Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Boilers 
(Steam Generators)
Definition of a boiler 
• A boiler is a device used to generate 
steam at a desired pressure and 
temperature by transferr...
Function of a boiler 
• The fluid is contained in the boiler 
drum called shell and the thermal 
energy released during co...
Applications of boilers 
Power generation: Mechanical or electrical power 
may be generated by expanding steam in the ste...
Factors to be considered 
for selection of good boiler 
1) The working pressure and quality of steam required 
2) Steam ge...
Requirements of an efficient boiler 
1. The boiler should generate maximum amount of steam at a required pressure and 
tem...
Classification of boilers 
Relative position of hot gases and water 
•Fire tube boilers (Cochran, Lancashire, Cornish, Lo...
 Once through boilers 
 Position and number of drums 
• Single drum boilers 
• Multi-drum boilers(Longitudinal or crossw...
Differences between Water-tube and Fire-tube boilers 
Particulars Fire tube boiler Water tube boiler 
Position of 
water a...
Differences between Water-tube and Fire-tube boilers 
Contd….. 
Particulars Fire tube boiler Water tube boiler 
Constructi...
COCHRAN BOILER 
Features of Cochran boiler: 
1)Vertical 
2)Multi-tubular 
3)Internally fired 
4)Natural circulation 
5)Fir...
Construction of COCHRAN BOILER 
Cochran boiler consists of a vertical cylindrical shell, fitted with a 
hemispherical crow...
Working of COCHRAN BOILER 
The Cochran boiler is filled with water to the specified level and maintained 
at that level by...
Advantages & Disadvantages of COCHRAN BOILER 
Advantages 
1)Cochran Boiler occupies less floor space. 
2)Construction cost...
BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER 
Features of Babcock & Wilcox boiler: 
1)Horizontal, Straight & Stationary 
2)Externally fired 
3)...
Construction of BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER 
Babcock and Wilcox boiler is a horizontal, externally fired, natural circulation,...
Working of BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER 
The water is introduced into the boiler drum through a feed valve. A constant water le...
BOILER MOUNTINGS 
1) Pressure gauge 
2) Fusible plug 
3) Steam stop valve 
4) Feed check valve 
5) Blow off cock 
6) Man a...
Man and mud(sight)holes 
These are used to allow men to enter 
inside the boiler for inspection and 
repair.
Two safety valves 
The commonly used safety valves are: 
1)Dead weight safety valve 
2)Lever safety valve 
3)Spring loaded...
Loading arrangement for Lever Safety Valve 
Taking moments about the fulcrum F, we get 
W AF W GF W VF p a VF l v ´ + ´ + ...
BOILER ACCESSORIES 
1) Economiser 
2) Air Preheater 
3) Superheater 
4) Feed Pump 
5) Steam Separator 
6) Steam Trap
Advantages of economizer: 
1. The temperature range between various parts 
of the boiler is reduced which results in 
redu...
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators

28,375 views

Published on

Presentation on types of Steam Generators or Steam Boilers.

