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A quarterly journal          06                            34                 542012      Exploiting the growing        Co...
Contents          Features2012Issue 2              Exploiting the growing                     value from information:     ...
Interviews                                   Departments21                                           02APIs: An architectu...
Acknowledgments                                             Advisory                        Center for Technology         ...
US studio                            Industry perspectives                   Mark NoworolskiDesign Lead                   ...
Contents1. The business value of APIs2. Exploiting the growing value   from information: Creating an   operating model for...
9. Getting into the customers   context10.Creating a platform11. Users as partners
Resurgence of APIs:                                               super-linear scaling                                    ...
Our use of the term SMAC includes            of digital services will more than         This issue also includes interview...
06	   PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
Exploiting the growingvalue from information:Creating an operatingmodel for permeabilityCreating open interfaces to engage...
Figure 1: A permeable enterprise exposes modular capabilities with                                                open sof...
Figure 2: The confluence of SMAC trends creates a shift in value drivers,as the value from bits (information content) grow...
Today, many everyday products and                                                                                         ...
Figure 4: The emerging domains of value are driven more by bits (information content) than atoms (physical product).      ...
Figure 5: The ability to link information nodes (bits) in an information network means value rises quickly as the numberof...
Figure 6: Use of APIs to interact in digital ecosystems hasbeen growing and has accelerated in the past few years.Growth i...
Scalable integration strategy: Why most companies don’t have a digital operating model—yet Having adopted IT solutions to ...
Companies embracing a digital                                                               operating model organize      ...
Table 2: Key characteristics of the digital operating model contrasted with the way many companies typically operate Chara...
Our planes are all intelligent, and they      With its new SenseAware producttell us where they are. The trucks,          ...
Platform for co-creation:                   The platform approach is a different                                          ...
AT&T seeks to expand the value               Figure 7: Enterprises will require a digital operating model to tap into ther...
Figure 8: The digital operating model promotes a customer-centric                                             approach ove...
APIs: An architecture for speed at AT&TJohn Donovan, Sanjay Macwan, and Jacob Feinstein of AT&T detail how the API program...
semantically consistent manner. “APIs          reconstitute their work in a more modular,                                 ...
“APIs are the building blocks of the    digital economy.”    —Laura Merling, Alcatel-LucentConclusion                     ...
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Techforecast 2012-issue-2

  1. 1. A quarterly journal 06 34 542012 Exploiting the growing Consumerization Embracing open IT:Issue 2 value from information: of APIs: Scaling Enabling the permeable Creating an operating integrations enterprise model for permeability The business value of APIs David Zanca (on right) Senior Vice President FedEx Services Thomas Wicinski (on left) Vice President FedEx Services
  2. 2. Contents Features2012Issue 2 Exploiting the growing value from information: Creating an operating model for permeability Creating open interfaces to engage a growing digital ecosystem will empower enterprises to embrace social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) trends. 06 Consumerization of APIs: Scaling integrations A new generation of tools based on RESTful APIs will help enterprise IT to scale integrations. 34 Embracing open IT: Enabling the permeable enterprise By positioning IT capabilities as a platform composed of open, self- describing, modular services, CIOs enable the permeable enterprise. 54
  3. 3. Interviews Departments21 02APIs: An architecture for speed AcknowledgmentsJohn Donovan, Sanjay Macwan,and Jacob Feinstein of AT&T detail 04 Socialhow the API program is a driver of Message from the editorspeed in their innovation efforts. 7424 SubtextTapping value in informationDavid Zanca and Thomas Wicinskiof FedEx Services describe howFedEx is a connected enterpriseand provides digital access to itsservices on the customer’s terms.30 MobileThe rising value oflinked informationMark Noworolski and Peter Leiserof Streetline detail how they aretransforming the parking ecosystemwith cloud, mobility, and analyticstechnologies using RESTful APIs. Value from atoms46The digital indirect channelSam Ramji of Apigee explains whyAPIs are of strategic importanceto all businesses. b i ts Value from50Getting into the Analyticscustomer’s contextDevon Biondi of Mashery detailshow APIs allow businesses to engagewith customers in their context.64Creating a platformLaura Merling and John Musser ofAlcatel-Lucent share how enterprisescan use APIs to create platforms fromexisting assets to unlock new value. Cloud68Users as partnersBrian Katz of Sanofi discusses howconsumerization of IT means enterpriseIT should treat users as partners. The business value of APIs 01
  4. 4. Acknowledgments Advisory Center for Technology Principal & Technology Leader & Innovation Tom DeGarmo Managing Editor Bo Parker US Thought Leadership Partner-in-Charge Editors Tom Craren Vinod Baya Alan Morrison Strategic Marketing Natalie Kontra Contributors Jordana Marx Galen Gruman Carol Hildebrand Bud Mathaisel Bill Roberts Editorial Advisor Larry Marion Copy Editor Lea Anne Bantsari Transcriber Dawn Regan02 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  5. 5. US studio Industry perspectives Mark NoworolskiDesign Lead During the preparation of this Chief Technology OfficerColleen Donato publication, we benefited greatly Streetline from interviews and conversationsIllustrators with the following executives: Sam RamjiDon Bernhardt Vice President of StrategyTatiana Pechenik Randi Barshack Apigee Vice President of MarketingProduction Mashery Andy RuskinJeff Ginsburg Director of Marketing Devon Biondi MasheryOnline Vice President of Strategy ServicesManaging Director Online Marketing Mashery Ted SheltonJack Teuber Managing Director John Donovan PwCDesigner and Producer Senior Executive Vice PresidentScott Schmidt Technology and Network Operations Thomas Wicinski AT&T Vice President ofReviewers Digital Access MarketingLowell E. Billings Jacob Feinstein FedEx ServicesDaniel M. Cameron Executive Director, New TechnologyChristopher Curran AT&T David ZancaManish S. Dharnidharka Senior Vice President of IT, CustomerDaniel Eckert Brian Katz Access, and Revenue SystemsKevin A. Hecht Director, Head of Mobility FedEx ServicesChristopher Isaac Industrialization & Engineering GroupSimrit S. Kamboe SanofiSurajit KarEoin Russell Peter LeiserPatrick Shankland Vice President of Engineering,Alejandro Trujillo Platforms, and Applications StreetlineSpecial thanksNatashia Gregoire Sanjay MacwanFedEx Global Media Assistant Vice President AT&T Chief Technology Office AT&T Laura Merling Senior Vice President of Application Enablement Alcatel-Lucent John Musser Founder of ProgrammableWeb Alcatel-Lucent The business value of APIs 03
  6. 6. Contents1. The business value of APIs2. Exploiting the growing value from information: Creating an operating model for permeability3. Consumerization of APIs: Scaling integrations4. Embracing open IT: Enabling the permeable enterprise5. APIs: An architecture for speed6. Tapping value in information7. The rising value of linked information8. The digital indirect channel
