05 altering physical environment


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05 altering physical environment

  1. 1. Altering the Physical Environment<br />CJS 380 Crime Science:Principles, Strategies and Practice of<br />Crime Prevention and Reduction©<br />J.A. Gilmer<br />
  2. 2. REDUCING OPPORTUNITIES FOR CRIME<br />THREE BROAD STRATEGIES<br />Defensible Space<br />CPTED – Crime Prevention through Environmental Design<br />Situational Crime Prevention<br />
  4. 4. Jane Jacobs – “Death and Life”<br />Criticized “modernist” urban planning<br />Influenced “new urbanism” movement in planning<br />Physical design of an urban area impacts the behavior of its residents<br />Poor design and planning can increase crime<br />1961<br />Jane Jacobs <br />(1916-2006)<br />
  5. 5. Oscar Newman – ‘Defensible Space’<br />The physical environment can engender feelings of belonging and ownership or alienation and anonymity<br />Restructure the physical layout of communities to allow residents to control the areas around their homes<br />Oscar Newman <br />(1935-2004)<br />1971<br />
  6. 6. Elements of Defensible Space<br />Territoriality – Visual cues and boundaries between public and private space enhance perception of ownership<br />Natural surveillance – Easily seen movements project sense of safety, reduce fear<br />Image – The ‘message’ the building transmits about itself; should blend in with community<br />Milieu – Placement of high-density housing in relation to other land use is important<br />
  7. 7. Is Defensible Space Effective?<br />In practice, implementation often piecemeal<br />Simple physical alterations often ignore underlying social processes<br />‘Defensible’ is not ‘defended’ absent social cohesion/efficacy<br />Must consider ‘pre-existing social fiber’<br />
  8. 8. Defensible Space – 2nd Generation<br />Source: Taylor, R. B and A. Harrell (1996) “Physical Environment and Crime.” NIJ<br />
  10. 10. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design<br />CPTED(sĕp′∙tĕd) – direct controls over environmental conditions to preclude the occurrence of crime<br />Closely related to Newman’s “defensible space” but more diverse and less ‘territorial’<br />Three interrelated strategies<br />Access control/target hardening: limit opportunity<br />Organized; mechanical; natural <br />Surveillance: observational monitoring<br />Territorial reinforcement: sense of ownership<br />C. Ray Jeffery<br />(1921-2007)<br />
  11. 11. CPTED in Practice<br />Popular in variety of settings (schools, parking lots, parks, etc.)<br />Modifiable / scalable to existing conditions<br />Police review of blueprints for building permits<br />Meshes with community policing strategies<br />Moffat, R. (1983), “Crime prevention through environmental design – a management perspective”, Canadian Journal of Criminology25(4): 19-31.<br />CPTED Guidebook<br />
  12. 12. CPTED Projects<br />Charlotte, Genesis Park (1997) <br />Bought vacant properties, renovated and helped refinance<br />Installed traffic barriers<br />Fresno, Child Custody Program(2000)<br />Separate entrances, security guards, and security cameras, to reduce parental conflict in custody transfers <br />Vancouver intersection – Grandview Woodland <br />Banks worked with police to eliminate QOL problems<br />Click here to see modifications to Royal Bank<br />
  13. 13. Situational Crime prevention<br />TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE OPPORTUNITES FOR CRIME<br />
  14. 14. Situational Crime Prevention<br />Precautionary measures directed at highly specific forms of crime<br />That involve management, design, or manipulation of the immediate environment in a systematic and permanent way<br />To reduce the opportunities for crime and increase the risks of being detected (or reduce the rewards of crime)<br />Clarke, R. V. (1983) “Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical Scope. “ In M. Tonry and D. Farrington (eds.) Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention (pp. 91-150). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.<br />
  15. 15. 10 Principles of Crime Opportunity<br />Plays a role in all crimes<br />Highly specific in form<br />Concentrated in space & time<br />Depend on everyday movements of activity<br />One crime creates opportunities for others<br />Some more tempting than others<br />VIVA (value, inertia, visibility, access)<br />Enhanced by social/technological innovation<br />Can be manipulated to prevent crime<br />Reduction does not usually displace crime<br />Focused reduction can produce wider declines<br />POP Center: Situational Crime Prevention<br />
  16. 16. Situational Prevention of Suicide<br />Detoxification of natural gas<br />Clarke R.V. and P. Mayhew (1988) "Suicides in Britain: The British Gas Suicide Story and Its Criminological Implications“ Crime and Justice, vol. 10. Univ. of Chicago Press, pp. 79-116<br />
