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Transforming collaboration-with-social-tools

  1. 1. A quarterly journal 06 26 482011 The collaboration Enterprise success with The CIO’s role in socialIssue 3 paradox emerging social technology enterprise strategy Transforming collaboration with social tools Tony O’Driscoll Executive Director Center for Technology, Entertainment and Media Fuqua School of Business Duke University
  2. 2. Contents Features2011Issue 3 The collaboration paradox More social information helps the workforce find what it’s looking for. 06 Enterprise success with emerging social technology Innovators are learning to build graphs to help users locate the information they need—and each other. 26 The CIO’s role in social enterprise strategy Transforming collaboration demands an evolutionary approach. 48
  3. 3. Interviews Departments18 02Building a new learning Acknowledgmentsenvironment aroundsocial tools 04Tony O’Driscoll of Duke University Message from the editoraligns social technology’s strengthswith the way people learn today. 66 Subtext22How online identityand context becomeproductivity driversSameer Patel of Sovos Group placessocial technology in the context ofsoftware that enterprises already use.38Adding social networkingto business workflowTim Young of Socialcast considers howblending activity streams with existingapplications can open the door tobehavioral change inside enterprises.42Harnessing the powerof the graphKeith Griffin of Cisco Systems describeshow emerging social and graph datatechnology can remove barriers tomore effective collaboration.60Why collaboration hasn’tchanged much—yetSheldon Laube of PwC focuses onthe essentials that still need to emergeto create real improvements inenterprise collaboration. Transforming collaboration with social tools 01
  4. 4. Acknowledgments Advisory Center for Technology Principal & Technology Leader & Innovation Tom DeGarmo Managing Editor Bo Parker US Thought Leadership Partner-in-Charge Editors Tom Craren Vinod Baya Alan Morrison Strategic Marketing Natalie Kontra Contributors Jordana Marx Heather Ashton Galen Gruman David Kelly Bud Mathaisel Bill Roberts Editorial Advisors Larry Marion Christine Wendin Copy Editor Lea Anne Bantsari Transcriber Dawn Regan02 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  5. 5. US studio Industry perspectives Sheldon LaubeArt Director During the preparation of this Chief Innovation OfficerLisa Marie Taylor publication, we benefited greatly PwC from interviews and conversationsDesigner with the following executives: Nina LlorensSuzanne Lau Program Manager Jans Aasman Strategic Programs and UserIllustrators President and CEO Experience Knowledge ManagementJames Millefolie Franz Competency CenterTatiana Pechenik SAP Sriram ChakravarthyOnline Director Jack MillerManaging Director Online Marketing Product Strategy and Development Global Vice PresidentJack Teuber TIBCO Collaboration and Cloud Analytics SAPDesigner and Producer Ryan DamicoScott Schmidt Co-founder and CEO Rick Napolitano Crocodoc CIOReviewers ARINCSteve Ardire Keith GriffinRich Beaumont Lead Architect Tony O’DriscollMike Bergman Enterprise Collaboration Platform Executive DirectorBasudeb Dash Cisco Systems Center for Technology,Maxim Duprat Entertainment and MediaCarl Duyck Bill Guinn Fuqua School of BusinessRajiv Jain CTO Duke UniversityJonathan Labovich AmdocsFrank Munn Sameer PatelMarie Wallace Natalie Hanson PartnerChristopher Wasden Senior Director Sovos Group Solutions Strategic Programs and UserSpecial thanks Experience Consulting Holly SimmonsSteve Canny SAP Senior DirectorCisco Systems Marketing Dick Hirsch SAPYasemin Krause Senior ConsultantVoce Communications Siemens IT Services and Solutions Tim Young CEO and FounderRam Menon Bill Hopkins SocialcastTIBCO Director of Operations Egon Zehnder InternationalCraig Norvell and Steve SearsFranzSusan ScrupskiSocial Business CouncilDavid Brockington and Ju WuSAPCarrie YoungSocialcast Transforming collaboration with social tools 03
  6. 6. Tackling the challenge of information overload—with social tools Message from the editor But today, postal systems must deal Carmel-by-the-Sea, near Monterey, with many billions of pieces of mail California, is a quaint little place in a efficiently and effectively, intended beautiful coastal setting. “A village in a for billions of potential destinations. forest overlooking a white sand beach” Providing addresses in the quaint is how the town describes itself in its Carmel style would introduce massive general plan. One of Carmel’s quaint overhead. Each envelope would need to features is that its houses don’t have be intensively scanned and interpreted, numbers. As a result, the US Postal and the people sorting mail would Service doesn’t deliver mail in Carmel need to have amazing memories for house by house; instead, residents families and the buildings described must go to the post office and pick it up in addresses. That is why much of the themselves. Even express mail delivery world—where residential delivery of services have had to adapt—they use mail to individual houses is possible— the street name, the cross street name, uses logical addressing schemes of one and the number of houses in from the form or another. And for the most part, cross street to direct packages to the these schemes organize the processTom DeGarmo right house. This is clearly a system that very effectively, making it possible forPrincipal & Technology Leader doesn’t scale. letters to make their way across boundaries and continents. Back when most people lived agrarian lifestyles in small villages—and rarely Today’s electronic communications left—mail was less essential. But don’t suffer from addressing ambiguity general mobility and the movement of or overload. But they are increasingly populations to cities created the need to becoming a problem, as e-mail, chat, communicate with people you weren’t voice mail, texting, and, yes, tweets likely to see very often. Before these and social network postings gobble up migrations, Carmel’s lack of house more and more of our time. Between numbers was fine. Addresses could Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) be loosey-goosey—simply giving the and unique e-mail and system IDs, the family name or describing something electronic messages meant for us reliably distinctive about the house where the addressee lived would be sufficient.04 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  7. 7. arrive and use very little compute This issue of the Technology Forecast • Sameer Patel of Sovos Groupresources in the process. The problem examines social technologies as provides an overview of the fouris farther downstream. All of us are the solution to electronic main categories of enterprise socialspending more and more time filtering communications overload. software, the challenges enterprisesall of these communications, trying to face in incorporating this technologyseparate the important messages from “The collaboration paradox” on page 06 into workflow, and the opportunity inthose that are simply distractions. considers how an additional layer of emerging technology. information—generated with the helpThe reality today is that we receive of social tools—can actually help reduce • Tim Young of Socialcast explainsfar more invitations to interact in the information overload by providing what can happen to a workforce’selectronic domain than we ever did in structure and context that connects management style when athe world of physical mail. Most of us users and helps them navigate to the conversation stream gets blended withalready ignore many of them, leaving content they need. workflow from other applications.unread—and even unseen—vastnumbers of electronic communications “Enterprise success with emerging • Keith Griffin of Cisco Systemsdirected at us. But our approaches