  7. 7. 9. Getting into the customers context10.Creating a platform11. Users as partners
  8. 8. Resurgence of APIs: super-linear scaling in digital ecosystems Message from the editor stations. This is sub-linear scaling. It Successful businesses grow almost by appears to be true in a city context across definition. But what comes with being almost all of a city’s infrastructure. larger? Certainly there are benefits, the most prominent being economies But cities also produce more than of scale. But size has its downside. linear scaling in other domains. West The enterprise R&D function has found that whenever a city doubles been a frequent target of research in in size, many measures of economic academia because of its well-known activity, such as construction spending, pattern of becoming less productive wealth, patents, and bank deposits, (fewer patents) on a per dollar basis as increase by approximately 15 percent it grows larger.1 Creating benefits from per capita.3 In other words, cities scale seems to be automatic in some become more productive as they grow. circumstances, but creating waste from This is called super-linear scaling. scale seems just as automatic in others. West lays this all at the feet of networks. Dr. Geoffrey West and his colleagues at The power of networks can produceTom DeGarmo the Santa Fe Institute have published sublinear scaling and superlinearPrincipal & Technology Leader insightful results on the way many scaling. Neither is inherently better—thomas.p.degarmo@us.pwc.com different domains scale. He charts the some things you want less of, and other relationship between size and metabolic things you want more of as you grow. rate across species to convincingly demonstrate that doubling in size This issue of the Technology Forecast requires only 75 percent more energy examines the question of scaling in rather than a doubling of energy.2 In a the context of four major disruptions totally different domain, West found penetrating enterprise operations a similar pattern with gas stations in simultaneously—social computing, cities—doubling the size of the city mobile computing, advanced analytics, results in only 75 percent more gas and cloud computing (in short, SMAC). 1 Wesley M. Cohen and Steven Klepper, “Firm Size and 2 http://www.ted.com/talks/geoffrey_west_the_ the Nature of Innovation within Industries: The Case of surprising_math_of_cities_and_corporations.html Process and Product R&D,” The Review of Economics and Statistics 78, no. 2 (May 1996): 232–243. 3 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/ magazine/19Urban_West-t.html?pagewanted=all04 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  9. 9. Our use of the term SMAC includes of digital services will more than This issue also includes interviewsthe four technologies called out double the business value created. with executives at enterprises that arehere as well as related emerging As West would say, it’s because of the leading the practice of tapping value intechnologies that take advantage of network effect. And digital business information, having a digital operatingthem, such as the Internet of Things. ecosystems can grow businesses in model, and enabling permeability: terms of revenue and profits muchIndividually, these disruptions faster than headcount and expenses. • John Donovan, Sanjay Macwan,are themselves about scale. Social and Jacob Feinstein of AT&T detailcomputing scales business collaboration We call it building the permeable how the API program is a driver offrom a few to hundreds or thousands of enterprise, where business capabilities speed in their innovation efforts.others. Mobile computing scales process are abstracted as open programmableand data management into almost any interfaces and scaling integrations in a • David Zanca and Thomas Wicinskibusiness context. Advanced analytics— digital ecosystem is incorporated into of FedEx Services describe howwith big data, terabytes of in-memory strategic thinking so that value scales FedEx taps value in informationdatabases, and visualization—scales in superlinear ways while cost scales with a digital operating model.business intelligence into every in sublinear ways. The reemergence ofaspect of business operations. And application programming interfaces • Mark Noworolski and Peter Leiser ofcloud computing promises more (APIs) in general and the rise of Streetline share how they are trans-compute power than ever before. the RESTful style of integrations forming the parking ecosystem with in particular bring this promise by SMAC technologies using RESTful APIs.These disruptions are all delivered providing an architecture and systematicover digital networks as digital approach to engaging with SMAC • Sam Ramji of Apigee explains why APIsservices, usually from outside the and other emerging technologies. are the first digital indirect channel.enterprise. For many business andIT executives, the potential value of This issue of the Technology Forecast • Devon Biondi of Mashery describesengaging with these four trends is examines how enterprises can engage how APIs allow businesses to engagetransparent. The challenge is scaling with the challenges and opportunities with customers in their context.their integration with traditional IT. stemming from SMAC trends byIn the best of circumstances, internal scaling integrations and participating • Laura Merling and John Musserlegacy systems integrate well with in expanding digital ecosystems. of Alcatel-Lucent share howeach other. But they rarely were creating platforms from existingdesigned to rapidly integrate with The article, “Exploiting the growing assets can unlock new value.digitally delivered external services. value from information,” on page 06 examines how creating open • Brian Katz of Sanofi discusses whyThat’s job one. Job two is recognizing interfaces to engage a growing digital enterprise IT should treat users as partners.that offering digitally delivered services ecosystem will empower enterprisesis a big opportunity, very often through to build a digital operating model Please visit pwc.com/techforecast tothe co-creative efforts of third parties. and progress toward becoming find these articles and other issues ofAlmost certainly these services will a permeable enterprise. the Technology Forecast online. If you wouldforce a rethink of vertical business like to receive future issues of this quarterlyprocesses. Refining tightly coupled end- “Consumerization of APIs” on page 34 publication as a PDF attachment, you canto-end processes into loosely coupled, explains why a new generation of tools sign up at pwc.com/techforecast/subscribe.modular activities creates the building based on RESTful APIs scales the abilityblocks third parties are looking for as to make digital connections by sharply As always, we welcome your feedbackthey build new businesses. But business reducing the cost and complexity of and your ideas for future research andpartners and consumers of those integrations in digital ecosystems. analysis topics to cover.services expect the same rapid, seamlesssetup already demonstrated in web- The article, “Embracing open IT,” oncentric digital ecosystems. Otherwise page 54 examines how, by positioning ITthe services go wanting for customers. capabilities as a platform composed of open, self-describing, modular services,In short, the rise of digital business CIOs can manage challenges from SMACecosystems is creating superlinear and enable the permeable enterprise.scaling effects; doubling the number The business value of APIs 05
