ICIPE's Push-pull technology


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The Push-pull technology is an innovation from ICIPE. It’s a pest management approach that uses repellent intercrops and an attractive trap plant. Pests are repelled from the food crop and attracted to a trap crop, simultaneously. It is mostly used to control Stemborer and Striga.

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ICIPE's Push-pull technology

  1. 1. Science Innovation for Better Livelihoods Case Study: PUSH-PULL TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA www.icipe.org www.push-pull.net Jimmy Pittchar FARA General Assembly and 6th Science Week 15-20 July 2013 Accra International Conference Centre, Accra, Ghana
  2. 2. Maize worth US$ 1.5b is lost annually due to stemborers in SSA Chilo partellus Busseola fusca
  3. 3. The parasitic witchweeds, Striga spp, threaten the lives of over 100 million people in Africa and infest 60% of arable land in the savannah region causing an annual loss of billions of dollars to African agricultural economy. Khan et al. 2007. Crop Science 47:730-734
  4. 4. About 2/3 of 73 million ha of land devoted to cereal production in Africa is infested with striga. S. hermonthica S. asiatica Distribution of Striga Weed in Africa
  5. 5. I. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: Formulating a push-pull strategy for Africa Africa needs simple, inexpensive, multi- faceted technologies which are developed with farmers’ participation and are tailored to the diversity of their farming systems (Prof. Thomas R. Odhiambo, 1983)
  6. 6. The ‘Push-Pull’ scientific innovation The ‘Push-Pull’ strategy is a novel approach in pest management which uses a repellent intercrop and an attractive trap plant. Insect pests are repelled from the food crop and are simultaneously attracted to a trap crop. Attract natural enemies Moths are pushed away Attract moths Trap Crop Main Crop Cook, Khan and Pickett (2007) Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52 : 375-400
  7. 7. “Push – Pull” for Stemborer and Striga Control, and improvement of soil fertility H3C H H H (E)-4,8-dimethyl- 1,3,7-nonatriene -caryophyllene (E)-β-ocimene humulene α-terpinolene α -cedrene hexanal O (E)-2-hexenal O (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol OH (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate O O
  8. 8. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Days after egg hatch %Larvalsurvival Ex-Nyanza-1 Clone 13 Bana Ex-Machakos Ex-Nyanza-2 French Cameroon Gold Coast Mott Pakistan Hybrid Uganda Hairless Maize Survival of Stemborer (Chilo partellus) on maize and Napier grass varieties Khan et al. 2006. Entomol. Exp. Applic. 119:15-22
  9. 9. Stemborer larval feeding on Napier grass Stemborer larvae trapped in gummy substance Larva Gummy substance
  10. 10. 10 15 20 25 30 Pennisetum purpureum Zea mays 1 2 3 GC of the volatiles from Napier grass and maize during beginning of the scotophase Retention time I.S. I.S. Hexanal (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate Chamberlain, Khan, Pickett, Toshova and Wadhams, 2006. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32:565-577
  11. 11. Maize Pull and trap Pullandtrap Pullandtrap Pull and trap CONTROL OF STEMBORERS WITH TRAP PLANTS
  12. 12. Desmodium intercrop • Inhibits striga growth through allelopathy •Perennial fodder legumes indigenous to South America •Important cattle feed in eastern Africa •Can fix~ 110-160 Kg N/ha/year Desmodium uncinatum Desmodium intortum
  13. 13. Long Term Trials with Maize-Legume Intercrops Maize + Green gram Maize + cowpea Maize +Desmodium Maize + Beans Khan et al. 2007. Crop Science 47:730-734
  14. 14. HYBRID MAIZE WITH FERTILIZER FOR 10 YEARS fertilizer application alone is ineffective against striga, the main biotic constraint to smallholder agriculture in Africa
  15. 15. Khan et al. 2002. J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 1871-1885 ALLELOPATHIC MECHANISM OF STRIGA SUPPRESSION
  16. 16. Compounds Isolated from Desmodium Root Exudate Tsanuo et al. 2003. Phytochemistry 64: 265-273 Hooper et al. 2009. Pest Manag.Sci 65: 546-552
  17. 17. II. OUTCOMES
  18. 18. Push-Pull Strategy
  19. 19. 1= (E)-ß-ocimene; 2= α-terpinolene; 3= β-caryophyllene; 4= humulene; 5= (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7- nonatriene; 6= α-cedrene; 7= hexanal; 8= (E)-2-hexenal; 9= (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol; 10= (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate ; 11= 5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-6-(3- methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavanone (uncinanone A); 12= 4′′,5′′-dihydro-5,2′,4′- trihydroxy-5′′-isopropenylfurano- (2′′,3′′;7,6)-isoflavanone (uncinanone B); 13= 4′′,5′′- dihydro-2′- methoxy-5,4′-dihydroxy-5′′- isopropenylfurano-(2′′,3′′;7,6)- isoflavanone (uncinanone C), 14= di-C-glycosylflavone 6- C-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-β- Dglucopyranosylapigenin
