ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTSIKKIM MANIPAL INSTITUTE 0F TECHNOLOGYMAJITAR, RANGPO, EAST SIKKKIM-737136
INTRODUCTIONTHERMAL POWER PLANT OVERVIEWELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS AND CONCEPTS SLD AND FLOW CYCLESSITE SELECTION FOR THERMAL POWERPLANTADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGESIN THIS PRESENTATION
• India is one of the world’s largest consumer ofenergy• Conventional sources: Thermal, Hydro andNuclear.• Non- conventional: Wind, solar, Geothermal, tidal.• Installed capacity – 1,61,352MW– Thermal = 95151.74MW– Nuclear = 4,120MW– Hydro = 36877.76MW– solar = 1324.41MW• Annual power production – 680 billion KWHINTRODUCTION
Break up of Power• Thermal Power Plants – 75%• Hydro Electric Power Plants - 20%• Nuclear Power Plants - 4%• Solar power plants – 1%• Installed wind power Generation – 9655MW• 30% to 40% of electrical power is lost intransmission and distribution
Operations In Thermal Power StationStep wise operations in a thermalpower plant are as follows:-Coal is used as a fuel to boil thewater.Water is boiled to formpressurized steam.Pressurized steam is the force thatcause the turbine to rotate at a veryhigh speed.Low pressure steam after pushingthrough the turbine ,it’s going intothe condenser.Condenser – the place where thesteam is condensed back it it’s liquidform .Then the process isrepeated
Main parts of the plant are :1. Coal handling Plant2. DM Plant3. Boiler4. Super heater5. Air preheater andEconomizer6. Deaerator7. Turbine8. Condenser9. Cooling towers10. Electrostatic precipitator11. Smoke stack(Chimney)12. Generator13. Transformers14. Control room &SwitchyardCOMPONENTS
PROTECTION DEVICES ZERO SPEEDS/W, PULL CORD & BELT SWAY S/W
• ZSS:- Zero speed s/w is used to detect jamming/slow speeding of motor, shaft & therebystopping the motor automatically.• PULL CORD:- Pull cord switch also known asRope Operated Emergency switch is used as asafety switch to stop the conveyor belt in case ofan emergency.PROTECTION DEVICES ZERO SPEEDS/W, PULL CORD & BELT SWAY S/W
BSS:- Belt Sway Switch is a protective switch fordetecting the meandering (sway or deviation) of beltconveyors, and sends out an alarm signal and anemergency stop signal.Suited to be used for belt breakage prevention whenrunning out of centre & overfeed prevention due to thebelt sway.Emergency switch: it is present in the field. One canoperate it while some maintenance is going on.
DM PLANT•The main aim of the DM Plant is to de-mineralize theraw water coming from a water source (in this caseKharu river nearby) from any mineral presence bychemical dosing which may be harmful to the pipelineand boilers.•Cooling tower also comes under DM Plant.
Cooling Tower• The warm water is taken from thecondenser tubes to about a quarterof the way up the cooling tower.• This breaks the water up into avery fine spray, increasing thesurface area of the water dropletsmaking it easier to cool.• The cooling tower is designed as anatural draught chimney, drawingcold air from outside through thefalling water.• Cool water is collected in pond atthe bottom of the cooling tower.• From here it is pumped back tothe condensers .
• To produce steam boiler convertsenergy, in the form of coal, into steam• The boiler is lined with steel tubing inwhich pure boiler feed water is turnedto steam by the heat created from theburning of coalThis plant contains two types of boilersnamely:I. AFBC(Atmospheric Fluidized BedCombustion)II. WHRB(Waste Heat Recovery Boiler)Boiler
Waste Heat RecoveryBoiler(WHRB):-In this type the products of combustionpass through the tubes which aresurrounded by water.Atmospheric Fluidized BedCombustion(AFBC):-In this type of boiler water flows insidethe tubes and hot gases flow outside thetubes. These tubes are interconnected tocommon water channels and to steamoutlet.BOILERS:•The AFBC boilers have many advantages over the WHRBboilers•High evaporation capacity due to availability of large heatingsurface.•Better heat transfer to the mass of water.•Better efficiency of plant owing to rapid and uniformcirculation of water in tubes.•Better overall control.