  10. 10. 06 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  11. 11. Exploiting the growingvalue from information:Creating an operatingmodel for permeabilityCreating open interfaces to engage a growingdigital ecosystem will empower enterprises tosystematically embrace emerging technology trendsand to benefit from the accelerating informationvalue expectations of their customers.By Vinod Baya, Galen Gruman, and Bo ParkerStreetline, a startup based in Foster All three examples (detailed later)City, California, uses mobile sensors, illustrate how leading companies areweb applications, and analytics to capitalizing on digital ecosystems thatcollect, transmit, and analyze data from are expanding due to the confluenceparking meters and parking spaces. of social networks, mobile computing,The company is transforming parking analytics, and cloud computingoperations into digital ecosystems to the (SMAC).1 SMAC challenges enterprisesbenefit of the cities, the drivers, parking to take advantage of the positivelot operators, and local merchants. disruptions it portends, while they operate at the rapid pace of innovationAt FedEx, an evolving digital operating and change that SMAC demands.model allows customers to stay incontinuous contact with their packages SMAC and other emerging technologiesand to initiate changes to their create the possibility for new waysshipments and other orders previously to develop products, interact withviewed as strictly internal operations. customers, partner with others,The operating model also supports the compete, and succeed. More than aefforts of business partners to create strategy for any individual technologynew services using FedEx information. trend or for combining more than one of them, companies need a systematicAnd AT&T is transforming its network approach to engage with theseinto a permeable digital platform with technologies. Companies that havesoftware interfaces that third-party the most success engaging with SMACdevelopers can use to tap into network are, in PwC’s view, rethinking theircapabilities to create applications and business and enterprise architectures andservices that add value for customers, emphasizing three fundamental changes.the third parties themselves, and AT&T. 1 Our use of the term SMAC includes the four technologies called out here as well as related emerging technologies that take advantage of them, such as the Internet of Things. The business value of APIs 07
  12. 12. Figure 1: A permeable enterprise exposes modular capabilities with open software interfaces to enable interactions (internally and externally) What is an API? in digital ecosystems. When talking to colleagues in the IT organization or to technology API providers about ways to participate in the digital ecosystem, you’ll hear the term API. It is the acronym for application programming interface, a technology term that means the specifications for how Enterprise software programs are able to Business ecosystem exchange information with each other even if designed and run by different organizations. APIs are everywhere. The Google Maps API, for instance, is an interface used by developers to add content on a map of any region. Businesses can also embed the maps in their applications or services. There are several types of APIs, but the one worth noting to a business audience today is a RESTful API, First, they acknowledge the SMAC digital relationships with customers which stands for representational trends are the strongest signal yet that and partners, and reorganize for speed. state transfer API. Although not business ecosystems are becoming appropriate in all use cases, more digitized, where information Permeability and successful engagement RESTful APIs have changed the content accounts for a rising proportion with SMAC improves overall economics of performing software of the entire value of any product or performance. PwC’s fourth annual integrations by sharply reducing service. Second, they understand that survey of enterprises’ digital IQ—the the associated cost and complexity. successfully tapping the new drivers way companies use digital technology This change creates the potential to of value requires a digital operating and channels to meet customer needs rethink IT architectures for scaling model, a model attuned to participating as well as the needs of employees and integrations and pursuing strategies in or integrating with expanding digital business partners—finds that top- that take advantage of them. ecosystems. And third, successful performing2 US organizations show companies are adjusting their business greater mastery in how they leverage Today, web companies and social and enterprise architectures to become the digital technologies of SMAC to plan, networking providers are heavy what PwC calls the permeable enterprise. innovate, measure results, interact with providers and users of RESTful APIs, customers, and ultimately create value.3 which is how they quickly connect Permeable means the use of open to so many data sources and services software interfaces on modular This issue of the Technology Forecast and let others rely on the data and services they provide. Google, capabilities to allow easy digital describes ways that enterprises can Facebook, and Twitter are examples connections with other capabilities, engage with SMAC trends by using of companies that quickly became the way web-based companies RESTful APIs to become a permeable providers beyond their own services do. (See Figure 1.) Specifically, enterprise and participate in digital through the use of RESTful APIs. leading companies use application ecosystems. The issue details the rise of programming interfaces (APIs)— RESTful API management technology By using and offering APIs, you do not especially RESTful, or representational forgo the ability to control or manage state transfer, APIs (see the sidebar, 2 Top-performing organizations are defined as those users of them. An API may be exposed “What is an API?” on this page)— rated in the highest quartile for annual revenue, growth, internally or externally, and designed as interface-oriented abstractions of profitability, and innovation as well as those that have revenue growth of more than 5 percent in the last so only those with valid credentials enterprise capabilities. In doing so, 12 months. can transact through them. they rethink their assets as platforms 3 Raising your digital IQ, PwC’s 4th annual digital IQ for co-creation, maintain persistent survey, 2012, http://www.pwc.com/us/digitalIQ.08 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  13. 13. Figure 2: The confluence of SMAC trends creates a shift in value drivers,as the value from bits (information content) grows faster than the valuefrom atoms (the physical product or human-delivered service). Social Value Value from atomsCloud Mobile bits Value from Time Atoms: physical product or human-delivered service Bits: information content Analyticsfrom new vendors (see the article, value of the physical product or human-“Consumerization of APIs,” on page delivered analog service (atoms).434) and examines how the CIO should The confluence of SMAC trends isthink about permeability as it impacts driving this shift in business value. PwCthe IT organization (see the article, anticipates that information associated“Embracing open IT,” on page 54). with products and services will increasingly account for a rising shareDigital transformation of in the customer’s experience of valueecosystems: How bits increasingly delivered, as illustrated in Figure 2.complement atomsThe notion of the digital company Streetline uses bits to transformhas been around for years. Gains in a business built on atomsoperational efficiency can be credited to Parking spaces and parking meters havea more expansive use of IT to make the always been part of the atoms world.business run faster and more effectively. One space was available to one car,That’s a powerful benefit of IT. However, and a meter was a simple device withfew companies outside the pure a coin slot, a timer, and sometimes aweb space have become truly digital credit card capability. The user andcompanies in which information and the owner dealt with the meter in athe ability to act on it creates significant one-to-one relationship and had to beeconomic and competitive value. physically present to use or manage it.The examples of Streetline, FedEx, Now, Streetline5 digitally managesand AT&T suggest what a company parking spaces and meters in Loscan do when it starts to realize that Angeles, Indianapolis, and several otherinformation itself is a product or cities. It embeds sensors in parkingservice. Some, including Rob Carter,CIO of FedEx, use bits and atoms as an 4 Rob Carter, CIO of FedEx, keynote address at Locationanalogy to highlight the growing value and Beyond Summit, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/of information (bits) to complement the watch?v=Ljs28Rokwnk. 5 http://www.streetline.com/manage-parking/for-cities/ The business value of APIs 09
