the
  14. 14. Enforcement - measures to restore the legal state of affairs Initial measures • negotiation (clarification of the illegality of the situation and necessary measures) • notice • demand regarding the measures for restoring the legal state of affairs • request for clarification (required for further measures) Coercive measures Criminal proceedings
  15. 15. Coercive measures Indirect coercive measures • Rectification of the violation • prohibition • order to fulfill duty • order to restore environment or eliminate the harm caused to the environment • order to evaluate the environmental impacts • Increased effectiveness: threat of fine, rectifying the situation at the defaulting party’s expense, or suspending the operations Direct administrative compulsion • Suspension of operation
  16. 16. Actions to be taken in case of environmental offences Offence is reported by the regional environment centre to the police if • the illegal situation is the result of a deliberate act or gross negligence • acts have been only slightly negligent but the consequences are considerable • the illegal situation has gone on for a long time • notices and demand to correct the situation have not been responded to • significant economic benefit has been acquired Offence is not reported to the police if • the act or negligence is not intentional or planned • the operator has observed duty of care and corrected the situation willingly
  17. 17. Environmental regulation of theFinnish industry – key elements Photo: J. Mannio  Robust, predictable and clear regulation and enforcement, interaction between the authorities and the industry already in setting up new regulations, open BAT information exchange  Transparent and interactive permit and enforcement procedures, self-monitoring, environmental reporting  Room and encouragement for improvements and innovations by the companies
  18. 18. Waste Legislation and Strategies in Finland EU Directives are implemented into national law – sometimes even stricter national regulations Biowaste strategy (2016: max 25 % of biodegradable waste to landfills) National Waste Plan until 2016: 50 % material recovery, 30 % energy recovery Waste Act and Decrees, now being redrafted (EU Waste Strategy etc.) Environment Protection Act and Decree Decrees of Council of State (eg. for construction waste) Decrees of the Ministry of the Environment Municipal waste management regulations (orders by municipalities)
  19. 19. Waste hierarcy (different ways to express,same idea)
  20. 20. Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy generally lays down a priority order of what constitutes the best overall environmental option in waste legislation and policy, while departing from such hierarchy may be necessary for specific waste streams when justified for reasons of, inter alia, technical feasibility, economic viability and environmental protection. EU: (a) prevention; (b) preparing for re-use; (c) recycling; (d) other recovery, e.g. energy recovery; and (e) disposal.
  21. 21. General policies in waste management Prevention: The production and harmful impacts of waste shall be reduced and if possible prevented at source. Polluter Pays: The producer of waste takes responsibility of the cost for waste management. Producer Responsibility: Manufacturer and importer bears the responsibility for waste management, instead of waste producer (certain product groups). Precautionary Principle: Potential problems related to wastes and waste management should be anticipated and avoided. Proximity Principle: Waste should be disposed of close to their source. Self-sufficiency Principle: The EU and member states should remain self- sufficient with regard to the disposal of waste
  22. 22. EU Waste Shipment Regulation Detailed permitting mechanisms for all waste shipments Contains also the requirements of the Basel Convention and the OECD Decision Export ban for hazardous waste outside OECD Controls also non-hazardous waste shipments outside OECD (waste/country specifically)