  20. 20. Before After •Effective control of stemborers and striga weeds •Grain yields increased from <1t/ha to 3.5t/ha with minimum inputs •Soil health improved: nitrogen fixation (110kg N/ha), increased organic matter , moisture conservation and enhanced soil biodiversity •Lower soil temperature – improved potential to mitigate effects of climate change
  21. 21. MAIZE INTERCROPPED WITH DESMODIUMMAIZE ONLY Desmodium effectively inhibits Striga emergence; raises maize yields from < 1 t/ha to 3.5t/ha 3.5 t/ha< 1 t /ha
  22. 22. On-Farm Evaluation of ‘Push-Pull’ Technology (n=420) Khan et al. 2008. Field Crops Research 106: 224-233 5 10 15 20 25 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 1 2 3 4 2003 2004 2005 2006 30 No. of emerged striga/63 maize plants % stemborer damaged plants Maize Yields (t/ha) * **** **** * * * Maize monocrop fields Push-pull fields
  23. 23. Economics of the push-pull system -1 0 1 2 3 4 Trans Nzoia Suba Bungoma Busia -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Returntolabour (USD/manday) Return to Labour Grossbenefits (USD/ha) Gross benefits Push-pull system Maize/bean intercrop Maize mono Districts *Data averages of five years in each district Khan et al. 2008. Crop Protection 27: 976-987
  24. 24. Sorghum Mono Crop Sorghum + Desmodium intortum SORGHUM 2.6 t/ha 1.4 t/ha
  25. 25. MILLET 417 864 kg/ha
  26. 26. RICE 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 About a quarter About half About three quarters Almost all Farmers' estimation of crop loss %Farmers
  27. 27. Benefits of Push-Pull Technology Sustainable Development Gender & Social Equity Stemborers and striga control Increased fodder production N-fixation and reduced soil erosion Increased forage seed production Conservation of biodiversity Increased crop yields Improved cattle health Improved soil health Increased household income Technological Empowerment of farmers Improved human health Empowerment of women Improved dairy production Improved FYM Production
  29. 29. Crop-Livestock Integration Both trap and repellent plants are excellent livestock fodder. Heifer International recommends push-pull as a source of quality fodder for dairy animals
  30. 30. INTEGRATING BEANS IN PUSH-PULL SYSTEM Maize and beans in different holes Maize and beans in same holes Farmers’ Practice of planting Maize and beans
  31. 31. Adaptation of Push-Pull to Climate Change Brachiaria cv mulato Vetiver grass Screening for drought tolerant grasses for use as trap plants in adapted push-pull for drier areas of Africa
  32. 32. D. ramosissimum D. intortum D. incanum Identification of drought tolerant Desmodium spp. D. repandum
  33. 33. Elucidation of scientific mechanisms of selected trap and intercrop plants H H (E)-ocimene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7 -nonatriene -caryophyllene humulene -terpinolene CHO CHO MeO HO MeO OH nonanal 4-allylanisole naphthalene octanal eugenol linalool Plant volatile collection, analysis and identification
  35. 35. Farmers’ drama Evaluation of Efficiency and Economics of Dissemination Pathways Field daysPrint Media Farmer Field Schools Farmer Teachers Radio
  36. 36. Key Elements of Processes that Build agro- ecosystem Outputs and Resilience •Use of locally available natural resources to increase farm productivity, while delivering ecological and economic benefits to smallholder farmers •Polycultural system fits traditional farming systems, attracts higher arthropod abundance and diversity •Stemborer and striga control through plants natural chemistry resulting in higher yields of cereal grain, fodder and milk, and incomes •Pereniality of companion plants ensures continuous striga depletion •Adaptability to climate change •Environmental benefits: soil and moisture conservation, improved soil health, increased soil cover and organic matter, eliminates pesticide usage
  37. 37. GREEN REVOLUTION IN AFRICA ? Productivity revolution in Africa will come from adoption of simple, environmentally sustainable and low cost platform technologies like push-pull, which are developed by understanding and exploiting basic and applied sciences. These technologies will address food security and livelihood of smallholders without requiring extra resources for crop protection and soil improvement and without causing any ecological and social harm.
  38. 38. RECOMMENDATIONS • Institutionalisation, capacity development and scaling up Push-pull through continent-wide, regional and country-level partnerships in line with the CAADP Framework (FARA, ASARECA, AFAAS, EAFF, NAREs, and NGOs); • Farming systems approach – Participatory validation, optimization and development of recommendation domains for different agro- ecological and country settings; • Value chain development – building forward and backward linkages for sustainable application and integration of Push-pull.
  39. 39. THANK YOU Agricultural innovation for their better future ..….