are social technology” on page 26 discusses how modifying datainefficient and inaccurate—we often reviews the evolution of enterprise architecture can remove obstaclesmiss important messages while deleting social technology, underscoring to effective collaboration.low-value ones. We’re like the poor the importance of blending socialexpress mail delivery people trying to information with workflow from • Sheldon Laube of PwC places today’sfigure out which house a package should existing applications. social technology trends in the contextgo to in Carmel. of a 30-year evolution of online “The CIO’s role in social enterprise enterprise collaboration tools.At first glance you might think that strategy” on page 48 identifies a middlesocial networks just add to the problem. ground between allowing all use of Please visit toMost companies today are adopting social networking and disallowing any, find these articles and other issues ofsocial networking internally without advocating an evolutionary approach the Technology Forecast online. If youa good plan for taking advantage to balance the need to motivate staff would like to receive future issues ofof its latent potential. They aren’t with the business goals that must this quarterly publication as a PDFunderstanding that each employee’s be achieved. attachment, you can sign up atenterprise social network is the best to filter and manage electronic This issue also includes interviews As always, we welcome your feedbackcommunications, so that employees with five executives at companies and and your ideas for future research andattend to them in their order of institutions that are fully engaged analysis topics to cover.importance and potential value. In fact, in long-term efforts to improvethe social analytics available from the collaboration with the help ofleading enterprise social tools are the social tools:first addition to the toolset for electroniccommunications that can actually • Tony O’Driscoll of Duke Universityreduce the overhead of dealing with discusses the role of social technologyenterprise communications. in Duke’s Cross Continent MBA program, an innovative peer learningBut this latent potential emerges approach that relies heavily ononly if your staff engages fully, links multimedia for many-to-manyto other staff, and follows topics in information sharing.ways that reflect the priorities of theirwork plans—and if they comment andinteract in activity streams in waysthat mirror the focus of their workchallenges and opportunities. It’s a formof organizational learning and culturalchange that has defeated some earlyadopters of social technologies, oftenbecause they were unaware of itstrue potential. Transforming collaboration with social tools 05
  8. 8. 06 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  9. 9. The collaborationparadoxMore social information helps the workforcefind what it’s looking for.By Alan Morrison and Bo ParkerFor competitive advantage in its than a database, more structured thanmission to supply top executives to a huddle, and not as overwhelming asmultinational corporations, Egon e-mail. And something over which usersZehnder International (EZI) relies would take ownership.on its ability to share informationquickly across regions. Until recently, “I wanted to eliminate IT as theinformation sharing at the executive middleman so the content would be thesearch firm was supported primarily by responsibility of the user community,”two formal processes: huddles, in which Hopkins says.consultants and staff converse abouta candidate or search; and Orchestra, Hopkins decided to give businessa repository of data about candidates units a microblogging capability onand searches. The two processes— the corporate intranet, which lets usersone unstructured and one highly “round out the conversations” they have.structured—were augmented by It’s still early, but adoption has beenphone calls and e-mail. brisk, and microblogging has become a small but integral new process.These processes worked well untilthe world got flatter and the business For years, the business and trade presspace got faster. Orchestra and the have been abuzz about the externalhuddles were still useful, but they were opportunities for social media andno longer quite enough. And phone for companies to reach customers bycalls and e-mail—especially e-mail— using these tools. Much less has beenhad become classic examples of the written about the internal use of socialcollaboration paradox: they created networking—inside the much information they actually The EZI example illustrates how it ishindered the speedy exchanges possible to create real value throughneeded to do business. collaboration using a social media tool internally in a direct, low-overheadBill Hopkins, EZI’s director of way with content owned and definedoperations, discerned a gap between by the users.the two main processes that needed tobe filled with something less structured Transforming collaboration with social tools 07
  10. 10. Figure 1: The scope of our research Our primary focus is on internal communications. Social enterprise Customers Business and world partners This issue of the Technology Forecast The many-to-many“I wanted to eliminate explores how social technologies communications paradigm can improve collaboration within On one level, enterprise collaborationIT as the middleman so the enterprise, especially in day-to- technology hasn’t changed much.the content would be day operations. (See Figure 1 for an E-mail, groupware, and document illustration of the scope of our research sharing have been around for more thanthe responsibility of within the context of the broader land- two decades. Typically, they started inthe user community.” scape.) One important factor, as this first universities or research labs, and then—Bill Hopkins of Egon article describes, is the need to focus migrated to business use. For example, on business unit goals and to use social after universities demonstrated theZehnder International analytics, including interest graphs, to utility of e-mail and a standard emerged overcome information overload. for e-mail over the Internet, the power of e-mail became obvious. In the early The second article, “Enterprise success 1990s, businesses began to use it with emerging social technology,” on in earnest.1 page 26 examines enterprise-class social applications, social analytics, and how functions that are more 1 The history of the Eudora e-mail client, developed at the University of Illinois in the 1980s, provides an example of deeply embedded in the IT stack this evolution. See “Historical Backgrounder” at http:// provide new value. The third article,, accessed May 1, 2011. “The CIO’s role in social enterprise strategy,” on page 48 examines an evolutionary approach CIOs can take with these emerging social networking platforms.08 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  11. 11. Case studyMicroblogging in a new paradigmThe example of Egon Zehnder As a starting point, Hopkins choseInternational (EZI) illustrates social technology from Socialtext,fundamental aspects of the successful which includes a microblog application.adoption of social technologies Launched about two years ago, theinternally in the enterprise. With 64 strategy was to give the business unitsoffices in 40 countries, EZI is one of a place for short postings that woulda few executive search firms that has round out the huddle discussions anda truly global presence. The warm augment the structured informationrelationship that a consultant has with in Orchestra. The adaptive, many-to-an executive in one place can be crucial many user environment of Socialtextto addressing the needs of another gave business units—encouraged byconsultant’s client in another place. Hopkins—the opportunity to “own” theThe best matches on a global scale are technology in a way they hadn’t beforeexactly what the company trades on. and make it more relevant.But EZI was stuck in an old When well designed and implementedcommunications paradigm that so that it delivers relevance andmost enterprises will recognize. An promotes use, enterprise socialexisting portal on the corporate intranet networking can be engaging, and thehad outlived its usefulness. Given technology allows users to adapt it tothe demands on staff from phone various needs. Hopkins made Symphonycalls, e-mail, and searches, the static a self-sustaining content system byportal had become a place for aging complementing the existing candidate-information that fewer and fewer search processes. All EZI users—people had time to visit. The portal was consultants, researchers, and otherneglected and increasingly irrelevant. staff—could use the same tool together.