Published on

Dr.Waqas Nawaz
PMAS arid agriculture university rawalpindi pakistan

Published in: Education
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Dr.Waqas NawazPMAS AAUR
  2. 2. • Scientific name: Medicago sativa• Common name: In Arab known as alfalfa In Europe called as lucerne• Belongs to Leguminosae family ( soluble CHO & CP)• Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region LUCERNE was probably the• It is called as first crop to be “Queen of forage crops” cultivated for WHILE hay “King of fodder crops” is berseem
  3. 3. First cut after 3 month of sowing.(March) Later cuts after interval of 5-6• Perennial forage weeks.• Nitrogen-fixer• Highly palatable Because of its high level of• Digestible and nutritious PROTEIN• Lucerne probably the world’s best fodder ENERGY• Extremely drought tolerant MINERALS• Fast growing (can be cut after 30 days VITAMINS of 1st cutting)• Frost tolerant• Susceptible to a range of pests and diseases• Rabi fodder crop(sown in winter, october to november)
  4. 4. • 5-6 m in height with a crown diameter of a similar size• Long softly-hairy/serrated leaves (sawtooth)• Leafy branches• Leaves dull• trifoliate• Leaflets narrowly rhombic with entire margins upto 7 cm long.• Petiole upto 2 cm long• Stipules minute
  5. 5. Plants –• An erect• 2-3 ft tall• Multi-branched perennial plant with a very deep tap root• Plants develop a woody crown at ground level• Stems rising from the crown to around 1 m height.Flowers –• Flower blue but can purple or yellow (while Barseem has white)• Flowers are a typical pea shape 12 – 15 mm long• Develop in dense clusters of 20 – 30 flowers at the tips of the branches
  6. 6. Soil –• Deep loamy soils rich in phosphorus, calcium and potash are very good for lucerne crop• Upland sandy soils are not suitable for it as they have low water holding capacity• Well drained soil with PH 6.5 to 7.00• It cannot thrive on alkaline soils• But can be grown on acid soils with lime applicationClimate -• Lucerne crop is highly sensitive to climatic changes• During seedling stage a cool and dry weather is conducive for their development• while hot, dry conditions with normal soil moisture contents are required for quick vegetative growth• Therefore, its cultivation extends from sea level to lower hills up to an elevation of 2500 meter• It tolerates short spell of drought
  7. 7. • Sowing the seeds at proper time, rate and method increases the yield1. Time of sowing:• The optimum time of sowing of lucerne is from 1st week , of October to middle of November• However, middle of October is the best time for sowing lucerne.2. Seed rate:• In case of broadcasting, 20-25 kg per hectare of seed should be sown• while for line sowing 12-15 kg per hectare is sufficient.3. Sowing method:
  8. 8. Trifoliate FlowerLucerne Field Lucerne Field
  9. 9. There are now more than 30 varieties of lucerne available.• Vernal (cultivars) used in past These varieties have a widea variety of a plant developed range of pest and disease resistances and growthfrom a natural species and patternsmaintained under cultivation• Two types are used 1) Dormant (growth reduced in winter due to lowtemp/shorter days) 2) Non-dormant (grow through the winter, named as Winteractive)• M. falcata a wild variety of alfalfa that naturally hybridizes with M. sativa to produce Sand Lucerne• This species may bear either the purple flowers or yellow
  10. 10. 1. Sundar 2. Misasirsa• Punjab 3. Pioneer• Type 8 and 9 , Synthetic–78 4. Sanora 5. Illunico 6. Type 8/9• Sindh 7. Powera• Type 8 and 9 Seven exotic varieties of• NWFP lucerne were evaluated in• Type 8 and 9 , No–18 different zones during 1993- 1995 GILGIT, CHALAS, SKAUDU.• Balochistan• Type 8 and 9 ,Quandari NARC
  11. 11. • Perennial forage and lasts for many years• In Pakistan, (total production) 3978601 t/144984 h (2010)NARC• On average ,in six cuts per year,o Punjab 35-40t/ao Sindh 15-20t/ao NWFP 15-20t/a The number of cuts depends on theo Balochistan 25-30t/a local climate; in low-altitude areas, 6 to 8 cuts are possible where water is adequate; in the high areas, over 2000 m, 3 cuts are usual
  12. 12. • The world wide production was around 500+ million tonnes in 2010• Produced in Punjab,Balochistan• US, Canada, Argentina,• Australia, South africa and in Middle east• Upper Midwestern states account for about; • 50% production in US • 10% Northeastern Production: • 40%in Western states 100 to 125 t/ha in Punjab and 50 to 75t/ha in sindh
  13. 13. • Alfalfa is high in Protein, calcium, plus other minerals, vitamin A , vitamins in the B group, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K And Carotin as well.• The sun-dried hay of alfalfa (also known as Lucerne) has been found to be a source of vitamin D CP 19%(On DM DMbasis) 23-35% Ca+ 1.3 g/Kg P+ 0.3g/Kg CHO 11% TDN 65.8% Ash 8% CF 29.6% Fat 8.5% NDF < 42% Minerals 8% Fiber 30% NFE 36% EE 1.6%
  14. 14. Bloat Foam Bloat producing production formation proteins Disadvantage is• As a multi-purpose fodder; bloating BLOAT MEANS As a high quality fodder ACCUMULATION OF GASES Palatable fodder Non-toxic fodder Lucerne meal is used for livestock and poultry• As an ornamental• Windbreak• Fuel-wood• Biogas
  15. 15. Crops Sowing time Method of sowing Harvesting Time MOSTLYBerseem 21st Sept- end of Oct. Broadcast in standing Nov.----May waterLucerne Mid Oct.- mid Nov. 45 cm apart in lines. Permanent yield from December for 3 years, after every 45 day KING OF QUEEN OF FODDER FORAGECrops CP LEAVES FLOWER protien Green fodder TDN Life CF yield (t/ha) cycleBersee 18-24% round white 18-20% 125-150 64.9% Annual 30.3% mLucern 15-24% Almost Blue- 20-24% 110-125 65.8% Perinneal 29.6% e flat yellow
  16. 16. • NARC• Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha, (Dean, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore::::FODDER)• Poineer::::: Manual of livestock form operations (supervised by Dr. Tanveer & Dr. Kashif)• www.Pakistan• Crop Production by Shafi Nazir• Animal Husbandry by S. Iqbal Shah• Notes on lucerne varities written by Dr. M.dost & Dr.afzal• Some others....