This fan forces the atmospheric airthrough the boiler furnace andpushes out the hot gases from thefurnace through superheater,reheater, economizer and air heaterto stacks.Forced Draught (FD) Fan Here a fan called ID fan isprovided at the outlet of boiler,that is, just before the chimney.This fan sucks hot gases from thefurnace through the superheaters,economizer, reheater anddischarges gas into the chimney.Induced Draught (ID) FanBOILER AUXILLARY :Primary air fans (PA) are high pressure fans used tosupply the air for the transportation of coal directly tothe furnace .Primary air (PA) fan:-
ECONOMISERFlue gases coming out of the boiler carrieslot of heat.ECONOMISER extracts a part of heatfrom the flue gases and uses for heating thefeed water.Thus improves efficiency of plant.Temp. inside ECONOMISER is about 315deg c.
SUPER HEATERSuper heater is used to remove the moisture contentfrom the steam.Super heater raises the temperature of steam above 540 degree C.Advantages of super heater1. Increases efficiency2. Reduces corrosion of turbine blades.
AIR PREHEATER It is used to preheat the air before enteringinto furnace.It is a heat exchanger in which somefurtherheat is extracted from the flue gases anduse to heat the coming air for combustion.
BOILER CIRCUIT WITH ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
•It is designed to trap and removedust particles from the exhaustgas stream of an industrialprocess.•. Precipitators typically collect99.9% or more of the dust fromthe gas stream.
Corona GenerationParticle ChargingParticle CollectionRemoval Of ParticlesThe Precipitation Process Involves4 Main Functions:-
Circulating Water Pumps• The circulating water pumps are usedto circulate the water from thecooling tower to the condenser andback againBoiler Feed Pump• The boiler feed pump pumps waterinto the boiler, overcoming the boilerpressure of 160 bar to achieve it• The pump is driven by a steamturbine or an electric motor• It runs at 7,000 revolutions perminute
Low Pressure Feed Heaters• Feed water from the condensateextraction pumps passes through lowpressure feed heaters. Steam is usedto heat the feed water• After the last feed heater, the feedwater is at around 160°C.High Pressure Feed Heaters• With a similar purpose to the lowpressure feed heaters, the highpressure feed heaters are the laststage of feed water heating before thefeed water enters the boiler system atthe economizer• Feed water leaving these heaters is at250°C
Condenser• With its useful energy spent in theturbines the steam then passes tocondensers• Here it is condensed back into waterand pumped back to the boiler• This happens via a series of lowpressure and high pressure feedheatersCondensate Extraction Pump• The condensate water is drawn fromthe condenser by the extraction pumpand sent to the low pressure feedheatersDeaerator• A deaerator is a device that iswidely used for the removal of airand other dissolved gases fromthe feed water to steam-generating boiler.
Electrical switchyards are usually part of a substationwhere electricity is transformed from one voltage toanother for the transmission, distribution.48
MAIN COMPONENTS OFSWITCHYARD1.TRANSFORMER2.CURRENTTRANSFORMER3.POTENTIALTRANSFORMER4.CIRCUIT BREAKER5.ISOLATOR6.INSULATOR7.LIGHTNING ARRESTOR8.BUS BAR 49
TRANSFORMERTransformer is the mostconvenient device for transferof power from one voltage toanother voltage at the samefrequency. It works on theprinciple of electromagneticinduction.50Transformers are of two types:STEP-UP TRANSFORMER –Step-up the voltage at secondary side called step up transformer.STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER –Step-down the voltage at secondary side are called step-downtransformer.