  23. 23. Producer responsibilityFor the following waste streams: • End-of-life vehicles • Tyres • Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) • Waste paper • Packaging waste • Batteries and accumulators 21.6.2011
  24. 24. Waste management (WM) arrangements  Regional WM organizations (35) - Companies or co-operatives of municipalities - WM of 92 % of inhabitants - WM of part of the enterprises  Individual municipalities - WM of inhabitants and part of the enterprises  Private WM companies - WM for enterprises
  25. 25. Waste amounts in Finland (million tons per year) Agriculture, forestry and fishery Maa- ja metsätalous sekä kalastus Mining Mineraalien kaivu Industry Teollisuus Energy production Energiantuotanto Construction Rakentaminen Services Palvelut Households Kotitaloudet 0 5 10 15 20 25 Source: Statistics Finland
  26. 26. Number of municipal landfills  1990 = 480  2000 = 190  2005 = 80  2008 = 50
  27. 27. Alternative waste strategies 1 ”Spread around = use”
  28. 28. Alternative waste strategies 2 ”Encapsulate”
  29. 29. Waste treatment in Europe 2008 (all waste)
  30. 30. Waste treatment in Europe 2008 (all waste) Incineration Disposal Recovery
  31. 31. Waste treatment in Europe 2008 (municipal solid waste)100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0%
  32. 32. Waste treatment in Europe 2008 (municipal solid waste)100%90%80% Recovery70%60%50%40% Incineration Disposal30%20%10% 0%
  33. 33. Climate change mitigation options in waste management  Increase municipal solid waste incineration  Redirect biodegradable industrial and construction waste to energy recovery  Promote anaerobic digestion • Possibly feed tariff for electricity  Ban/tax landfilling for biodegradable and other organic waste  Improve gas utilisation and collection in landfills
  34. 34. Waste definition  Facilitate material recovery by reducing bureaucracy • By-products defined • End-of-waste criteria defined
  35. 35. By-productsA substance or object, resulting from a production process, the primary aimof which is not the production of that item, may be regarded as not beingwaste but as being a by-product only if the following conditions are met:(a) further use of the substance or object is certain;(b) the substance or object can be used directly without any furtherprocessing other than normal industrial practice;(c) the substance or object is produced as an integral part of a productionprocess; and(d) further use is lawful, i.e. the substance or object fulfils all relevantproduct, environmental and health protection requirements for the specificuse and will not lead to
  36. 36. End-of-waste statusCertain specified waste shall cease to be waste when it hasundergone a recovery, including recycling, operation and complieswith specific criteria to be developed in accordance with thefollowing conditions:(a) the substance or object is commonly used for specific purposes;(b) a market or demand exists for such a substance or object;(c) the substance or object fulfils the technical requirements for the specific purposes and meets the existing legislation and standards applicable to products; and(d) the use of the substance or object will not lead to overall adverse environmental or human health impacts.
  37. 37. Waste quality: Main opportunities and threats Component Opportunity Threat Organic carbon Energy and Uncontrollable material recovery methane formation Nutrients Recycling of Eutrophication of nutrients for soil surface water remediation Metals Material recoveryMineral compound Material recovery Harmful Toxicity substances Heavy metals Toxicity
  38. 38. Hazardous waste Treatment of hazardous waste in 2008 2,2 Mt (3 % of total waste amount) • Material recovery 0,3 Mt • Energy recovery 0,04 Mt • Other incineration 0,1 Mt • Landfill 1,8 Mt List of wastes (EU): * mark indicates hazardous waste HW from Households: free of charge to municipal collection (waste stations, big containers, circulating trucks, etc) HW from companies: HW companies collect, price/ quality and amount