“It was highly IT intensive, and the The early results are encouraging.content was obsolete,” says Bill One of the first benefits to users is anHopkins, EZI’s director of operations. improved ability to locate expertise.“People avoided it in droves.” “Say I’m working on a search for the shipbuilding industry in Southeast AsiaThe old portal was not going to fill where a key skill is the ability to procurethe gap Hopkins saw between the materials,” Hopkins says. “The questionunstructured huddles and the highly is, does anyone have experience, notstructured Orchestra, a combined necessarily in shipbuilding, but inproject accounting and customer materials procurement?” Microblogrelationship management (CRM) posts on Symphony can help identify asystem. His vision was to create an consultant who knows executivesinteractive replacement for the portal, with that experience in that be called Symphony. Hopkins knewthe keys to success were to encourage Hopkins acknowledges that Symphonyparticipation by the business units is the beginning of a lengthy path toand instill a sense of ownership. improve EZI’s collaboration capabilities. “I think I saw this quotation somewhere: ‘If only we knew what we know.’” Transforming collaboration with social tools 09
  12. 12. Figure 2: One-to-many vs. many-to-many communicationsE-mail, document sharing, and portals are examples of a one-to-many or “broadcast” communications paradigm, depicted onthe left. Social technologies, by contrast, use a many-to-many paradigm, as depicted on the right. Comment Comment Idea Comments Idea Comment Comment One-to-many Many-to-many • Content is isolated • Content is persistent • Limited to people who received the message • Available from anywhere, to everyone, at any time • Disappears over time • Groups are created organically by following • E-mail groups must be constantly managed Social technologies, which introduced The many-to-many paradigm has clearly a many-to-many communications evolved. Blogs, microblogs, wikis, paradigm, have also been around and the like appeared, and now suites in some form for decades. Figure 2 combine these tools. As the article, contrasts one-to-many with many- “Enterprise success with emerging social to-many communications. The latter technology,” on page 26 describes, paradigm started with online bulletin enterprise tools are available that move boards such as the Whole Earth beyond secured versions of Facebook, ’Lectronic Link (WELL), a dial-up Twitter, or other social applications that bulletin board that Stewart Brand, have not been optimized for business. creator of the Whole Earth Catalog, established in 1985. Mitch Kapor, the In spite of today’s capabilities, most founder of Lotus Development, which enterprises still are not posting much funded and then bought the Notes many-to-many information internally. collaboration environment, was an Instead, they send lots of e-mail, early WELL user.2 creating blizzards of low-relevance information through indiscriminant Many-to-many information sharing distribution lists, and often failing to leverages inexpensive communications. reach those who might have the best As the cost of posting messages to any answer to a question. Social technology, number of people and making the plus analytics, can change that scenario messages persistent approached zero per by helping companies find the sweet message, the advantages of the media spot between too much and not enough. became clear. Billions of people now Figure 3 illustrates how consumer have the ability to post and have their social media trends have influenced messages read anywhere at any time enterprise collaboration. after the posting. 2 See Steve Jones, ed., Encyclopedia of New Media: An Essential Reference to Communication and Technology, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications), 172ff, and “The History of Notes and Domino,” IBM developerWorks, ls-NDHistory/, accessed May 1, 2011.10 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  13. 13. Figure 3: Social media’s influence on enterprise collaborationMany-to-many social technology used by consumers influences how enterprise collaboration occurs, but the impactis not as direct as some might expect.Telephone E-mail/chat Document sharing Groupware Social technologyHistorically, many tools have been used both outside and inside the enterprise. Social media, however, undergoes dramatic transformationwhen used for inside-enterprise collaboration. The activity stream is where the similarity ends. The means of adoption are different and mustbe aligned with business goals. Outside Inside the enterpriseInside an enterprise, the ability to filter Another big issue with the many-to-the internal information and extract many platforms, whether they’re teamwhat’s essential is more significant than collaboration tools such as Notes orever. If you’re an EZI consultant, the newer social software suites, is that theyright posting from another consultant function separately from the rest of theyou don’t know might mean the IT fabric. (See Figure 3.)difference between no fee and asubstantial commission. Enterprises that diagnose what’s wrong with internal collaborationCollaboration tools have matured, but and prescribe a many-to-many curethe main question continues to be, as are trying to weave social networkingPwC Chief Innovation Officer Sheldon into the IT fabric in a complementaryLaube puts it: “How do you make teams way. They are also working on themore effective through the use of organizational aspects of creatingtechnology?” Implied in that question is incentives, reengineering processes, andanother question: how do you expand using analytics to make the informationthe reach of the teams? flows relevant to specific groups and individuals. This approach promises twoLaube sees this as the perennial issue, advantages: (1) a single place to work,one that predates the web. Laube, who and (2) a means of creating context, aevaluated Lotus Notes in the mid-1980s significant component of knowledgeand bought the first 10,000 seat licenses sharing that’s historically been lacking.that Notes issued when he was CIO atPrice Waterhouse, says, “That’s whyNotes was brought in, and that’s whatTim Berners-Lee [inventor of the WorldWide Web] had in mind. The web was acollaboration environment. The worldof collaboration was set back by a mere15 or 20 years because the web turnedinto a one-way publishing environment,instead of a collaboration medium.” Transforming collaboration with social tools 11
