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  1. 1. Greek: Clima = Inclination/ slope altitude. Eratosthenes- First Greek philosopher—the angle of incidence of the sunrays. Parmenides – 5th BC - Fire climatic zones of the world. ― Scientific Study of the climate‖. -‘The varieties of climates found on the earth and their distribution over its surface‘. -‘ the atmospheric Science‘.
  2. 2.      METEOROLOGY ? Study of weather & climate ? State of atmosphere at any given time denoting the short term variations of atmosphere in terms of temperature, pressure, Wind, Moisture, Cloudiness, Precipitation and Visibility. Highly Variable _ Constantly changing_ Behaviour of the lower atmosphere _ has marked influence on the Biosphere. David L. Blumenstock
  3. 3.         CLIMATE ? _ Sum of the variety of weather conditions of an area of place. - the aggregate weather conditions. ‖ The sum of all statistical weather informations of a particular area during a specified interval of time, usually Several decades‖ . World Meteorological organisation standard Period is of 31 years. Riley & Spolton _ ‗the Study of weather condition over a longer period.‘ Austin Court _ Compounded parts of the three modern disciplines Meteorology+ Statistics + Geography.
  4. 4. AT LOW TEMPERATURE       Constriction of skin blood vessels Concentration of blood Flections to reduce surface exposure Increased muscle tone Shivering Inclination to increase activity AT HIGH TEMPERATURE       Dilation of skin blood vessels Dilution of blood Extension to increase exposure Decreased muscle tone Sweating Inclination to decrease activity
  5. 5. AT LOW TEMPERATURE   Increased urine volume Danger of inadequate blood supply to exposed parts: frostbite AT HIGH TEMPERATURE   Decreased urine volume Mobilization of tissue fluid Thirst and dehydration Reduced blood supply to brain; dizziness; nausea; fainting.    Discomfort leading to neuroses Increased appetite Reduced chloride balance; heat cramps  Discomfort leading to neuroses  Decreased appetite
  6. 6.    Climate is an aggregate of environment conditions involving heat, moisture and Motion. Extremes in additions to means, trends, fluctuations, Probabilities and their variations in time Space. The weather and climate are the dynamic features of our physical environment . Trewartha. ―Climate represents a composite of the day to day weather condition, and of the atmospheric elements, within a specified area over a long period of time. It is more than ‗average weather‘ for no adequate concept of climate is possible without an appreciation of seasonal and diurnal change and of the succession of weather episodes generated by mobile atmospheric disturbances. While in a study of climate emphasis may be given to the averages, still departures, variations, and extremes are also important‖.
  7. 7.    CRITCHFIELD. ―The processes of exchange of heat and moisture between the earth and the atmosphere over a long period of time result in conditions which we call climate. Climate is more than a statistical average; it is the aggregate which we call climate. Climate is more than a statistical average; it is the aggregate of atmospheric conditions involving heat, moisture, and air movement Extremes must be considered in any climatic description in addition to means , trends, and probabilities.‖
  8. 8.   Koeppe and De Long. ― Climate is a summary, a composite of weather conditions over a long period of time; truly portrayed, it includes details of variations – extremes, frequencies, sequences – of the weather elements which occur from year to year, particularly in temperature and precipitation. Climate is the aggregate of the weather‖. Kendrew. ― Climate is a composite idea, a generalization of the manifold weather conditions from day to day throughout the year.. Certainly no picture of it is at all real unless it is painted in all the colours of the manifold variations of weather and the rounds of the seasons which are the really prominent features; it is quite inadequate to give merely the mean state of any element.‖
  9. 9.     G.F. Taylor. ―Climate is the integration of weather, and weather is the differentiation of climate. The distinction between weather and climate is, there fore, mainly one of time.‖ C.S.Thornthwaite Has given a comprehensive and systematic analysis of climate. He is of the opinion that the climatic characteristics of any region of the world depend on the nature of exchange of momentum, heat as well as moisture between the earth‘ surface and the atmosphere. Thus, the climate of any place or locality represents the equilibrium between the receipt and the expenditure of the radiant heat as well as moisture. According to him, it is the heat and the moisture budget of a specified area that explains its climate.
  10. 10.           OBSERVABLE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE. Intensity and duration of Solar radiation. Temperature Humidity Evaporation Cloudiness and Fog Precipitation Visibility Barometric Pressure Winds.
  11. 11.     Their occurence in particular combination results from transforms of energy and mass in the climatic system. The transfer processes are influenced in turn by differences in latitude, altitude, land and water surfaces, mountain barriers, local topography, winds, air masses and Pressure centres. Climates exhibit both Spatial and temporal variations through out the world. ―A Particular type of climatic conditions gives rise to a Specific landscape‖.
  12. 12.  METEOROLOGY CLIMATOLOGY Study of the characteristic s components elements and behaviour of atmosphere of Climate the factors which determine and control its distribution MODERN CONCEPT: Definition  Climatological record.  Theory of climate  Energy & Moisture balances of the Earth.  Study of climate as the environment of the organisms.  Study of the climate as the direct environment of man.   
  13. 13.          AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ‗To discuss various climatic elements as well as factors that control the distribution of climate over the Earth‘. Climatology seeks to explain. The causes of different types of climates. The reasons for their variations. Their general and Specific variation. Their effect on natural vegetation. The processes that produce different climates. Detailed analysis of the interactions of weather and climate elements with Human Societies.