  39. 39. Landfills of hazardous waste in operation 31.12.2007 Name Municipality OwnerSuomen Erityisjäte Oy Forssa Waste management companyKuusakoski Oy, Rajavuoren Kaatopaikka Heinola IndustryEkokem Oy Ab Riihimäen toimipiste Riihimäki IndustryEtelä-Karjalan Jätehuolto Oy, Ongelmajätteiden loppusijoitusalue (pilaantuneet maat) Joutseno Waste management companyOutokumpu Tornion tehtaiden Hietainpään kaatopaikka Tornio IndustryOutokumpu Tornion tehtaiden pohjoinen jätealue Tornio IndustryBoliden Harjavalta Oy, Harjavallan läjitysalueet, Rikastushiekka-alue IV/Lammainen Harjavalta IndustryNorilsk Nickel Harjavalta Oy, Harjavallan läjitysalueet, Torttilan rikastushiekka 2 + 3 ja rautasakka-allas Harjavalta IndustryEkokem-Palvelu Oy, Peräkorven käsittelykeskus, teollisuusjätteen kaatopaikka Pori Private companyLakeuden Etappi, ongelmajätteen kaatopaikka Ilmajoki Waste management companyOutokumpu Zinc Oy (Boliden Kokkola Oy:n Kokkolan sinkkitehdas, Jätealue) Kokkola IndustryStormossen Oy, ongelmajätteen kaatopaikka Mustasaari Waste management companyMondo Minerals, Vuonoksen tehdas, Rikastushiekan läjitysalue Outokumpu IndustryJyrin käsittelyasema, Pilaantuneiden maiden käsittelyalue Outokumpu KuntaOulun Jätehuolto, Ruskon jätekeskus, ongelmajätekaatopaikka Oulu KuntaYlä-Savon jätehuolto Oy, Peltomäen jätteenkäsittelypaikka, Peltomäki, raskasöljytuhka Iisalmi Waste management companyYlä-Savon jätehuolto Oy, Peltomäen jätteenkäsittelypaikka, Peltomäki, asbesti Iisalmi Waste management company 21.6.2011Mondo Minerals, Rikastushiekan kaatopaikka Kaavi IndustryRiikinneva, ongelmajätteen täyttöalue 1 (Pilaantuneiden maiden loppusijoitus) Leppävirta MunicipalityRiikinneva, asbesti Leppävirta Municipality
  40. 40. National waste plan (2016) Control of hazardous chemicals in wasteSubstitution of Control of Risk managementhazardous hazardous and wastechemicals in use substances in management of recycled materials contaminated sites Integration with Chemical policy, Soil protection policy
  41. 41. National waste plan (2016)Objective: Prevent hazardousness of waste  Waste approach in Research of hazardous substances  Action plan for substitution of selected chemicals ending up in wastes
  42. 42. National waste plan (2016)Objective: Safeguards against hazardous substances inrecycled materials Self-monitoring and inspection of waste derived products Standards, certificates for waste derived materials and products
  43. 43. National waste plan (2016)Objective: Management of contaminated sites Cooperation of authorities in risk assessment Increase of budget funds for remediation Instructions for utilization of low-risk soil materials Harmonizing of norms for contaminated soil vs. hazardous waste vs. landfilling vs. construction
  44. 44. Examples of recovery Waste paper: Fibre for new paper and board Wastewater sludge: Fertilizer Municipal solid waste: Fuel for CHP plant Batteries: Metals Biowaste: Biogas production Plastic part of a car: Energy and material recovery
  45. 45. Waste paper for fibre recovery
  46. 46. Lifecycle of waste Recovery of carton
  47. 47. 21.6.2011Biogas production
  48. 48. Plastic part of a carSource http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub
  49. 49. Crushed tyres and glassfor construction layers
  50. 50. Tyres for noice control wall
  51. 51. Wastewater sludge for soil remediationComposted wastewater sludgefor landscaping
  52. 52. WEE (waste electronic equipment) to…
  53. 53. …material recovery Circuit board Aluminium Battery Cables Berylliumoxide Plastics Mixed steel
  54. 54. Biowaste to fuel ethanoland fodder for animals Farm Food industry ELINTARVIKE- TEOLLISUUS St1 station Etanolix plant Terminal Absolutation
  55. 55. Waste policy Challenges (and Trends) Balancing between incineration/recycling (incineration coming) Policy tools for material efficiency, waste prevention (SYKE, Motiva) Division of tasks between municipalities and private sector waste companies (waste is a resource with a price) Implementation of producer´s responsibilities (free riders etc.) Balancing between waste recycling and minimizing of health risks (e.g. sludge, waste handling and sorting) Public acceptance of waste facilities (landfills, incinerators, transport) Contaminated soil remediation: limits and costs (how clean?)

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