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Anatomy & physiology of female reproductive system

  1. Prepared by Ms. Deepali Gupta Tutor RCN,JH
  2.  The functions of the female reproductive system are:  formation of ova  reception of spermatozoa  provision of suitable environments for fertilisation and fetal development  parturition (childbirth)  lactation, the production of breast milk, which provides complete nourishment for the baby in its early life.
  3. w offspring.  Female reproductive system produces the female egg cells necessary for reproduction, called the ova or oocytes.  The fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus, beginning the initial stages of pregnancy.  If fertilization and/or implantation does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate
  4.  Mons Pubis.  Labia Majora  Labia Minora.  Clitoris.  Vestibule.  Perineum
  5.  Is rounded, soft fullness of subcutaneous fatty tissue, prominence over the symphysis pubis that forms the anterior border of the external reproductive organs. It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair.
  6.  The labia Majora are two rounded, fleshy folds of tissue that extended from the mons pubis to the perineum.  It is protect the labia minora, urinary meatus and vaginal introitus.  It is covered in pubic hair that serves as additional protection against harmful bacteria that may enter the structure
  7.  It is located between the labia majora, are narrow.  The lateral and anterior aspects are usually pigmented.  The inner surfaces are similar to vaginal mucosa, pink and moist.  They are rich in vascularity.  The internal surface is composed of mucous membrane and the external surface is skin.  It contains sebaceous glands all over the area
  8.  The term clitoris comes from a Greek word meaning key.  Erectile organ.  It’s rich vascular, highly sensitive to temperature, touch, and pressure sensation
  9.  Is oval-shaped area formed between the labia minora, clitoris, and fourchette.  Vestibule contains the external urethral meatus, vaginal introitus, and Bartholins glands.
  10.  Is the most posterior part of the external female reproductive organs.  It extends from fourchette anteriorly to the anus posteriorly.  It is composed of fibrous and muscular tissues that support pelvic structures.
  11.  Vagina  Uterus  Fallopian tubes  Ovaries
  12.  It runs in the upper free border of the broad ligament.  Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cm  Its divided into 4 parts.  The two tubes extended from the corner of the uterus to the ovary.  The fallopian tubes serve as the pathway of the egg cells towards the uterus.
  13.  It is a smooth, hollow tunnel that is divided into four parts: the interstitial, which is 1 cm in length; the isthmus, which is 2 cm in length; the ampulla, which is 5 cm in length; and the infundibulum, which is 2 cm long and shaped like a funnel.  Fertilization occurs in the ampulla.  Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, one of these is longer than the other and adherent to the ovary.
  14.  The funnel has small hairs called the fimbria that propel the ovum into the fallopian tube.  The fallopian tube is lined with mucous membrane, and underneath is the connective tissue and the muscle layer.  The muscle layer is responsible for the peristaltic movements that propel the ovum forward.  The distal ends of the fallopian tubes are open, making a pathway for conception to occur
  15.  Gamete transport (ovum pickup, ovum transport, sperm transport).  Final maturation of gamete post ovulate oocyte maturation, sperm capicitation.  Fluid environment for early embryonic development.  Transport of fertilized and unfertilized ovum to the uterus.
  16.  Oval solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness, 2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in length respectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm.  Ovary is located on each side of the uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes  It is located proximal to both sides of the uterus at the lower abdomen.  The ovaries are located within the pelvic cavity, and are supported by the mesovarium, an extension of the peritoneum that connects the ovaries to the broad ligament.
  17.  For its function, the ovaries produce, mature, and discharge the egg cells or ova.  Ovarian function is for the maturation and maintenance of the secondary sex characteristics in females.  It also has three divisions: the protective layer of epithelium, the cortex, and the central medulla.
  18.  Surface – formed by simple cuboidal epithelium (known as germinal epithelium). Underlying this layer is a dense connective tissue capsule.  Cortex – comprised of a connective tissue stroma and numerous ovarian follicles. Each follicle contains an oocyte, surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells.  Medulla – formed by loose connective tissue and a rich neurovascular network, which enters via the hilum of the ovary.
  19.  The ovary is the organ in which the female gametes are stored and develop prior to ovulation.  Their maturation is controlled by the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland.
  20.  The uterus is a hollow, pear shaped muscular organ.  The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5 X 2.5 cm and weight about 50 – 60 gm.  Its normal position is anteverted (rotated forward and slightly antiflexed (flexed forward)  The uterus divided into three parts
  21.  Parts of the uterus • for the descriptive purpose uterus can be divided into three distinct parts.  • Fundus • Body • Cervix  Fundus. • This is the dome-shaped part of the uterus above the openings of the uterine tubes.  Body. • This is the main part. It is narrowest inferiorly at the internal os where it is continuous with the cervix.  Cervix (‘neck’ of the uterus). • This protrudes through the anterior wall of the vagina, opening into it at the external os.  Layers of the uterus • Perimetrium • Myometrium • Endometrium
  22.  Perimetrium. • This is peritoneum, which is distributed differently on the various surfaces of the uterus. Anteriorly it lies over the fundus and the body where it is folded on to the upper surface of the urinary bladder. This fold of peritoneum forms the vesicouterine pouch. Posteriorly the peritoneum covers the fundus, the body and the cervix, then it folds back on to the rectum to form the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas).  Myometrium. • This is the thickest layer of tissue in the uterine wall. It is a mass of smooth muscle fibres interlaced with areolar tissue, blood vessels and nerves. Made up of the Columnar epithelial cells.Consist mucous secreting tubular glands
  23.  Endometrium :Is the inner layer of the uterus. It is responsive to the cyclic variations of estrogen and progesterone during the female reproductive cycle every month. Made up of the Columnar epithelial cells.Consist mucous secreting tubular glands
  24.  Menstruation ----the uterus sloughs off the endometrium.  Pregnancy ---the uterus support fetus and allows the fetus to grow.  Labor and birth---the uterine muscles contract and the cervix dilates during labor to expel the fetus.
  25.  It is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm long.  Lying between the bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly.  The vagina connects the uterus above with the vestibule below.  The vaginal lining has multiple folds, or rugae and muscle layer. These folds allow the vagina to stretch considerably during childbirth.
  26.  The reaction of the vagina is acidic, the pH is 4.5 that protects the vagina against infection.  It has no secretory glands but the surface is kept moist by cervical secretions. Between puberty and the menopause, • Lactobacillus acidophilus, bacteria that secrete lactic acid, are normally present maintaining the pH between 4.9 and 3.5. The acidity inhibits the growth of most other micro-organisms that may enter the vagina from the perineum or during sexual intercourse.
  27.  To allow discharge of the menstrual flow.  The female organs of coitus.  To allow passage of the fetus from the uterus.
  28.  The breasts or mammary glands are accessory glands of the female reproductive system.  They exist also in the male, but in only a rudimentary form.  Structure • The mammary glands or breasts consist of varying amounts of glandular tissue, responsible for milk
  29.  Each breast contains about 20 lobes, each of which contains a number of glandular structures called lobules, where milk is produced.  Lobules open into lactiferous ducts, which drain milk towards the nipple. • breast itself is covered in subcutaneous fat.  In the lactating breast, glandular tissue proliferates (hyperplasia) to support milk production, and recedes again after lactation stops.
  30.  The nipple:This is a small conical eminence at the centre of the breast surrounded by a pigmented area, the areola.  On the surface of the areola are numerous sebaceous glands (Montgomery’s tubercles), which lubricate the nipple during lactation