  14. 14. Figure 4: The social graph’s impact How context creation with the The interest graph is a superset of the interest graph can help overcome social graph, a people map. The interest information overload graph includes people, things, and theirDivergent phase What’s new about enterprise linkages, and it helps users navigate the collaboration is the capability to create information thicket. and share more context. This starts with the many-to-many paradigm that Since the 1980s, enterprises have tools such as Facebook and Twitter endured unprecedented information have popularized, but it doesn’t end overload. This was the first phase of there. Sameer Patel, a partner at Sovos social technology—the divergent phase, Group, a social technology consulting in which people learned to expose firm, describes the shortfalls of earlier information in willy-nilly fashion in Social approaches that did not include silos. Within the silo, there was a information appears, this capability: limited amount of context; between but it’s silos, there was even less; and then siloed “The fundamental problem with those the silos proliferated. old collaborative systems was that they were devoid of context. You would Enterprises have recently entered theConvergent phase see stuff thrown at you and it was not convergent phase and are learning really tied into your daily flow of work. to purpose the social information by You were expected to go into these design. Vendors enable the embedding knowledge bases that are separate from of social technology in systems as well as where you might live,” Patel says. the localization of the information. The potential for relevance increases, but the ? “You might be a call center rep who is information is still not as relevant and living in a call center application, or accessible as it could be. you might be someone in the finance Information department living in ERP [enterprise Within a couple of years, PwC expects is more resource planning] financials. These the navigational phase to begin in accessible, are very disconnected worlds, and earnest. (See Figure 4.) Relationships but difficult the process apps focused on taking between people, and between business to search you through your processes. The issues and people, will become more knowledge management was just explicit in the form of self-managedNavigational phase sitting in a vacuum.” interest graphs. The interest graph will become the means for finding Context creates relevance. And what’s relevant. It’s important to after decades of data proliferation, remember that the addition of the social relevance is finally a hot topic, even information layer and the ability to on the consumer side. In March 2011, structure that information along with TechCrunch proclaimed “The Age of other information in graph form are Relevance,” noting that several of the what provide the additional context. newest social media platforms focus With this additional context, companies Information on creating an “interest graph,” a map can confront and reduce information in graph form for navigating to subjects and people of overload. Business success in using the becomes integrated and interest. The author, Mahendra Pasule, interest graph will depend on how well it navigable asserts that “Social media may lose is understood and built for the purpose. its obsession with follower numbers and traffic, evolving to context-driven reputation systems and algorithms.”3 Vendors of enterprise-class systems are engaged in similar efforts. 3 Mahendra Pasule, “The Age of Relevance,” TechCrunch, March 3, 2011, age-of-relevance/, accessed May 2, 2011.12 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  15. 15. The 160 students enrolled in the Duke UniversityCross Continent MBA program come from morethan 25 countries and have at least three years ofwork experience. The experience lends itself to apeer learning environment that socially networkedmultimedia facilitates. Transforming collaboration with social tools 13
  16. 16. Figure 5: Sense making vs. exception handling and predictable executionCollaboration tools that benefit from social technology dwell more at the sense-making and exception-handling end ofthe continuum, where processes are more ad hoc, and have fewer repeatable components. Adding social technology into thesame workflow window with predictable execution tools (such as ERP) allows users to do ad hoc work with less disruption. Hig h Need for collaboration and Medium value from social technology Low Sense making Predictable execution Exception handling Using the interest graph for “The majority of these students do not shared sense making have an intrinsic motivation to move The Cross Continent MBA program on and earn Ph.D. degrees in any of the at Duke University, in which business disciplines, but rather to make Tony O’Driscoll teaches, is a prime a difference in the global work context,” example of the way that many-to- O’Driscoll says. “The key to tapping many communications can be used into their motivation is to discuss the in education and business. The 160 societal, political, and economic issues students enrolled in his 16-month that they will encounter in the region.” program have at least three years of work experience. The program is an Getting students to share their own innovative spin on distance learning. experiences is a major objective of It begins in person as the students and the program. “It’s really important to faculty gather for 10 days in a city such tap into that well of experience from as New Delhi, and it continues online people who have lived and worked all after that. over the world. We want to leverage the experiential wisdom of the group so Once they arrive, O’Driscoll engages the they can become leaders of consequence students with a blitz of media collection, by really understanding how history sharing, and critiquing. He kicks off the and culture influence how institutions peer learning program on a rich-media work and how markets function in each blog to trigger commentary and engage region,” O’Driscoll says. the students in peer dialogue before they meet in class.14 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  17. 17. The program integrates a number of Taking advantage of new toolssocial networking platforms that allow at enterprise scalemany-to-many multimedia sharing— In recent years, a few enterprises havefor the collaboration and peer learning. targeted information overload byO’Driscoll insists that every deliverable changing the communications paradigmgets posted and that students review entirely. Their methods are comparableeach other’s work. “Anybody who writes to what O’Driscoll does in his program.anything, whether individual or team, To accomplish this paradigm change atis now exposed in the commons. And an enterprise scale, these enterpriseseverybody is required to review three have adapted both the tools anddeliverables other than their own and their organizations.rank them,” he says. (See the interviewwith O’Driscoll on page 18.) Cisco Systems uses its own system internally. Since the software wasO’Driscoll describes this process as installed, it has become an alternativeshared sense making, and he contrasts it to e-mail. Lead architect Keith Griffinwith e-mail. When he was a researcher points out that users can tune andat IBM 15 years ago, he was involved in reconfigure the way information isa project to reinvent e-mail. “E-mail was displayed via the system’s interface,killing the humans, and it was killing so only the sources need appear. “Wethe networks. E-mail was killing the don’t, by default, connect everybody tohumans, reducing them to information everybody. They discover each other inworkers playing Whac-A-Mole with the organization,” Griffin says. “I have “We don’t, by default,digital data. Workers are just essentially my blog aggregator, where the blogs I’ve connect everybodyprolonging the inevitable by drinking chosen appear. Then I have my watchmore coffee and whacking more e-mail list.” Participants can add each other to to everybody. Theymoles. We’re going to lose that battle.” conversations, and after that point, they discover each other end up in the watch list, too. (See the in the organization.”O’Driscoll’s other insight is that interview with Griffin on page 42.)organizing and responding to e-mail —Keith Griffin of Ciscomessages doesn’t equal accomplishment. Griffin