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English Civil War


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English Civil War

  1. 1. English Civil War / The Glorious Revolution By holy_rat (who ain’t religious)
  2. 2. Problems begin• Charles I of England inherits the throne from his father James I in 1625• Charles was not well-liked when he inherited the throne in 1625• He believed in something called the Divine Right of Kings, which scared Parliament• He also knew that England needed money, and as a result, he raised the taxes on the upper class, without Parliament’s consent• He also asked Parliament for loans to try to issue reforms
  3. 3. (cont’d)• Parliament would not grant money unless Charles would sign the Petition of Right—this basically took power away from the monarchs• Charles I dismissed the Parliament and does not call it back into session for 11 years• Because of a rebellion in Scotland, Charles needs money
  4. 4. The Long Parliament (1640-1653)• Parliament called into session• Hanged some of the king’s advisors• Abolished the Court of Star Chamber• Enforced Habeas Corpus—right to a trial• King needed permission to collect money
  5. 5. (cont’d)• King could not dissolve Parliament• Tried to limit some of the absolute power of the monarch• Parliament was required to meet at least every 3 years• Purpose was to keep them active in the government
  6. 6. British Civil War (1642-1649)• Supporters of the king: • Supporters of the – Stuarts Parliament: – Cavaliers – Puritans – Wanted strong – Roundheads > Puritans monarchy who support the House of Commons – Wanted a strong representative assembly
  7. 7. 1649 Charles I surrendered• Rump Parliament – small group of independents ruled• House of Commons• Condemned Charles I to death• 1649 Charles I was beheaded• Monarchy and House of Lords were abolished
  8. 8. • Commonwealth is declared• Government was to be a republic with elected officials
  9. 9. Oliver Cromwell (1653-1658)• Military dictator, who focused on non- Puritans—alter, this would cause repercussions for the Puritans, which would cause many of them to flock to America• What were positives and negatives?
  10. 10. (cont’d)• Didn’t want title of King• Took title Lord Protector• Crushed rebellions in Scotland and Ireland— killed priests and members of the Catholic clergy• When he dies his son Richard becomes Lord Protector• Was not competent so Cavaliers began to plot for the return of the monarchy
  11. 11. Charles I’s son, Charles, had escaped to France• Charles was the legal heir to the throne• This now left England without a monarch• Meaning, they were wide to open fill
  12. 12. Many Englishmen remained loyal to the king• There was talk that perhaps the country would be better off with a monarchy after all• They began to realize that without a monarch, there was a possibility of another military dictatorship
  13. 13. The Restoration• English people tired of dictatorship• Charles was welcomed back to England as King if he: – Permitted religious tolerance – Lived up to the Petition of Right – Forgets about the divine right of kings• 1600 the monarchy was restored in England with Charles II• Charles II worked closely with the Parliament
  14. 14. Parliament splits• James II, (brother of Charles), will take over• Problem > rulers must be Protestant according to law• James is Catholic• Tories- backed a strong hereditary king• Whigs- backed a strong parliament• Charles II dies in 1685
  15. 15. Glorious Revolution• James II takes over• Believes in the divine right of kings• James II has two daughters: – Mary – Anne• James II’s wife dies and he marries again
  16. 16. James II marries a Catholic• Protestant leadership hates her• They have a son > heir to the throne• Problem > he is part-Catholic and they want only Protestant king on throne• James II must end
  17. 17. Catholic vs. Protestant• Both Whigs and Tories agreed that James II must abdicate his throne• They invited Mary to come and take the throne• Royal family and Protestant!• Mary had married William of Orange (Netherlands)
  18. 18. James II is forced to flee from the country.• 1688 William and Mary take the English throne• Brought Dutch army but not necessary because James II had no support• James II fled to France• No bloodshed
  19. 19. Result of Glorious Revolution• Power of king decreased and power of representative assembly increased• Led to many changes in the government
  20. 20. English Thinkers• John Locke: – Two treatises on government – Inspired Thomas Jefferson – Inspired Parliament to establish habeas corpus (right to a fair trial) – Said people had the right to choose their leaders and overthrow an unjust government• Thomas Hobbes: – Stated people could choose their rulers but had to deal with their decision and could not overthrow an unjust ruler – Leviathan >
  21. 21. The Declaration of Rights / Toleration Act and Act of Settlement• Declaration of Rights was read to William and Mary when they took the throne• Formalized in 1689 and called it the English Bill of Rights• Toleration Act was passed in 1689—granted limited religious rights to Dissenters• Act of Settlement was passed in 1701 to keep Catholics off the throne
  22. 22. Stronger Parliament• House of Lords – Hereditary nobles / higher clergy• House of Commons – Landowning male gentry, wealthy merchants, and professionals could vote for them• Between 1690-1740—new additions to the government – Cabinet and prime minister
  23. 23. Stronger England• Act of Union—1707• England and Scotland joined formally – Great Britain• Purpose > strengthen England against France• Scottish were against it initially – Abolished their parliament, but Scots could take seats in Great Britain’s Houses
  24. 24. Act of Union• Was beneficial to both sides• Encouraged commerce–brought wealth to both• Glasgow > turned into a port city• University in both Glasgow and Edinburgh developed in the 18th century
  25. 25. Act of Settlement problem• If William III dies with no heir, Mary’s sister—Anne– would inherit the throne• If Anne had no children, a Protestant grand-daughter of James I would inherit the throne• William III died with no heir, so Anne took the throne• Anne had 17 children but survived them all• James I’s grand-daughter, Sophia, also died• The throne went to Sophia’s son, George I of the Hanoverian Dynasty—became King George I of Great Britain
  26. 26. • George I and George II were both born in Germany• Did not know how the British government worked• Relied heavily on Sir Robert Walpole who was the chief minister until 1742• Tried to work for peace• Strengthened British economy• Because they relied on him so heavily, they official post of prime minister came about
  27. 27. Constitutional Monarchy• Between 1721-1742, Whigs controlled the government• Under the Hanoverian monarchs, the prime minister was the head of the government• This is a limited constitutional monarchy• British constitution is made up of: – Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, Habeas Corpus, the Bill of Rights, the Act of Settlement, the Acts of Parliament