  14. 14.      SUB DIVISIONS OF CLIMATOLOGY CRITCHFIELD : Physical Climatology Regional [ Descriptive] Climatology Applied climatology
  15. 15.  PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY: The factors responsible for bringing about the temporal and spatial variations in heat exchange, moisture exchange and air movement.  Several observable element aid the description  Intensity and duration of solar radiation  Temperature -- Humidity—Evaporation  Cloudiness and Fog – Precipitation  Visibility, barometric pressure and winds  The transfer processes are influenced by  Differences in latitude, altitude land and water surfaces.  Mountain barriers, local topography and such gross atmospheric features as prevailing winds, air masses and pressure centres. 
  16. 16.       This branch seeks to determine describe the various types of climates. and The descriptive climatology is concerned with the identification of important climatic characteristics and analyses the interaction of weather and climatic elements upon the life, health and economics of people and areas. On the basis of size and extent of climatic regions, the World is divided in to 3 regions. 1. Macro climatic region 2.Meso climatic region 3. Micro climatic region
  17. 17.        APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY Explore the relationship of climate to other phenomena and consider its potential effect on human welfare – Modification of climates to meet human needs. IMPORTANCE OF CLIMATE Lithosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere Atmosphere
  18. 18.      1. Climate As A Factor in soil Formation Soils are affected by climate directly throughout their evolution from Parent rock to their current state of development. Disintegration : decomposition Eluviations : Downward transport of colloidal substances. Leaching: removal of minerals/ org. compounds
  19. 19.        2. SOIL PROFILE Soil layers or horizons. 3 . Spatial patterns of soilsInfluence the development and properties of soils, major world soil regions correspond in a general way to the world climatic regions and, therefore, to spatial patterns of vegetation. 4. Soil Erosion‗Natural or accelerated‘ Temperature has its maximum effect on accelerated erosion.
  20. 20.  ―The restless atmosphere is the most active agent in the constant redistribution of water on the earth‘s surface - a fact that becomes even more striking when we realize that only a minute fraction of 1% of the earth‘s water is contained in the atmosphere at any time‖. -------The Global Hydrologic System Intricate combinations of evaporation, run off, infiltration, atmosphere circulation, condensation precipitation, and ground water movement…..
  21. 21.  Agriculture: Agroclimatology        Influence of climate elements on specific crops and their productivity. Thresh hold temp. [ Min temp for growth] Oats – 4 0c Sweet corn—10 c Potatoes – 7 c Cotton – 17-18 c Wet climate crops are most seriously affected by chilling.
  22. 22.      Rice and cotton are killed by near freezing temperature. The principal climatic factors affecting crop production temperature, length of growing season, moisture condition, Sunlight, & wind. -PHENOLOGY Low night temp is required – potatoes, sugar beets Warm night ― -- cotton, maize , tobacco The greatest agriculture risk Unseasonable FROSTS Loss of Millions of dollars—Sub tropical climate crops Potatoes, Tomatoes, melons, citrus etc.
  23. 23.  Frost- free season- for Agricultural planning. Drought, Heavy rainfall may directly damage plants or interfere with flowering,pollination and grain lodging .  Hail is a special case of excessive moisture causes direct damage to plants.  wind – evapotranspiration ‗FOREST FIRES‘ Plant- diseases Ireland famine 1848– High rainfall. Warm and High Humidity- Rusts, Blights , Mildews , scabs InsectsMigrations (wind, Temp…) 
  24. 24.       Animal Husbandry:High temp.-- Reduces reproductive capacity. Cows exposed to High temp-- less milk yield. Extreme heat stress they die Longer exposure to cold, accompanied by wind may cause frostbite or death. Supplementary lighting enhances yield [milk and meat ]
  25. 25.    Principle climatic influences are-light, temperature, wind, water quality, nutrient supply and organisms. Several species of Oysters, Clams and Mussels are adapted to mid latitude marine environment. El Nino affected -the yellow fin tuna.
  26. 26.    Hens lay larger eggs in winter and at high latitudes. Fertility increase in poultry in day light. Lightening the premises increases the egg production.
  27. 27.     Temperature, sunshine and humidity are important climatic elements that affect human body. Wind exerts influence on skin temperature and body moisture. Changes in atmospheric pressure influences circulatory and respiratory systems. ‗clothing- the solution‘
  28. 28.       Temperature and humidity factors –for release of pollen allergens. Low temp- arthritis, stiff joints swollen sinuses, and chill blains. Dry air – chapped skin, inhibition of healing of sores and wounds. Hyperthermia- heat stroke Hypothermia –frost bite  -
  29. 29.       The Intense sunlight of the Arid tropics or that off snow fields can cause- blindness, headaches and related discomforts. UV can cause premature ageing of skin and sun-burn ( erythema ). Air pollution: Dec 1930 -Belgium -63 persons Oct 1948 – Pennsylvania – 21 persons. Dec 1952 –London -4000 persons.
  30. 30.      Incidence, severity and spread of diseases: In tropics and sub tropics – warm climates –increase in parasites. Warm humid climates –Yellow fever and malaria. In tropics- Leprosy. Winter in mid latitudes- Pneumonia and influenza. Rickets and certain skin diseases respond to sunlight.
  31. 31.             1. Harvesting of Solar energy 2.Wind energy 3.Aviation 4.Construction of Bridges and buildings [Architectural climatology ] 5.Water transport 6.Railways 7.Highways and Roadways 8. Food processing 9. Cosmetics 10.Paper industries 11.Photography 12.Textiles
  32. 32. THE END