  14. 14. Today, many everyday products and services, such as shoes, wristbands, Social, mobile, analytics, and cloud golf clubs, appliances, and cars, (SMAC) trends are the strongest signal yet include sensors to collect and transmit information that can enhance the user that business ecosystems are becoming experience in a digital ecosystem. For more digitized, where information content example, Nike augments select running shoes with an embedded sensor—called accounts for a rising proportion of the the Nike+ system7—that allows athletes entire value of any product or service. to track running habits, assess progress against personal goals, collaborate with other runners, and improve performance, thereby enhancing the running experience. A wristband from Basis8 has multiple sensors to track heart rate, physical activity, sleep patterns, and galvanic skin response (throughFigure 3: The Parker app from spaces on the street and in municipal perspiration) for personalized trackingStreetline helps customers and privately owned garages to collect and feedback on physical conditioning.navigate to open parking spots. information about availability and wirelessly transmit the data via a Why new value will be mesh network to Streetline’s servers. increasingly driven from bits “We use this information to create a Where should a company look to create smart parking ecosystem,” says Mark value from information? Figure 4 shows Noworolski, CTO of Streetline. a high-level taxonomy of potential sources of value spanning atoms and The bits bring new value to a formerly bits. A general way to think about atoms-only parking ecosystem. Drivers information value-add is that it directly can use Parker, a mobile application engages the customer’s experience available from app stores, to identify of the product or service by surfacing and navigate to an open spot, get alerts data about that experience. Once data on meter expiration, or reserve spaces. has been collected, it can be used for (See Figure 3.) Parking enforcement multiple purposes by the customer, the officers no longer need to patrol for vendor, or other interested parties. violations; they can go directly to the spot of an expired meter. Cities can implement demand-responsive pricing6 and establish federated “We use this [parking payment systems across jurisdictions. spot availability and Because the information is no longer payment] information trapped in the meter, local businesses can become value-added partners to create a smart by paying to give their customers parking ecosystem.” priority access to nearby meters or by subscribing to the meter data for —Mark Noworolski,Source: Streetline inclusion in navigation services. The app also reduces traffic and pollution Streetline as fewer drivers need to circle for parking. All this new value emanates from the world of bits made possible 6 http://sfpark.org/how-it-works/pricing/ by digitally transforming the parking ecosystem and liberating analog 7 http://nikeplus.nike.com/plus/ information from the atoms world. 8 https://mybasis.com/10 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  15. 15. Figure 4: The emerging domains of value are driven more by bits (information content) than atoms (physical product). Value of experience: product or service Known Emerging Value from Value from domain of value domain of value atoms bits Content Content Communication Form Function (unchanging (related (changing information) information) information) Components, Telemetry Linking Specifications, Non-telemetry integrated (location, contexts performance information system time, etc.) (APIs) (state) Internal External Design Usability Digital to enterprise to enterprise operations use use Permeability Progress toward a permeable enterprise The business value of APIs 11
  16. 16. Figure 5: The ability to link information nodes (bits) in an information network means value rises quickly as the numberof nodes increases (Metcalfe’s Law).An impact of SMAC is that more and more processes and activities will create a digital footprint and surface new information.The ability to link this information to create an information network provides the potential to grow new value exponentially. Enterprise Ecosystem des no io n at rm fo in g in nk li m f ro l ue VaThere are many reasons why appliances, cars, homes, and Figure 6.) Such growth manifestsemerging domains of value are based parking meters. This increasing the advantage of Metcalfe’s Law,12more on bits than on atoms. Some instrumentation, connectivity, which recognizes that the value of areasons include the following: and digitization deliver more and network is proportional to the square more bits into the value system.11 of the entities in the network.• Bits are increasing—With a phenomenon such as the Internet of • Bits are fungible and limitless— • Bits persist over time—Whereas Things,9 products become smarter They can be repurposed, reused, a consumer eventually replaces through embedded sensors, which duplicated, or deployed in any a car or shoes, the information produce digital representations number of use cases without being accumulated around that product of the analog activities. Sensors “used up.” This flexibility multiplies will persist beyond the life of the convert any type of analog signal, the options created by bits for ongoing atoms. As new hardware endpoints such as temperature, pressure, or innovation and value extraction. The arrive, bits can be adapted to new acceleration, into electrical signals value of the bits increases the more values and new endpoints. The that digitize that information. that multiple parties exploit them, value accumulates over time. These sensors are increasingly as demonstrated by Streetline. ubiquitous, and their usage grows 9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things as they continue to become cheaper • Bits can be linked—As RESTful API 10 Caroline Kazmierski, “Semiconductor Industry Posts and smaller. According to the technologies gain wider adoption, Record-Breaking Revenues Despite 2011 Challenges,” Semiconductor Industry Association, an information network made of Semiconductor Industry Association, February 6, 2012, http://www.sia-online.org/news/2012/02/06/global- sensors and actuators are the smallest information nodes likely will develop sales-report-2012/semiconductor-industry-posts- semiconductor market segment internally and externally to an record-breaking-revenues-despite-2011-challenges/. but showed the highest year-to- enterprise, much like the network of 11 See the article, “Consumerization of APIs,” on page 34 year growth of any segment, at devices on the Internet. (See Figure for more details on sensors. 15.5 percent to $8 billion in 2011.10 5.) ProgrammableWeb, which tracks 12 Although initially defined in relation to telecommunications networks, Metcalfe’s Law today Today, sensors are in a wide range externally published APIs, already applies to all networks, and it states that the value of a of devices and environments, reports more than 6,000 APIs, and network is proportional to the square of the number of nodes in the network. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ including wristbands, toothbrushes, the number is quickly increasing. (See Metcalfes_law for more details.12 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  17. 