  17. 17. From Clarke’s <br />Theory of Situational <br />Crime Prevention<br />Ronald V. Clarke<br />“The opportunity structure is not simply a physical entity, defined at any one point in time by the nature of the physical environ-ment and the routine activities of the popu-lation. Rather, a complex interplay between potential offenders and the supply of victims, targets and facilitators determines the scale and nature of opportunities for crime. Potential offenders learn about criminal op-portunities from their peers, the media and their own observation, but they are differ-entially sensitized to this information as well as being differentially motivated to seek out and create opportunities. Thus, offender per-ceptions and judgments about risks, effort and rewards play an important part in defining the opportunity structure. These judgments also play a determining role at the subsequent stage of crime commission…” [emphasis added]<br />Clarke, R. V., ed., (1997) “Introduction.” In Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, 2nd Ed. Guilderland, NY: Harrow & Heston.<br />
  18. 18. 25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention<br />Twenty Five Techniques of Situational Prevention <br />
  19. 19. Increase the Effort<br />Harden Targets – physical barriers<br />Control Access to Facilities – stop people from entering places where they have no right to be<br />Screen Exits – ensure people leaving have paid and not stolen anything<br />Deflect Offenders – provide alternative venues for arrival and departure<br />Control Tools and Weapons – Caller-ID, plastic mugs in pubs, improved identification procedures<br />
  20. 20. Increase the Risks<br />Extend Guardianship – walk in groups at night, ‘cocoon’ neighborhood watch<br />Assist Natural Surveillance – improved lighting, trim bushes, other CPTED techniques<br />Reduce Anonymity – decals, IDs, uniforms<br />Utilize Place Managers – train clerks, doormen, attendants, install/monitor CCTV<br />Strengthen Formal Surveillance – Burglar alarms, security guards, red-light cameras<br />
  21. 21. Reduce the Rewards<br />Conceal Targets – off-street parking, hide jewelry/valuables<br />Remove Targets – exact-fare systems, hotel safes<br />Identify Property – VIN etching, ID property<br />DisruptMarkets – ‘sting’ operations, monitor pawn shops<br />Deny Benefits – Security-coded communication devices (smart phones)<br />
  22. 22. Reduce Provocations<br />Reduce Frustrations/Stress – Efficient waits, polite service, smooth ambient music/lighting<br />Avoid Disputes – fixed fares, segregated fans<br />Reduce Emotional Arousal – control inflammatory language, public crowding <br />Neutralize Peer Pressure – positive publicity campaigns<br />Discourage Imitation – V-Chip, limit ‘copycats’ by repairing vandalism and erasing graffiti<br />
  23. 23. Remove Excuses<br />Set Rules – Precise expectations eliminates rationalizations<br />Post Instructions – Public warning signage; common<br />Alert Conscience – best at highly limited settings<br />Assist Compliance – free cab rides on New Year’s Ever; crowd control/mgmt techniques<br />Control Alcohol/Drugs – promote responsibility<br />
  24. 24. How Does Situational Prevention Work?<br />“Successful applications of situational crime prevention techniques begin with a careful analysis of the specific crime problem…. What is happening? Where is it happening? When? How? Why? What situation seems to be giving rise to the problem? Once full understanding of the situation surrounding the criminal event is reached, one can move on to consider various methods of limiting opportunities for the crime to occur. Once a technique has been implemented, the impact of the change(s) must be carefully monitored. If the technique has demonstrated success, the strategy may be tried in similar situations.” (Lersch, p. 184; emphasis added)<br />
  25. 25. Situational Prevention and Displacement<br />Types of Displacement<br />Temporal – different time of day / day of week<br />Target – more vulnerable target selected<br />Spatial – less safe places targeted<br />Tactical – offenders change methods<br />Perpetrator – offender replacement<br />CrimeType –different kind of offending<br />
  26. 26. Critique of Situational Prevention<br />Fortress Society mentality <br />Gated communities<br />Further disenfranchisement of the poor<br />Big Brother tactics<br />Infringement on individual freedoms in public places<br />Concerned more with effects than causes of crime<br />Lacks natural or professional constituency<br />Seen as ‘soft on crime’ & ‘blaming the victim’<br />Strategies imply fewer police, security guards, etc.<br />