Commonwealth• The English republic, a country run by the people not a leader.
Garrison• The troops stationed in a fortress or town to defend it
Regicide• a person who kills or participates in the killing of a king.
Illegitimate son• child born to parents not lawfully married.
1. Why did people question the Rump Parliament’s power?• Parliament had few members and a biased mix of members that no longer represented the whole of England.• The Rump parliament had only 60 members from what used to be nearly 400.• -Half the members of the long parliament joined the Royalist cause• - Then the Pride’s Purge expelled another 143 Presbyterian members.
How did the Rump Parliament deal with that opposition?• The Rump Parliaments Roundhead army attacked anyone, who refused to support the commonwealth
What was the Rump Parliament?• The parliament that was left behind to serve as parliament after others had left or been forced out.
2. How did Oliver Cromwell treat Catholics in Northern Ireland? Be specific.• Cromwell had no sympathy for the Catholics. He forcibly removed all catholic landowners from the North or Ireland. Anyone that resisted was killed. For example he murdered the entire garrison when the city of Drogheda resisted his forces.
3. List 4 activities that were outlawed by Calvinists through “Blue Laws”. (Pagan ceremonies is not an answer as it refers to all these activities)• 1. Celebrating Christmas• 2. Dancing• 3. Gambling• 4. Sports• 5. Theatre
4. Why did Cromwell regard himself as afailure, even though he had maintained order in England? • He had fought and opposed the dictator like powers of the king only to become a dictator himself. Military officials named him “military dictator of England” and “Lord Protector” • He had fought for a republican country (governed by parliament) and then marched in to parliament, just as King Charles had, and drove the parliament members out. • He took control of the country without any vote or say from the people.
5. Why did General Monk feel that parliament had to be restored after Cromwell’s death?• He was concerned that a civil war would break out again.• Only puritans were pleased with the blue laws. Everyone else resented the joyless life imposed on them.• People were concerned about the lack of parliament who was suppose to protect their rights. They were sick of the military dictatorship.
6. Charles resented parliament, so did what to gain supporters within parliament? • He influenced who was elected. He used: • Persuasion, • Bribery • Blackmail
7. Explain the difference between the “Tories” and the “Whigs”.• Tories – They were the royal supporters and the beginning of the first real political party. (The conservative party of Canada is considered today’s Tories.)• Whigs – They became the oppositon party to the Tories. They were against the Catholic Monarchy that had been restored. (The NDP (New Democratic Party) of Canada is considered today’s Whigs)• (The Liberal party is considered the republican party of Canada)
8. How and Why, were 13 members of the Rump parliament killed?• They were considered regicides (King Killers) so they were punished by being hung, drawn and quartered.• Hanged – but taken down before they died, then• Drawn – their entrails (intestines and other organs) were removed killing them, and then• Quartered and Displayed – cut into 4 parts which were then displayed around the country as a warning to others.
9. What was the test act and why did it harm Charles Brother?• Test Act: an act forbidding anyone except members of the Church of England from holding political office or entering professions.• Charles Brother James was a Catholic and therefore had to give up his job as High Admiral because of the test act
10. Charles II’s son, James, inherited thethrone, but abdicated it shortly thereafter. What does abdicate mean? • Abdicate: to abandon or fail to fulfill an undertaking
10. Why did he abdicate the throne? Explain clearly.• Jamesll was not well liked by parliament or the people of England. James II was openly catholic, and began giving high offices to Catholics, disregarding the Test Act and infuriating parliament.• He also made it clear that he believed in the Divine Right of Kings and meant to take away parliaments power.• Rebellions broke out against James, James had the court of Assizes execute people who rebelled. So many people were executed that the court became known as the “Bloody Assizes”.
10. Continued• Distressed by the Kings actions and intentions, parliament invited Jame’s Protestant Daughter Mary, and her husband William of Orange to become Queen & King of England.• They agreed, and Jame’s supporters began fleeing the country. Without their support Jame’s felt vulnerable and left the country himself, abdicating his throne.
11. What term was used to refer to the appointment of the new King and Queen? And why?• The “Glorious Revolution”, because for the first time the monarch had been chosen by parliament and not by hereditary right. Divine Right had come to an end.