17. Figure 6: Use of APIs to interact in digital ecosystems hasbeen growing and has accelerated in the past few years.Growth in number of APIs over time 3 mo6,000 4 mo5,000 6 mo4,000 9 mo3,000 18 months2,000 8 years1,000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: ProgrammableWebScaling integrations requires to think about the SMAC technologies Table 1: The interdependent anda digital operating model as an integrated whole from a complementary roles of SMAC inWhile each SMAC technology has its strategic viewpoint. (See Table 1.) doing workown unique impact, the technologiesare complementary in support of work But as a collective whole they also Trend Relationship with workgetting done. The cloud increasingly represent an unusual, perhapscontains more of the information and unprecedented challenge: how to Social Who we work withapplications that people use. Mobile embrace the comprehensive challengedevices give people access to the cloud, they create at a technological level Mobile How we get to workto other data sources, and to each other. without being overwhelmed. LeadingAnalytics help them make actionable companies are overcoming this Analytics What we work on, the meaning of worksense of all that data. Social media helps challenge by adopting what PwC callspeople find colleagues with whom to a digital operating model. This model is Cloud Where we do the workcollaborate and co-create. The collective inspired by the open linking traditionimpact of SMAC on the enterprise evident in the web marketplace that isoperating model is so broad that it helps accelerating, driven by SMAC trends. Despite decades of technology investments, most companies do not have a digital operating model today. The business value of APIs 13
  18. 18. Scalable integration strategy: Why most companies don’t have a digital operating model—yet Having adopted IT solutions to drive limited resources—web companies have to as a service-oriented architecture automation and efficiencies for decades, naturally moved to a low-maintenance, (SOA). (See Figure A2.) Adoption of many companies will argue that they self-describing, open communication style SOA can address many of the issues are already digital. Their back-office of integration facilitated by RESTful APIs, surfaced in Figure A1 by conforming to its processes, in particular, are likely to be which are a scalable way to integrate. principles of loose coupling, abstraction highly digital, and they pay increasing of services, modularity, and reusability. attention to digitizing information about Using a loose taxonomy of back-office, While this approach has greatly reduced customers and suppliers. However, at most front-office, and middle-office systems the unintended complexity of the early companies the digital footprint is uneven. and applications, Figure A depicts how, as days of integration, scaling for and integration scales, digitization can spread in coordinating with a digitizing business Extending digitization depends on an enterprise. Historically, the integration ecosystem remains burdensome as SOA making connections digital, which in turn technologies were entirely point to point, has largely remained internally focused. depends on integrating tasks, activities, as shown in Figure A1. These integration and processes. Therefore, the central issue points grew organically without concerns RESTful APIs, an architectural and that keeps IT from meeting the demands or considerations for reuse, consistent programming model that sharply reduces of social, mobile, analytics, and cloud architecture, or agility. They also required the cost and complexity of integrations, (SMAC) or having a digital operating external documentation, demanded a deliver a scalable approach for both model is the long lead time and high cost deep understanding of data types and internal and external use. (See Figure A3.) of integrating one piece of software with logic on both sides of the connection, and Many companies will start by exposing another. IT investments of the past did not moved data in binary form unreadable data and services using RESTful APIs anticipate the need for scaling integrations. to programmers. As the integrations to their external digital ecosystem of proliferated to number in the hundreds, partners and customers. But a RESTful For this reason, lessons from web a new approach became necessary. API approach for internal integration companies are relevant. With business creates many of the same benefits of motivations to integrate with as many other This need led to the emergence of an highly scalable linking and coordinating web companies as possible—and with approach to internal integration that adopts of business processes at very low cost. architectural principles, usually referred Figure A: Despite decades of IT investments, most companies do not have a digital operating model because they could not scale integrations easily, an opportunity possible today with RESTful APIs. A1 A2 A3 Historically, the front, middle, With SOA, enterprises adopted an The new architectural principle and programming and back offices of an enterprise architecture using a service bus for model based on RESTful APIs reduces integration were integrated point to point by integration, creating loose coupling and cost and complexity, so integrations can scale for tight coupling, suitable only for a the potential for reuse and flexibility. The many internal as well as external uses. small number of integrations. complexity of integration meant use remained largely internal to the enterprise. API Front office Enterprise service bus ice Ba (SOA) off ck le off dd ice Mi EDI EDI EDI Business ecosystem Business ecosystem Business ecosystem14 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  19. 19. Companies embracing a digital operating model organize themselves around atoms plus bits as the source of new value.To be successful, web companieshad to solve a fundamental problem:linking to and being linked by otherweb properties at scale. The solution genesis of the SMAC trends. The webwas open, self-describing APIs marketplace has become known forcommunicating over standard HTTP13 constant, unpredictable change, robustprotocols—in short, RESTful APIs. innovation, agility, modular capabilities, and co-creation of value. The webDespite decades of technology is inherently digital and organizedinvestments, most companies do around an architecture that facilitatesnot have a digital operating model these dynamics. With RESTful APIs, alltoday. Many feel overwhelmed by companies have the opportunity to bringthe demands from SMAC trends. these capabilities to their operations.The problem for most companies is And this is the inspiration for a digitalthat they cannot scale their existing operating model, which should haveintegration architecture and methods the following key characteristics:to the demands created by a digitalecosystem. (See the sidebar, “Scalable • Instrumentation to digitizeintegration strategy,” on page 14.) operations—The use of sensors transforms analog activities intoSo far, companies that have acted on digital representations to surfacethe digital ecosystem in a big way and use valuable information.tend to be web-native enterprises,such as Facebook, Google, and several • Loosely coupled modularother companies offering mobile or capabilities—Internal capabilitiessocial apps. Web-native companies and processes are broken intoextend their capabilities and their modular service components thatreach almost as a matter of course by have standard open interfaces.exposing their capabilities via APIs to Loose coupling makes it possibleothers. In many ways, the web is the to change the components without affecting the system, as long as the interface is kept stable.13 HyperText Transport Protocol is the standard for transmitting information on the World Wide Web. The business value of APIs 15
