You are walking down a dark alley late at
night. You hear footsteps behind you and
you begin to tremble, your heart beats
faster, and your breathing deepens. At the
same time as these physiological changes
occur you also experience the emotion of
The theory assume that emotional states
and the physiological reactions work
independently, but are triggered by the
same nerve impulse simultaneously
cannon and bard viewed that we experience
emotions normally because they believed
emotion occur separately. Forum the body’s
Cannon bard theory seems to have been
accurate in it rejection of James, Lange
Theory that physiological arousal alone
accounts for emotions.
It is understands that hypothalamus and
limbic system play a major role in emotion
and not the thalamus .
The Scachter Singer Theory
Stanley Schechter and gernel singer (1962)
were the first who focused on the role of
cognition and emphasized that we identify
the emotion we are experiencing by
observing our environment and comparing
ourselves with other .
According to this theory an event causes
physiological arousal first. You must the
then identify a reason for this arousal
and then you are label to experience and
label the emotion.
You are walking down a dark alley late at
night your foot steps behind you and you
begin to tremble , your heart beat faster and
your breathing deepens upon nothing this
arousal you realize that it comes fuel that
you are walking down a dark alley by you
self this behaviour is dangerous and
therefore you feel the emotion of fear.
This theory is also known two factor theory
two factor theory of emotions
(Mandler1984) Schechter and singer (1962)
According to them emotions result from the
psychological arousal as well as the
cognitive appraisal ( evolution ) of the
Arousal comes first and is general in
nature .according to Stanley Schechter
the experience of emotions is the joint
effect of physiological arousal and
cognitive appraisal as both parts are
necessary for an emotion to occur .
The labelling of arousal depends on an
attribution which is the processes of
identifying the cause of some events .
People may attribute their
physiological arousal to different
emotion. Depending on the available
information , especially about the
If some one is watching the final moments
of a crucial football match then he may
attribute his rapid breathing , racing heart
and perspiration to excitement, but the
same physiological changes may be attribute
to anxiety if individual is waiting for an
important exams to begin.so emotion
depends how we label our reaction .
Our appraisal of a situation contributes to our
emotional experience. If we are in a car that starts to
roll sown a step incline .we experience fear or terror
, but if we know the car is part of fear will be less or
cmotion will be different quality of emotion would be
determined by the appraisal of situation if they are in
a neural state of autonomic arousal .
Criticism of this theory has come from attempted
replication of the Schechter and singer(1962)study.
Marshal(1976)fried to replicate the Schechter and
singer euphoria condition just Schechter and singer
did the subjects were injected with epinephrine or a
placebo except the administrator told the subject that
they will be experiencing non arousal symptoms.
Schechter and singer have made easier to follow the
interplay between body and brain.
Emotion researcher Richard Lazarus
disagree he says even instantaneously felt
emotion require some sort of quick
cognitive appraisal of the
situation, otherwise, how do we know what
are reacting to?
Lazarus and zajonc agree that some emotional
response involve no conscious thinking especially
simple likes ,dislikes and fears .other emotions
including the moods are greatly affected by our
interpretation , memories and expectation ,such as
depression and complex feelings such as hatred and
Emotion are such complex phenomenon that no
single theory has been able to explain all facets of
emotional experience completely and satisfactorily
for each three major theories , there is
contradictory evidence of one sort of another , and
therefore , no theory has proved invariably
accurate in its prediction .
AN APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGY
COTTON ,EUROPIAN JOURANAL OF SOCIAL