says the “follow” model allowsIn contrast, shared sense making is an a flexible asymmetry that’s suitableaccomplishment in and of itself, one for corporate hierarchy. “If any giventhat does not demand that you respond employee in an organization sends ato every message. For each assignment, contact request to the CEO, the CEOstudents are required to critique the is not going to answer everybody. Thework of three other students. That’s follow model is more appropriate init. The program is not about digesting that case. Everybody is interestedlarge amounts of material. Instead, in what the CEO has to say and willthe goal is to instill the “capability for follow that person, but the CEO doesdiscernment” in students. Discernment not necessarily need to connect in thatplays a large role in enterprises, where contact type of mode. It’s importantsense making is on the more ad hoc that we get the underlying data modelside of business process—a side that right, so that we can look at thosecould use substantial improvement. different relationships.”Figure 5 considers sense making withinthe context of other parts of typicalenterprise workflow. Transforming collaboration with social tools 15
  18. 18. The self-organizing graphs generated What this example implies is a way by employees enable navigation to to take processes apart, add a more a relevant interest. Because of the ad hoc piece of the flow to them, and interconnected interest graph enabled put them back together—not unlike by the system’s data architecture, search business process reengineering. But it’s a retrieves “a three-dimensional view of different part of the work process that’s people, communities, and information,” being addressed. Dick Hirsch, senior“What’s intriguing about Griffin says. consultant for Siemens IT Services and Solutions, puts it this way: “What’sthese tools is that you Other tools like SAP’s StreamWork intriguing about these tools is that youcan have a touch point also enable the interest graph. They can have a touch point to an existing connect to the Lightweight Directory process where people can work in anto an existing process Access Protocol (LDAP), which serves unstructured manner using Web 2.0where people can work as the kernel of a user’s online identity tools to achieve the goal in a certainin an unstructured and moves out from there. “LDAP task. Then they can return to the becomes your system of record from the process and keep moving on.”manner using Web 2.0 standpoint of who you are,” says Hollytools to achieve the goal Simmons, senior director of marketing From the experiences of Cisco and for StreamWork. “StreamWork is the SAP in using their own tools, twoin a certain task. Then front end for the back-end collaboration reengineering elements seem crucial:they can return to the we already do.” (1) the data architecture that givesprocess and keep structure to the interest graph, and (2) From the user’s perspective, once the ability to add a more unstructuredmoving on.” that social graph is connected and the flow to an existing work process. functionality is accessible to those who Without both, companies won’t be—Dick Hirsch of Siemens IT need it, ad hoc collaboration directly able to alleviate information overload.Services and Solutions in StreamWork becomes possible. It’s a new capability, even to those inside SAP. Seize the actual potential and ignore the fluff “Before, I would have built a Enterprises are in dire need of help with presentation slide deck with the information overload, but soon they’ll team through e-mail. We would have be able to use the collaboration paradox searched for version control and who to their advantage. With the enterprise- had the latest comments and did we class social tools that are becoming incorporate everybody’s comments. available, organizations can start to There probably would have been at least eliminate the bad communications 100 e-mails, plus 15 different versions of habits they’ve developed with e-mail, the deck,” says Jack Miller, global vice document-centric websites, a broadcast- president for collaboration and cloud only information model, and siloed analytics at SAP. “This time we built that application stacks. In their place, entire presentation inside the tool, so enterprises will be able to start building everybody’s comments are captured in a social information layer, and in the one place—the latest version. We were process they can surface identities and able to build this entire CEO-level deck relationships that can bind corporate without going through e-mail.” information together. Given the right architecture and the use of identities and relationships, the workforce will be able to navigate to more relevance.16 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  19. 19. Some vendors are leading by example. Today, the most powerful capabilitiesCisco has moved beyond e-mail to a new are localized. Duke University’s Crosscommunications paradigm, a renewed Continent MBA program has a lotdata infrastructure, and a work style of inherent flexibility as a relativelywith less overload. With StreamWork, small and autonomous effort. In time,SAP is adding a sense-making compo- enterprises will get better at extractingnent to its workflow, one that’s blended value from social technology at scale,with the applications. and the security model will evolve so the extended enterprise—partnersInternally, both vendors are moving included—will benefit. The first stepbeyond what most enterprises have done. will be to take the component parts—Enterprises need to follow their lead by a different communications paradigm,tapping into the real power of these tools, a new way to blend IT resources, andrather than adding yet another channel an evolved data architecture—andto a collaboration environment that’s work at a small scale to discover howalready overly complicated. They need to they function best given specificunderstand the vision first, and then do enterprise challenges.the hard work.Early adopters of best-of-breedsystems also provide an exampleto follow. By using Socialtext, EZIcomplemented processes that alreadyworked. Socialcast, another vendor,has manufacturing clients that makethe activity stream part of theirworkflow by sharing the designs theyare working on. PwC, with initiatives Enterprises are in dire needsuch as iPlace, creates highly focused of help with informationinternal interactive environments. Therelevance, incentives, and the process overload, but soon they’ll befor participation are built into each able to use the collaborationonline initiative. paradox to their advantage. Transforming collaboration with social tools 17
  20. 20. PwC: Are you teaching currently?Building a new TO: Yes. I’m teaching in the Cross Continent MBA program, which is one of the places we’re using social technology.learning environment It’s a 16-month MBA program where we travel en masse to six different areasaround social tools of the world and spend 10 days on the ground embedding ourselves in the region. Afterward we try to make sense of what just happened, before we doTony O’Driscoll aligns social technology’s it again in another area. It’s an intensestrengths with the way people learn today. kind of immersion and reflection, where our students are embedded in the regionInterview conducted by Alan Morrison, Bo Parker, and Bud Mathaisel first, and then through distance-based introspection they try and make sense of the experience they just went through. More than 25 countries are represented in the 160 students enrolled in the Tony O’Driscoll program. They bring with them that Tony O’Driscoll is executive director, international experience as well as at Center for Technology, Entertainment and least three years of business experience. Media, Fuqua School of Business at Duke University. His business background includes PwC: How do you use social previous leadership positions in the strategy technology in that program? and change consulting practice at IBM Global Services and at Nortel Networks. TO: We use a peer learning approach that relies on socially enabled His most recent book, Learning in 3D: technologies. For example, after we Adding a New Dimension to Enterprise arrive in a place, I send the students Learning and Collaboration, which he on what I call a Culture Dash. Each co-authored with Karl M. Kapp, was team has a video camera, and they published in 2010. are given that afternoon to go around to predefined landmarks that have historical significance. They interview people about the societal, political, and economic transitions in those places.18 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  21. 