Published in: Engineering

Steam Boilers OR Steam Generators

  1. 1. Boilers (Steam Generators)
  2. 2. Definition of a boiler • A boiler is a device used to generate steam at a desired pressure and temperature by transferring heat energy produced by burning fuel to water to change it to steam. • It is a combination of apparatus used for producing, furnishing or recovering heat together with the apparatus for transferring the heat so made available to the fluid being heated and vaporized.
  3. 3. Function of a boiler • The fluid is contained in the boiler drum called shell and the thermal energy released during combustion of fuel is transferred to water and this converts water into steam at the desired temperature and pressure.
  4. 4. Applications of boilers Power generation: Mechanical or electrical power may be generated by expanding steam in the steam engine or steam turbine. Heating: The steam can be used for heating residential and industrial buildings in cold weather and for producing hot waters for hot water supply. Industrial processes: Steam can also be used for industrial processes such as for sizing and bleaching etc. in textile industries and other applications like sugar mills, cement, agricultural and chemical industries.
  5. 5. Factors to be considered for selection of good boiler 1) The working pressure and quality of steam required 2) Steam generation rate 3) Floor area available 4) Accessibility for repair and inspection 5) Comparative initial cost 6) Erection facilities 7) The portable load factor 8) The fuel and water available 9) Operating and maintenance costs
  6. 6. Requirements of an efficient boiler 1. The boiler should generate maximum amount of steam at a required pressure and temperature and quality with minimum fuel consumption and expenses 2. Steam production rate should be as per requirements 3. It should be absolutely reliable 4. It should be light in weight 5. It should not occupy large space. 6. It should be capable of quick starting 7. It should conform to safety regulations. 8. The boiler components should be transportable without difficulty 9. The installation of the boiler should be simple 10. It should have low initial cost, installation cost and maintenance cost. 11. It should be able to cope with fluctuating demands of steam supply. 12. All parts and components should be easily accessible for inspection, repair and replacement. 13. The tubes of the boiler should not accumulate soot or water deposits and should be sufficiently strong to allow for wear and corrosion 14. The water and gas circuits should be such as to allow minimum fluid velocity (for low frictional losses)
  7. 7. Classification of boilers Relative position of hot gases and water •Fire tube boilers (Cochran, Lancashire, Cornish, Locomotive) •Water tube boilers (Babcock and Wilcox boiler, Stirling boiler) Method of firing •Internally fired boilers ( Lancashire, Locomotive) •Externally fired boilers (Babcock and Wilcox boiler) Pressure of steam •High pressure boilers(>80 bars-Cochran,Lancashire,Cornish, Locomotive) •Low pressure boilers (<=80 bars-Babcock and Wilcox boiler, Lamont boiler) Method of circulation of water •Natural circulation boilers (Lancashire, Locomotive, Babcock & Wilcox boilers) •Forced circulation boilers (Two large fire tubes Lancashire boiler, Single large fire tube Cornish boiler, Cochran boiler, Many small tubes Locomotive boiler, Babcock Wilcox water tube boiler) Nature of service to be performed •Land boilers •Mobile boilers (or) Portable boilers
  8. 8.  Once through boilers  Position and number of drums • Single drum boilers • Multi-drum boilers(Longitudinal or crosswise)  Design of gas passages • Single pass boilers • Return pass boilers • Multi-pass boilers  Nature of draught • Natural draught boilers • Artificial draught boilers  Heat source • Combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuels • Electrical and nuclear energy • Hot waste gases of other chemical reactions  Fluid used • Steam boilers • Mercury boilers • Special boilers for heating special chemicals  Material of construction of boiler shell • Cast iron boilers • Steel boilers
  9. 9. Differences between Water-tube and Fire-tube boilers Particulars Fire tube boiler Water tube boiler Position of water and hot Hot gases inside the tubes and gases water outside the tube Water inside the tube and hot gases outside the tubes Mode of firing Generally internally fired Externally fired Operating Operating pressure limited to pressure 16 bar Can work under as high pressures as 100 bar Rate of steam consumption Lower Higher Suitability for large power plants Not suitable Suitable Risk on bursting/explo sion Involves lesser risk on explosion due to lower pressure Involves more risk on bursting due to high pressure Floor area For a given power, occupies more For a given power, occupies less