  20. 20. Table 2: Key characteristics of the digital operating model contrasted with the way many companies typically operate Characteristic Typical operating model Digital operating model Key source of value Organized around atoms as the source of value Organized around atoms plus bits as the source of new value Extent of Mostly analog activities (except digital native Mostly instrumented, connected, digital activities digitization companies) Asset strategy Assets exist to fulfill a particular function Assets are platforms and therefore extensible and are not extensible by others Architecture Largely closed and monolithic Open, accessible, and modular Responsiveness Static, inflexible, slow to evolve Dynamic, agile, evolving to change Key performance Efficiency-centric: resistance to new value creation Customer-centric: increasing value to customer indicator (KPI) Nature of Tight coupling among systems of coordination Loose coupling among systems of coordination interdependencies Participants in Largely the enterprise itself Co-creation and collaboration with the ecosystem value creation Business creation High barrier to new business creation Low barrier to new business creation potential • Addressable platform with low A culture of valuing information gives interaction costs—The capabilities FedEx a digital operating model“Information about the are available for others to use by FedEx has organized around package helps us run means of stable interfaces that have a information from its inception. “In the low or no barrier to usage. Enabling late 1970s, our founder and CEO Fred our business better. technologies, including RESTful APIs Smith said, ‘The information about That comes from a and API management platforms, the package is just as important as the make addressability efficient. package itself,’” says David Zanca, senior digital operating model vice president of IT, customer access, where all our assets are • The ability to co-create in a and revenue systems at FedEx Services. digital ecosystem—A co-creation “It’s a vision that has given our company connected and surface strategy treats customers, channel a culture that values information, information to increase partners, suppliers, and industry and that uses it in all we do.” ecosystem participants as active agents overall value to us and who have permission to combine the FedEx’s journey to a digital operating the customer.” modular capabilities exposed in a model is decades old. “Information platform to create new experiences. about the package helps us run our —David Zanca, business better. That comes from a There are other characteristics, digital operating model where all FedEx Services and Table 2 contrasts the prevalent our assets are connected and surface traditional operating model to a information to increase overall value digital operating model. Companies to us and the customer,” Zanca says. embracing a digital operating model “Almost every piece of our business organize themselves around atoms is instrumented; it has some degree plus bits as the source of new value. of intelligence and automation on it.16 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  21. 21. Our planes are all intelligent, and they With its new SenseAware producttell us where they are. The trucks, line, FedEx has recently driven the “Not only do ourthe couriers, the knowledge workers, digital operating model deeper intothe hubs—almost everything has the customer’s context. “Not only do customers want moretechnology embedded in it and tells our customers want more information information aboutus where it is or what its state is.” about the packages, but they also now want more interaction with FedEx and the packages, but theyFedEx has used a transportation logistics expect us to react to changes and resolve also now want moreinformation system called COSMOS problems if they occur, ” says Thomas(Customer, Operations, Service Master Wicinski, vice president of digital interaction with FedExOn-line System) since 1979 to keep access marketing for FedEx Services. and expect us to reacttrack of all packages. While it used Customers can request operationalthe information to allow dynamic actions such as return shipment, to changes and resolvemanagement of its delivery system, it reroute, reship, and repackage. Its problems if they occur.”also innovated many times to present digital operating model gives FedEx thean interface to its customers and bring flexibility to adapt to these requests. —Thomas Wicinski,them into the FedEx digital ecosystem. Transformation to a FedEx ServicesIn 1984, before the web, FedEx released permeable enterprisePowerShip (now part of FedEx Ship), The digital operating model enableswhich used modems over circuit- what PwC calls the permeable enterprise,switched telephone lines to allow in which latent capabilities and assetshigh-volume customers to link with inside the enterprise are permittedCOSMOS, so they could place shipping to reach outside and be combinedorders electronically and print air with other assets and capabilities.bills. In 1994, fedex.com was the first External innovators also can reachsite to give customers the ability to into the enterprise and tap into itsmonitor shipments on the web. capabilities to create new value. Both are facilitated by the sharply lower costFedEx also maintains a website for of interactions in a digital ecosystem.developers (FedEx Developer ResourceCenter14), where third parties can A company will need to developtap into FedEx capabilities offered as many new capabilities to adopt amodular web services for shipping, digital operating model and becomeoffice and print services, and other tasks. a permeable enterprise. As Figure 7 shows, these new capabilities addressFedEx layers the customer experience partner strategies, assumptionsservices on top of the enterprise services about the frequency and intensitywith the help of RESTful APIs. of customer engagement, and a business and enterprise architecture built for speed, all while balancing14 http://www.fedex.com/us/developer/ their use internally and externally. The business value of APIs 17
  22. 22. Platform for co-creation: The platform approach is a different Scaling integrations way of thinking about value. It requires“If you are going to Until recently, organizational structures a step back from the product or service’s operate at a pace and IT systems were designed to obvious value and an assessment of support the enterprise as the sole how others might add value if they at which the external creator of products and services. In had access to attributes beyond the market is moving, a world of value co-creation, these immediate ones. “The ability to create structures and systems often do not self-service interactions, enable you have to take work well. Too much knowledge about co-creation, and provide a vehicle capabilities, industry how processes work must be acquired where information is flowing from before anything can be added. This a leaf node to every other leaf node specific or not, and barrier can be significant for third radically transforms our ideas about make platforms parties, even if huge latent value is how to organize production, innovation, inside the enterprise. Reducing the and transactions,” says Ted Shelton, from them.” learning curve requires a new strategy. managing director in the PwC Advisory “If you are going to operate at a pace at practice. Product design, development, —John Donovan, AT&T which the external market is moving, and customer service must take into you have to take capabilities, industry account the growing possibilities for specific or not, and make platforms surfacing and using information. from them,” says John Donovan, senior executive vice president of technology In this context, the word platform and network operations at AT&T. By means programmable interfaces or allowing third-party developers to tap APIs. “APIs are the building blocks of the into its network capabilities, AT&T has digital economy,” says Laura Merling, transformed its network into a digital senior vice president of the application platform. (See the sidebar, “APIs: An enablement business unit at Alcatel- architecture for speed,” on page 21.) Lucent. APIs become the language with which interactions and communication occur in a SMAC-driven digital ecosystem, supporting permeability.18 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  23. 