21. Minimizing e-mail The number of e-mails Tony O’Driscoll did not reply to because he’s started to 7,000 give up on the medium.They take that four hours of video and I decided to do away with all that, Whac-A-Mole with digital data. Workersjointly edit it down to a five-minute and instead I use the technological are just essentially prolonging themovie. The final product gets posted, affordance called a blog. The students inevitable by drinking more coffee andand the teams review each others’ read the blog beforehand. whacking more e-mail moles.videos. This way, we try to extractthe experiential wisdom of all these You need to motivate students up front. We’re going to lose that battle. No doubtpeople and share it with others, so I use public domain sources such as about it. If you look at how informationthey too can be leaders. We encourage YouTube, Big Think, TED, or, is expanding and proliferating, andthe students to tune in quicker, to and I find material to seed serious you put that into your inbox, you canunderstand whatever city they go into conversation about the issues that the see that’s not going to work. To dealby really understanding the culture, and world faces today. I post a link to two with the volume, you organize all yourto see how institutions work there and and a half minutes of Fadi Ghandour e-mails into folders. Moving bits aroundhow markets function there. [CEO of Aramex] talking about the Arab on a screen this way might help you feel Spring, for example, and that prompts better, but I don’t know how much thatThe future of learning is shifting from a whole bunch of questions. As the blog sort of activity contributes to anything.pouring knowledge into individuals’ administrator, I can track activity andheads to enabling them to tune their monitor the comments. And I do a lot I’m both frustrated and proud of thenetworks to solve unanticipated of polling. I can see who is having what fact that last year there were 7,000problems as they confront them. My kinds of conversations, know where e-mails that I just did not respondjob is to get the network of students to people are getting stuck or not, and to. I have literally started to give ituse social tools to tap into each others’ get ideas for class discussions. up as a medium. Everything outlivesexperiences around the key objectives. its usefulness. Even back when weThat’s what the younger generation is So when I go into class on Monday introduced Sametime, there was a 20doing; they are tuning their network morning in India or wherever we are, to 25 percent drop in e-mail. Instead,to the problem at hand. The classroom I’m not going in cold. With the social people were using Sametime to ask eachparadigm is increasingly being pushed platform and presence and identity other, “When can you meet?” You couldinto a corner, and the place where baked in, I can track all of the activity, I respond with, “I can meet at this time.”learning has to happen is increasingly know what’s going on, and I am clearly That was it.emerging at the moment of need in the much better prepared to add value toworkflow context of an increasingly their learning experience. PwC: How are different peoplecomplex and uncertain business world. responding to the same set PwC: What lessons can enterprises of tools? The students in thePwC: So you don’t rely much on take from this sort of example? Cross Continent program maytraditional classroom methods? TO: They can introduce alternatives have totally different framesTO: Around the edges I do, but not at that are better suited to specific tasks in of reference.the core. I decided to get rid of the pre- a very similar way. When I was an IBM TO: I haven’t seen any variability inreads, the “box of doom” as the researcher at Lotus 15 years ago, we different regions in terms of theirstudents called it, that we sent the did this big project called reinventing interest in using the tools. There’s anstudents two weeks before they had to e-mail. E-mail was killing the humans, overriding motivation, one that says thatshow up. That translates into hundreds and it was killing the networks. It I have made a decision to do this and I’mand hundreds of pages of dead trees. was killing the humans, reducing really excited to connect with people. them to information workers playing Transforming collaboration with social tools 19
  22. 22. Benefits of social technology 40Tony O’Driscoll no longer has to 700parse through 40 channels of TVor push through 700 e-mails.I take advantage of the fact that the PwC: In the broad generic world Most important is the activity-basedstudents are enthusiastic and they of Facebook and Twitter, there computing paradigm that allows anhaven’t become jaded yet. I wouldn’t seems to be two kinds of people. artifact within the ecosystem to be itssuggest trying to change your Some people adapt very quickly own beacon. In this case, the projecttechnology platform to be socially based to broadcasting their thoughts, plan is the artifact—it’s broadcastingtoward the back end of somebody’s ideas, and feelings. Others sign up an activity stream to me. It tells meMBA degree, because they are focused but rarely post, if ever. Do you run something just happened to it, such ason getting their degree and getting the across that with your students? when someone I know touches it. Fromhell out. But you can take this unbridled What’s your strategy? that stream, I can pretty much figureenthusiasm and bring it into a social TO: I have a contribution grade that out where and when I might want tocontext that establishes the norm for amounts to 10 percent of the total grade. pay things are going to work. Essentially, the grade is designed to encourage them to contribute. Learning That broadcasting increases theWhere it gets interesting is that and adaptation are two sides of the same efficiency with which you manage youreverybody submits their deliverable coin. The minute you stop learning, you attention, but it doesn’t account for theto the commons and everybody else stop adapting; when you stop adapting, fact that the inputs to those attentioncan see it. That’s different, because you die. management systems are moving atin the traditional world, everybody jerk speed and our ability to process issubmits the work they’re assigned to That’s one of the really interesting things not. So it’s buying us some time, but it’sthe professor, and the professor makes about human beings—if I ask you right insufficient to address the larger issue.a value judgment as to its utility and now to stop learning, you can’t. Youcorrectness. The students submit the are a sense-making machine. That’s PwC: So are we just exchangingwork in a very secure environment, why we are here and dinosaurs aren’t. one nonscalable environmentand they can choose to share it or not And we have the capacity to adapt for another?share it. faster than before. The clock speed of TO: It’s a digital divide of a different technology is jerk speed, and it’s jerking kind. Our ability to process informationIn this new context, by comparison, humanity around because it’s working is constant, but the amount ofanybody who writes anything, whether at a different clock speed from what we information that requires processingit’s an individual or a team, is now are used to. Our clock speed is relatively is increasing exponentially. Collectiveexposed in the commons. Everybody is constant over time. sense making is one way to bridge thisrequired to review three deliverables divide. By tapping into social networksother than their own and rank and What social technologies do is change and using more precise informationreview them. That’s a little foreign, the paradigm for attention management. parsing methods, we can certainly beand there’s a fair amount of pushback In the old paradigm, I would parse more effective than we have in the past.on that. People say, “What do you through the 40 channels of TV or try tomean, other people can see my stuff?” push through 700 e-mails a day. Now IAnd I say, “Well, that’s how peer can crowdsource attention by essentiallylearning works.” having human beings I trust and value give some seal of approval to some piece of content that I think I might want to engage in.20 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  23. 