  10. 10. Differences between Water-tube and Fire-tube boilers Contd….. Particulars Fire tube boiler Water tube boiler Construction Difficult Simple Transportation Difficult Simple Shell diameter Large for same power Small for same power Chances of explosion Less More Treatment of water Not so necessary More necessary Accessibility of various parts Various parts are not so easily accessible for cleaning, repair and inspection Various parts are more accessible Requirement of skill Require less skill for efficient and economic working Require more skill and careful attention
  11. 11. COCHRAN BOILER Features of Cochran boiler: 1)Vertical 2)Multi-tubular 3)Internally fired 4)Natural circulation 5)Fire tube boiler 6)Up to maximum steam pressure of 15 bar 7)Maximum evaporative capacity of 4000 kg of steam per hour.
  12. 12. Construction of COCHRAN BOILER Cochran boiler consists of a vertical cylindrical shell, fitted with a hemispherical crown at its top which form the steam space, and a hemispherical dome which forms the furnace of fire box. A platform over which the fuel burns called fire gate is provided in the furnace. Beneath the grate there is a space, called ash pit to facilitate the collection of ashes. The fuel is charged through the fire door provided at the front end of the furnace. The combustion chamber at the rear end in the middle portion of the boiler is lined with the fire bricks which prevents the overheating of the combustion chamber plate. The furnace and the combustion chamber are interconnected by the elliptical flue tube. The unburnt volatile matter leaving the furnace along with the hot gases are burnt in the combustion chamber. Number of flue tubes connects the combustion chamber and the smoke box fitted at the front end. The chimney provided above the smoke box serves for the escape of gases. The man hole provided at the crown of the boiler facilitates the inspection and repair of the interior of the boiler.
  13. 13. Working of COCHRAN BOILER The Cochran boiler is filled with water to the specified level and maintained at that level by charging with makeup water using a feed water pump and when the water level drops below its specified level. The entire surface of the furnace except the openings for the fire door and the combustion chamber will be surrounded by water. The flue tubes will also be completely submerged in the water. The hot gases from the furnace along with the unburnt volatile matter pass to the combustion chamber through the elliptical flue tube where the unburnt volatile matter burns completely. From the combustion chamber they pass through the horizontal flue tubes to the smoke box. The gases from the smoke box escape to the atmosphere through the chimney. The hot gases while passing through the flue tubes transfer their heat to the water which is also heated by the furnace directly, gets converted into steam and accumulates in the steam space. The steam stop valve allows the steam from the boiler to the steam supply pipe. The Cochran boiler is mounted with the essential mountings and accessories like steam stop valve, safety valve, pressure gauge, water level indicator, fusible plug, blow off valve, feed check valve. The working pressure and steam capacity of Cochran boiler are 6.5 bar and 3500 kg /hr respectively.
  14. 14. Advantages & Disadvantages of COCHRAN BOILER Advantages 1)Cochran Boiler occupies less floor space. 2)Construction cost of Cochran Boiler is Low. 3)Cochran boiler is semi-portable and hence easy to install and transport. 4)Because of self contained furnace no brick work setting is necessary. Disadvantages 1)The capacity of the Cochran boiler is less because of the vertical design. 2)Cochran Boiler requires high head room space. 3)Because of the vertical design, it often presents difficulty in cleaning and inspection.
  15. 15. BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER Features of Babcock & Wilcox boiler: 1)Horizontal, Straight & Stationary 2)Externally fired 3)Natural circulation 4)Water tube boiler 5)Minimum steam pressure of 10 bar 6)Minimum evaporative capacity of 7000 kg of steam per hour.
  16. 16. Construction of BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER Babcock and Wilcox boiler is a horizontal, externally fired, natural circulation, stationary, and water tube boiler. The Babcock and Wilcox water tube boiler consists mainly four parts such as water and steam drum, water tubes, chain grate stoker, superheater tubes. The water and steam drum is suspended from iron girders resting on the iron columns, and is independent of the brick work setting. This arrangement prevents unequal expansion troubles and facilitates repair of the brick work. A number of inclined water tubes at a very low inclination are connected at right angles to the end boxes called headers. The water tubes will be arranged in a number of vertical