CT is a type of instrument transformerthat is used in power system formeasurement, detection, protection ofthe system.It is a device used to measure largecurrent by scaling large primary currentto a smaller , easy to measure,secondary current.51CURRENT TRANSFORMER
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERThese are used to step-down voltage formeasurement .52
A circuit breaker is anautomatically-operated electricalswitch designed to protect anelectrical circuit from damagecaused by overload or short circuit.Its basic function is to detect afault condition and, by interruptingcontinuity, to immediatelydiscontinue electrical flow.It can make or break a circuiteither manually or by remoteunder normal or fault conditions.53CIRCUIT BREAKER
•It is a disconnection switch and tobe operated on no load.•An isolator switch is used to makesure that an electrical circuit canbe completely de-energized forservice or maintenance54ISOLATOR
It provide electricalisolation of theequipment, bus bar,and circuit from thelive parts formaintenancepurpose.55USES OF ISOLATOR
An insulator, also called a dielectric,is a material that resists the flow ofelectriccurrent.In insulating materialsalliance electrons are tightly-bonded to their atoms.Insulator provides necessaryinsulation between lineconductor and support.56INSULATOR
LIGHTNING ARRESTERA lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systemsto protect the insulation on the system from the damagingeffect of lightningUSES OF LIGHTNING ARRESTERIt protect the equipment from lightning stroke.Lightning arrester is used to provide path tounwanted excessive currents.57
BUSBARConductors to which anumber of circuits areconnected called bus-Bars.In power plants, shut downresults disconnection ofsupply to a large are.Hence to avoid shut downthe major plants shouldhave elaborate bus bararrangement with duplicatebuses.58
USES OF BUSBARBus bar are used to carryhigh current.59
• Fuel used is cheaper• Smaller space is required compared to hydro powerplant• Economical in initial cost compared to hydro plantsand running costs are less compared to gas plants ordiesel plants• Thermal plants can be placed near load centers unlikehydro and nuclear plants. Hence transmission ofpower losses can be minimized• Thermal plants are able to respond to the loaddemand more effectively and supports theperformance of the electrical gridADVANTAGES OF THERMAL POWERPLANT
SITE SELECTION• Transportation network: Easy and enough access totransportation network is required in both power plantconstruction and operation periods.• Geology and soil type: The power plant should be built in anarea with soil and rock layers that could stand the weight andvibrations of the power plant.• Topography: It is proved that high elevation has a negativeeffect on production efficiency of gas turbines. In addition,changing of a sloping area into a flat site for the constructionof the power plant needs extra budget. Therefore, theparameters of elevation and slope should be considered.
• Water resources: For the construction and operating ofpower plant different volumes of water are required. Thiscould be supplied from either rivers or underground waterresources. Therefore having enough water supplies indefined vicinity can be a factor in the selection of the site.•Population centers: For the same reasons as above, thesite should have an enough distance from populationcenters.• Area size: Before any other consideration, the minimumarea size required for the construction of power plantshould be defined.
AND……Special Thanks to:Mr. B.L.VERMA(MANAGER)Mr. D.CHAKRABARTY(DY. MANAGER)Mr. U.K.CHOBEY(DY. MANAGER)Mr. C.K.SONI (Sr. Engineer)Mr. S SINGH (Sr. Engineer)Mr. AMRINDER SANDHU(Engineer)And all staffs & workers of power plant.
DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHERMaterial to be crushed:-CoalCapacity :- 80TPHFeed Size < 150mmProduct size < 50mm (90%)RPM:- 173.73Make:-SAYAJI/ELECON
TECHNICAL DETAIL OF I/CR• CAPACITY :-75TPH• SIZE:-1000Dia X 1000W• MATERIAL :-Coal, Char• FEED SIZE:-< 40mm• PRODUCT SIZE:-< 6mm (65%)• RPM:- 762
WORKING PRINCIPLES:FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETICINDUCTION.WHEN EVER CONDUCTOR IS ROTATED IN MAGNETIC FILED,EMF IS INDUCED WHICH ARE INDUCED EMF .1) CONDUCTORS OF ELECTRICITY2) MAGNETIC FIELD3) CHANGE IN MAGNETIC FIELD
CORONA GENERATION• DUE TO THE IONISATION OF GAS MOLECULES, + VE IONS, -VE IONS ANDFREE ELECTRONS ARE GENERATED.
ESP - PARTICLE CHARGING• THE -VE CHARGES OF IONS AND FREE ELECTRONS TRAVEL TOWARDS +VE ELECTRODE AND THE+VE CHARGES OF IONS TRAVEL TOWARDS -VE ELECTRODES.• WHEN -VE IONS TRAVEL TOWARDS +VE ELECTRODES, THE -VE CHARGES GET ATTACHED TO THEDUST PARTICLES AND THUS THE DUST PARTICLES ARE ELECTRICALLY CHARGED,