23. PwC: To get to that point will Enterprise behavior is different. Yourequire more than just moving can’t take the same social technologiesTwitter or Facebook inside and plop them into a profit-makingthe enterprise. context and expect that people willTO: It will. We have seen very immediately engage. The questionproductive activity on Twitter or is, once the underlying motivationFacebook, but the incentives are shifts from purpose to profit, will thedifferent. People raised money to motivation to engage persist?send to Haiti, or to help with thetsunami in Japan, or the oil spill inthe Gulf of Mexico. We saw all ofthese spontaneous aggregations ofcognitive ability being put toward acommon humanitarian purpose. “Where it gets interesting is that everybody submits theirThe motive in this kind of socialcontext is altruism. It’s to help others. deliverable to the commonsBy contrast, the motive in a business and everybody else can see it.context is all about profit. That’s different, because in the traditional world, everybody submits the work they’re assigned to the professor, and the professor makes a value judgment as to its utility and correctness.” Transforming collaboration with social tools 21
  24. 24. PwC: What are the more recentHow online identity challenges companies have been facing on the collaboration front? SP: The fundamental problem withand context become those old collaborative systems was that they were devoid of context. You would see stuff thrown at you and it was notproductivity drivers really tied into your daily flow of work. You were expected to go into these knowledge bases that are separate fromSameer Patel of Sovos Group places social where you might in the context of software that You might be a call center rep who isenterprises already use. living in a call center application, or you might be someone in the financeInterview conducted by Alan Morrison and Bo Parker department living in ERP [enterprise resource planning] financials. These are very disconnected worlds, and the process apps focused on taking Sameer Patel you through your processes. The Sameer Patel, a partner at Sovos Group, knowledge management was just has consulted on enterprise collaboration sitting in a vacuum waiting for you strategy and technology planning for to associate context. more than 13 years, starting at USWeb (marchFIRST). The true value of enterprise social computing will come from bringing data, content, and people together in the context of business activities. Context is not just a general-purpose content management effort or a knowledge management effort. Online collaboration needs to be embedded in the flow of work to get you to the end goal more effectively, as opposed to yet another place for workers to remember to go to.22 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  25. 25. PwC: What’s your take on the PwC: That being the landscape, At best, one or two of the standalonecurrent generation of tools and is there an inherent advantage platforms will continue to remain they’re moving toward in any one of the camps over The enterprise software vendors willthat goal? the others? offer a social information layer as partSP: You’ve got four camps, really. In SP: I work for a consulting firm and of their content management stack.the first camp, you have the general- so do you guys, so I’m going to say, “It Oracle has an entire content business;purpose tools that typically come from depends.” There are tradeoffs. If you so do SAP and IBM. These tools willthe startup community—that have come from the process side (as a product become part of one stack (either fromgarnered inspiration from consumer company, for example), you have a focus one vendor or via tight partnerships)social tools, but are fitted for the that will always force you to be very that will give you content management,enterprise context. In the second camp, disciplined about having context built document management, knowledgeyou have the HR vendors that have been in to how fluid collaboration and people management, and social connectivity.selling learning and performance connectivity can fill gaps in a traditionalmanagement, as well as the whole HR workflow-laden design. PwC: What about inhibitors?suite. Their message is that because SP: One issue the media doesn’t talkeffective use of social technology is A professional services company, a very much about is the participation problemultimately about people and the people-centered business, tends to go with some of these tools. Companiesworkforce, they’re the ones best with the central suites, whether they go through the hype phase and thepositioned to push this to you. buy IBM Connections or Jive. It’s not excitement of buying Facebook-like tools about sitting in ERP screens all day long; for the enterprise, and then they don’tThe third camp is ERP vendors that these companies don’t have the same know what to share. People slow downhelp organizations complete a critical sort of workflow that a typical product their usage, and then they stop postingprocess in context—the SAPs and company has. Less structured knowledge their status updates because they’re notOracles that build process-oriented is the asset. So there’s a big focus on seeing the value of it. This is one of thesystems., obviously, is using collaboration suites to reuse problems when participatory intentone of these. Even though the company knowledge and improve project margins. is not clear to the user and when thedoesn’t have the entire ERP suite, it has social platform is largely—you can get every single The HR system marketing folks may from contextual work.conceivable ERP component from make it sound like the HR IBM and TIBCO with tibbr system is neatly tied to the socialcan ultimately go in this camp, too. technology. It’s just not there yet, but I suspect they’ll get there in the next 6 toThen the last camp is the unified 10 months. Chief HR officers will saycommunications companies. Cisco, that the stream needs to be embeddedfor example, bought WebEx; has into the HR management system,figured out video, face-to-face, because ultimately they’re the ones whoonline conferencing, and Voice over manage all the performance reviews,IP; and is now broadening the solution allocate resources, and manage talentto include text-based engagement and learning. And there’s certainly meritand collaboration. to that.That’s essentially the lay of the landstarting out. Transforming collaboration with social tools 23