rows, each row consisting of 40 to 5 tubes. In each vertical row the tubes will be arranged one below the other in a serpentine form. There will be a number of such vertical rows one behind the other. Each one such vertical row of inclined water tubes are connected to one set of two headers. The header at the right end of the water tubes is called down take header and the other at the left end of the water tubes is called uptake header. Each of the vertical rows of water tubes which are arranged one behind the other are connected to one set of headers which are also arranged one behind the other. Each set of the headers are inturn connected to the boiler drum by one set of two tubes, on eat the uptake end and the other at the downtake end. A mud box is provided just below the downtake header. Any sediment in the water, due to its heavier specific gravity will settle down in the mud box and is blown off from time to time through the blow off pipe. The grate is provided at the front end below the uptake header. The boilers of higher capacity are usually provided with a chain grate stoker, which consists of a slowly moving endless chain of grate bars. The coal fed on at the front end of the grate is burnt on the moving grate in the furnace and the residual ash falls at the outer end of the grate into the ash pit. The boiler is fitted with a superheater. The superheater consists of number of U-tubes secured at each end to the horizontal connecting boxes and placed in the combustion chamber below the boiler drum. The upper box of the superheater tube is connected to a T-tube, the upper branches of the T-tube being situated in the steam space in the drum. The lower box of the superheater tubes is connected to the steam stop valve mounted over the drum through a vertical tube passing outside the drum.
  17. 17. Working of BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER The water is introduced into the boiler drum through a feed valve. A constant water level is maintained in the boiler drum. The water descends at the rear end into the downtake headers and passes up in the inclined water tubes, uptake headers and in the tubes connecting the uptake header and the drum. Thus a circuit is established between the drum and the water tubes for the flow of water. The hot gases from the furnace grate are compelled by the baffle plate to pass upwards around the water tubes lying in between the combustion chamber under the water drum, then downwards around the water tubes in between the baffle plates, then once again upwards between the baffle plate and the downtake header, and finally passes out of the boiler through the exit door and the chimney. During this path of the hot gases, the hottest gases emerging directly from the grate come in contact with the hottest portions of the water tubes. The water in these portions of the water tubes gets evaporated. The water and the steam mixture from this portion of the water tubes ascend through the uptake headers and reach the boiler drum. The steam from the steam space in the boiler drum is led into the branches of T-tube, and then it passes into the upper connecting box of the superheater, then through its U-tubes. Since the superheater tubes are fitted in the combustion chamber and exposed to the hot gases, the steam passing in it will be superheated. The superheated steam from the superheater tubes are passed to the steam stop valve through the lower connecting box and the vertical tube fitted outside the drum. From the steam stop valve the superheated steam is passed to the prime-mover. When the superheated steam is not required the steam from the steam space directly passes out to the prime-mover through the steam stop valve.
  18. 18. BOILER MOUNTINGS 1) Pressure gauge 2) Fusible plug 3) Steam stop valve 4) Feed check valve 5) Blow off cock 6) Man and mud(sight)holes 7) Two safety valves 8) Two water level Indicators
  19. 19. Man and mud(sight)holes These are used to allow men to enter inside the boiler for inspection and repair.
  20. 20. Two safety valves The commonly used safety valves are: 1)Dead weight safety valve 2)Lever safety valve 3)Spring loaded safety valve 4)High steam and low water safety valve
  21. 21. Loading arrangement for Lever Safety Valve Taking moments about the fulcrum F, we get W AF W GF W VF p a VF l v ´ + ´ + ´ = ´ ´ Where 2 a =p ´d 4
  22. 22. BOILER ACCESSORIES 1) Economiser 2) Air Preheater 3) Superheater 4) Feed Pump 5) Steam Separator 6) Steam Trap
  23. 23. Advantages of economizer: 1. The temperature range between various parts of the boiler is reduced which results in reduction of stresses due to unequal expansion 2. If the boiler is fed with cold water it may result in chilling the boiler metal. Hot fed water checks it. 3. Evaporative capacity of the boiler is increased. 4. Overall efficiency of the plant is increased.

×