23. AT&T seeks to expand the value Figure 7: Enterprises will require a digital operating model to tap into therealized from its telecommunications shift in value drivers that results from SMAC. The digital operating modelnetwork and associated services. on the inside will enable the permeable enterprise on the outside.Jacob Feinstein, executive directorof new technology at AT&T, says SocialAT&T asked itself, “If we architectour network so that it comprises anumber of loosely coupled modulesconnected through open interfaces, Valuecould we expose those interfaces tothird parties to foster openness in Value from atomsa broader sense, leading to greater Cloud Mobileinnovation, and ultimately get more bitsapps on more devices on our network?” Value fromFor example, because AT&T exposed its TimeInternet Protocol telephony capabilitiesto web developers, its users caninitiate an online phone session from Analyticsa restaurant review website to make areservation, potentially driving morebusiness to AT&T’s network. AT&T could requiresprovide access to different quality-of-service levels that provide a range ofservice options for third parties, letting Digital operating modelthem offer, for example, premiumconnections for a higher fee, in whichAT&T might share the extra revenue. Instrumented Modular Addressable Low interaction operations capabilities platform costRethinking the customer relationship:Persistent digital engagement results inBecause of SMAC, a new consumerreality is emerging, defined by an any-where/anytime/any device expectation Permeable enterpriseof accessibility and engagement.Consumers have the ability to beonline all the time and expect whatPwC calls persistent digital engagementwith whomever they conduct business.“To address the new consumer stateof persistent digital engagement,companies will need to develop fluencyin digital product development andsocial technologies, and they will need • Platform for co-creationto create collaboration across groups • Persistent digital engagementthat have often worked separately from • Architecture for speedone another,” PwC’s Shelton advises. The business value of APIs 19
  24. 24. Figure 8: The digital operating model promotes a customer-centric approach over a product-centric one. s fu n ct Business functions s in e s io n Bu s The product The customer Customers Product-centric Customer-centric Enterprises must reorganize in a Architecture for speed manner that puts customers at the Speed is essential in the digital“Agility and accessibility center of the digital operating model, ecosystem to meet the pace with which will make the successful instead of thinking of them only the business environment is changing. as end-of-the-chain recipients of Speed was a driving force in AT&T’s organization of the delivered value. Figure 8 shows this RESTful API program, Donovan says. future.” distinction between a product-centric By exposing RESTful APIs, AT&T has and customer-centric enterprise. cut the time it takes developers to place —Ted Shelton, PwC new capabilities on the network from Customers are already altering the months to hours. The API program is a dynamics of their relationships with key pillar in AT&T’s broader innovation providers through their rapid adoption strategy. (See the sidebar, “APIs: An of new technologies that move them architecture for speed,” on page 21.) toward the center. “The customer is able to have a tighter, longer-lasting Establishing a business and IT relationship with the business even architecture around RESTful APIs is though the way they interact with not just about speed. It is the best way that business might change,” says Sam to prepare for future waves of change Ramji, vice president of strategy at API in technologies, products, and business management solution vendor Apigee. strategies. “Agility and accessibility will Bits allow stickier relationships in the make the successful organization of value network because their mutability the future,” Shelton says. “With APIs means they can persist even as they are modularizing every function at the right adapted to new services and use cases. level of granularity, one can enable more agility and more accessibility.”20 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  25. 25. APIs: An architecture for speed at AT&TJohn Donovan, Sanjay Macwan, and Jacob Feinstein of AT&T detail how the API programis a driver of speed in their innovation efforts.Navigating the far-flung functional, than 150 startups. As a result of this care for AT&T, new revenue opportunityorganizational, and technical structure outreach, 40 projects are in the works for SundaySky, and increased satisfactionto bring new ideas to any large company and 11 are deployed commercially, for the customer. AT&T and SundaySkycan be slow and confounding. For a generating revenue for AT&T and co-created a solution facilitated by thecompany the size of AT&T, this had the its collaborators or delivering new transparency and ease of programmingpotential to create lengthy delays for efficiencies that benefit customers. to the billing API. Without that, such andevelopers seeking to test innovations endeavor might have taken too long.against the network. Today, external APIs are the keyinnovators and developers access The underlying enabler to increase the Making AT&T addressable:much of AT&T’s network and other pace of innovation is the company’s Network as a platformcapabilities in a self-service manner, application programming interface AT&T has opened up several categoriesallowing them to bring new offerings to (API) program. By opening up core of RESTful APIs so far and processesmarket three times faster than before. horizontal and vertical capabilities about 4.5 billion API calls every month. through RESTful public APIs, AT&T AT&T has an aggressive road map toThis new speed is central to AT&T’s has established a digital platform that open new APIs across several serviceinnovation strategy. Whether ideas drives an ecosystem of network-centric categories. This plan makes the networkare generated internally or co-created services. “It is an architectural choice an intrinsic part of an innovationwith outside innovators, AT&T wants to one makes for speed,” Donovan says. ecosystem and gives AT&T an opportunitymatch the pace at which the market is for new monetization by servingchanging and innovating—particularly When a company has the size and consumers and business customers.around mobile and cloud technologies. scale of AT&T, speed is not easy or a given. The API program removes Ultimately, the goal of an API program is“If you have infrastructure assets and organizational, functional, and technical to make internal capabilities addressableare going to operate at a pace at which barriers to accessing AT&T’s network by others. “Many people think API equalsthe external market is moving, you and information assets. Extensive open and open equals free; that’s not thehave to take capabilities—industry- documentation, sample code, immediate case at all. What is needed is a thoughtfulspecific or not—and make platforms access to RESTful APIs, and sandboxes architecture that allows you to take layersfrom them. And then make them easy for testing are some of the features above and below your platform, and maketo address,” says John Donovan, senior that reduce the friction for a thriving them modular and addressable,” Donovanexecutive vice president of technology ecosystem of developers and innovators. says. AT&T’s goal is to make its networkand network operations at AT&T. the most addressable network globally. Consider the case of SundaySky, aThe emphasis on speed extends beyond company AT&T chose to work with With APIs making capabilities addressable,technology. Startups participate in “speed after a speed dating session. Telecom the network becomes a platform thatdating” sessions with AT&T executives, bills can be difficult to understand for accrues many advantages. Developersa fast-paced 20 minutes in which they some customers, particularly when they save time and resources and build onhave a deal or an understanding of start or change services. AT&T’s billing top of AT&T’s assets instead of investingwhy not. “We always have some of our system has more than 1,000 elements. in network and telecom equipmenttop decision makers in the room—not Confusion stemming from a bill leads to themselves. A platform approachjust the technology