  26. 26. The information sharing problem End users aren’t necessarily 50 interested in information sharing; they are interested in making 50 customer calls a day.The participation issue is a symptom of The third problem is from a marketing PwC: These are systemica deep problem with a lack of business standpoint. Often, vendors will sell inefficiencies of some sort?alignment and participation incentives. stuff to an IT director or a CIO, and they SP: Yes. We’ve been living in this mythThese issues should be addressed present general-purpose benefits that that stuff that happens at companies isbefore the software is rolled out. A lot make a lot of sense to a forward-thinking very repeatable. We put all these CRMof enterprises wait until the switch has IT executive. After the purchase, those [customer relationship management],been flipped to then figure out how they same marketing materials from the ERP, and MRP [materials requirementswill get people to use it. They’ve really vendor are used as selling materials to planning] systems in place thinking thatnot done the proper planning or gotten the end user. When end users look at they’re repeatable processes and we canthe right groups to understand how some of these nebulous outcomes, such get repeatable value out of the facilitates the core process they’re as “Share more; it’s better,” they say, The truth is that every single processresponsible for. “All this information sharing doesn’t in the enterprise is not as repeatable matter to me; my target is to do 50 as we would like it to be. People havePeople are not measured on which customer calls in the day and go home.” questions along the way.tool they use; they’re measured on Those outcomes need to be translatedgetting their work done. You have to into why it makes sense for them, so ERP systems have boiled down everyhave that alignment, which is one of the there’s a lot of that confusion. single business application to a submitbiggest issues. People will hide behind and a cancel button, when really whatculture and other challenges such as the The fourth problem, and this is probably users want is a giant discuss buttonMillennial argument, which has some one of the biggest, is I’ve never met a sometimes. Users don’t know the righttruth to it but not nearly as much as they CEO or another CxO who is going to say, answer sometimes, they need to getsay. The problem is that the “What’s in it “We don’t want to innovate and we don’t help, and they need to find the rightfor me?” factor has not been identified want to share knowledge.” The problem people to help them. That need is morefor these users. is that they’ll often tell someone in their acute in some processes than others, for executive team, “OK, we’re going to do example, in areas of the company whereAnother big issue is just good old politics this. Who’s going to take ownership of there are inefficiencies, where products101. A lot of the activity and effort that’s this thing?” Everyone’s going to look haven’t gotten out the door, or where thebeen evident so far has been emergent. around, nod their heads, and say, “This quality is lower.For example, pockets of the company is a fabulous idea, Bob. Why don’t youwill go off and get their own accounts, take it?” Until it’s clear that social andand usage will start to gain some collaborative approaches and tools cansteam in engineering or in a product At the CEO level, of course they want address big problems and can havedevelopment group. Even if this thing more innovation and sharing, but every operating and financial benefit, it willstarts to show promise, executives often person sitting in that room is in charge be challenging to make them C-suitewill not get behind something that they of quota, pushing product out the door, imperatives.can’t take full credit for. So, if they can’t growing a geographic footprint, andsay that they invented it and they’re the the like. That’s where broad, nebulousones who brought it to the company, goals such as improve innovation andthen they don’t get all the points for it. sharing start to get difficult to execute. This goes back to articulating the value of social and collaborative approaches and technology in the context of known performance headaches and opportunities that executives face today.24 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  27. 27. “I’ve never met a CxO who is going to say, ‘We don’t want to innovate and we don’t want to share knowledge.’ The problem is that they’ll often tell someone in their executive team, ‘OK, we’re going to do this. Who’s going to take ownership of this thing?’ Everyone’s going to look around, nod their heads, and say, ‘This is a fabulous idea, Bob. Why don’t you take it?’”PwC: Speaking of finding people Social software can essentially helpwho can help, that issue seems companies meet their performancetied to a lack of online individual objectives in much more efficientidentities in a company. If ways by facilitating connection andthe identities of each individual discussion. Once that becomes obvious,in the workforce were visible, it will be surprising how many peoplehow would that help?’ are willing to engage.SP: This battle will ultimately be wonon identity management. Beyondusability as a differentiator, manyelements in the enterprise socialsoftware suite are becomingcommodities. The magic will happenwhen we tie in implicit and explicitprofile data elements of our individualpublic and historical profiles with ourenterprise social profiles and, of course,HR. That’s when your colleagues andothers get a true sense of who you are,what you think you’re good at, and,just as important, what the communitythinks you’re good at. Transforming collaboration with social tools 25
  28. 28. 26 PwC Technology Forecast 2011 Issue 3
  29. 29. Enterprise successwith emerging socialtechnologyInnovators are learning to build graphsto help users locate the information theyneed—and each other.By David Kelly, Heather Ashton, and Alan MorrisonMention social technology or social generation, brand identity, customernetworking, and most people think service, or marketing purposes. Theof consumer-driven applications such possibilities for internal applicationsas Twitter or Facebook. But some of social technology are much broader,organizations realize that Facebook, but they are less obvious, slowerTwitter, and their secured equivalents to emerge, and have significantinside the enterprise are just a catalyst architectural and organizationalfor deeper changes that must be made implications that many businessesto collaboration tools and methods. may not have sufficiently explored.Improving how work gets done is a New generations of socialbigger challenge than adding a social technologies—when coupled withnetworking activity stream to the IT clear vision, good planning, andmix. Some aspects of that challenge effective execution—have the potentialare technological, as this article to change the way business is done. Ifdescribes. Others, as the article, “The they aren’t already, IT departments willcollaboration paradox,” on page 06 soon face the challenge of determiningexplains, involve a change in strategy or the best approach to incorporatingare mostly organizational in nature. Still social technology into the way theirothers, as the article, “The CIO’s role in enterprises do enterprise strategy,” on page 48considers, require IT leadership that In conversations with some of themust be evolutionary in approach. most fully engaged adopters of social technology, CIOs, and social technologyOver the next decade, businesses that leaders, PwC sees a change occurringseek competitive advantage from more in the enterprise social technologyeffective online collaboration will need landscape and the opportunity forto acquire a keen awareness of what organizations to take advantage of it.these changes involve and how they’re Enterprise social technology has movedmaterializing. Most businesses already from a divergent phase into a moreuse some type of externally facing convergent technologies, typically for lead Transforming collaboration with social tools 27