leadership, but our high call volume to customer care. Using positions legacy assets for the futurebusiness unit leaders, chief marketing AT&T’s billing API, SundaySky created a by abstracting and combining them toofficers for enterprise and consumer, service that dynamically builds a custom increase their relevance to emergingand others. Because the key decision video to address customers by name and trends in cloud, mobile, and socialmakers are listening to the pitch at the walk them through their bills. In a trial technologies. “APIs give you the abilitysame time, we can decide whether to of new subscribers for the IPTV service to better manage the legacy environmentmove forward immediately after the (U-verse), the call volume to customer and future-proof them,” Donovan says.speed dating session,” says Sanjay care dropped by 20 percent amongMacwan, assistant vice president in customers who had access to the video A well-executed API program reorganizesthe AT&T chief technology office. review service developed at the AT&T capabilities to establish consistency and innovation center with SundaySky. ease of use. It makes an organization’sIn 2011, AT&T met with more than internal knowledge accessible in a500 startups, and in early 2012, the The result is a three-way win: cost savingscompany already has met with more from fewer or shorter calls into customer continues to next page › The business value of APIs 21
  26. 26. semantically consistent manner. “APIs reconstitute their work in a more modular, simplify things architecturally and create fungible, and co-creation–centric manner. a better story and capabilities for the developers by having a common taxonomy,” As a result, APIs are increasingly coming says Jacob Feinstein, executive director from all parts of the organization and not of new technology. “If you have a more just from the API program group. The educated community, they’ll think of new consumer marketing organization, the things that they might do with the network enterprise marketing organization, the that they wouldn’t have thought of doing.” product organization, and the emerging devices organization feed the API pipeline. The platform strategy extends beyond Teams are also proposing APIs out of the network assets. “Our APIs cut across the gate with new solutions, including capabilities such as payment, device teams from AT&T’s network equipment characteristics, location, messaging, speech providers. “APIs are being thought of at recognition, and others,” Macwan says. the outset, and they influence the early “Any developers who want to embed speech ideation around network release and recognition in their services can just call a road map planning. Now we actively speech API to access our speech engine.” look at what the API opportunities are as we roll out each next generation of “Most of the things we do are candidates network technology,” Feinstein says. for the new architecture,” Donovan says. Speed is also a function of an External outreach organization’s operating model. changes internal “We’re pivoting toward thinking about “[The API program] is operating model architecting everything we do in a an architectural choice Donovan cautions against more API-centric way,” Feinstein adds. APIs impose modular thinking on the the common notion that one makes for speed.” APIs are for giving away enterprise. They have allowed AT&T to data free just to be nice. reconstitute its capabilities and assets in —John Donovan, AT&T That thinking limits the modular chunks with stable interfaces. internal potential of APIs. They have digitized the operations that “The use of APIs and take place around the company’s network their impact is not just and the value-added services it delivers. for outreach to the external developer Being digital, these capabilities are easier community. It changes how you operate,” to engage with and now operate at a faster he explains. “You literally put APIs pace with a large number of partners. everywhere. That’s how you do internal development, that’s how the IT shop The single principle: Speed works, that’s how your provider should Despite the size and scale of its do development for you, that’s how your infrastructure and operations, the offshore stuff lands into your environment, architecture changes enabled by API and that’s how you build services.” thinking, API technology, and an API platform strategy can have a real impact AT&T is changing on the inside, too, as a on innovation, growth, and the AT&T result of the API program. The thinking bottom line. “We’re getting faster, and one and architecture the program represents result is that the architecture is shifting to are seeping deeper into company one that allows more partnerships. You’ll operations. Many teams now understand see us do more technology partnerships the change in thinking the API architecture and move faster, both at the pace of requires. “People are applying an API lens the market and in terms of innovating whether they’re in the labs, the network on our own. There will be efficiency teams, or what traditionally have been benefits as well,” Donovan says. finished product groups. They offer an API-centric view of their work,” Feinstein His advice on how to think about APIs: says. As these diverse groups think about “Operate under one principle and then ways to support the API program, they architect around it; ours was speed.”22 PwC Technology Forecast 2012 Issue 2
  27. 27. “APIs are the building blocks of the digital economy.” —Laura Merling, Alcatel-LucentConclusion This transformation is possible byThe SMAC trends provide strong signals understanding and using RESTful APIsthat business ecosystems are moving and API management technologies.toward digital ubiquity. As this digital (See the article, “Consumerizationubiquity evolves, information (bits) will of APIs,” on page 34.) Companiesmake up a growing proportion of the that apply modern APIs and PwC’soverall value that customers experience proposed digital operating modelfrom any product or service (atoms). thinking have the opportunity toSuccessful companies are adjusting their gain competitive advantage throughbusiness and enterprise architectures to reduced friction in co-creating newbe more attuned to participating in or value, building persistent digitalintegrating with these expanding digital engagements, and increased agility.ecosystems. Companies leading in theirengagements with SMAC are adopting Leading software companies have longa digital operating model, which known that being the dominant platformsupports the permeable enterprise. for an ecosystem creates direct and indirect demand for their offerings andFew enterprises are completely ignoring long-term competitive advantage. SMACSMAC developments. However, the trends suggest that every companydemands SMAC creates on IT can is, in part (or should try to be), like aoverwhelm CIOs and other business software company in how it createsexecutives. In part, that’s because and engages with a digital ecosystem.business executives are accustomedto viewing technology opportunities Establishing a platform in the centerthrough the old lens of being responsible of a robust digital ecosystem requiresfor all the end-to-end application logic a digital operating model, one thatand performance. This approach does is appropriately permeable to thirdnot scale when engaging with SMAC, parties that can co-create new valueas described in the sidebar “Scalable from what a company and others haveintegration strategy.” They need a new to offer. It means taking advantage ofmodel—one based on lower integration the interconnectedness and the riseand interaction costs—similar to the of empowered customers who willone web companies have been using. engage actively with a company if it lets them. It’s time for more companies toA key transformation is to make a become like a software company withincompany’s value-add capabilities their habitat of the digital ecosystem.addressable in digital ecosystems. And perhaps in some new habitats. The business value of APIs 23

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