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Broken Windows Policing
Akhil Raman
HS4623
Economics 4896
Spring 2013
What is Broken Windows?
• A broken window can lead
to decay and disorder,
which in turn leads to
increased criminal activi...
Why do humans commit crimes?
Contrasting Views
Liberal View
• Man is inherently good, no
evil within.
• However, mans’
sur...
Incarceration-Contrasting Views
Liberal View
• Primary responsibility is the
welfare of the convicted
individuals and thei...
Origins of Broken Windows
Robert Peel (1829)
“ The principal object to be attained is “the prevention
of Crime.” To this g...
Origins of Broken Windows Continued
Jane Jacobs (1961)
“It does not take many incidents of violence to
make people fear th...
Origins of Broken Windows Continued
Herman Goldstein and Egon Bittner (1967)
• Police officers should invest in understand...
Origins of Broken Windows Continued
Philip Zimbardo (1969)
• Tested Broken Window Theory
• Left two unattended cars with
h...
James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling
(1982)
• Tagged along with police officers,
because they were mandated to step
outsi...
Traditional vs. Broken Windows Model
Traditional Policing Model
• Roots and Demographics are
the cause of Criminal Behavio...
Reduction of Crime in New York City
• From 1990-2000,
burglary, homicide,
robbery, and theft all
declined by 70 percent!
•...
Mayor Guliani and “get-tough”
• Enacted policy changes,
specifically aggressive
policing of “petty crimes”
• “Obviously, m...
Broken Windows is not the silver bullet
• Broken windows is not a magical solution,
something that will reduce crimes rate...
Bill Bratton
• Began career with Boston P.D.,
rose quickly through the ranks
• Appointed Chief of Boston P.D.
1991-1993
• ...
Bill Bratton and Broken Windows
• 2006, Bill Bratton credits Broken
Windows (1982) as the source of
his policy makeover.
•...
Crimes Reduced in Bay Area
• Many Bay Area cities have
reduced crimes rates in half since
their peak in the 1980’s
• Thirt...
Policies seem to expand Broken
Windows
• Policies implemented by Bay Area
cities similar to Broken Windows
• San Francisco...
Criticisms of Broken Windows
• Criticism – Broken Windows seems unfair to the
poor?
• Rebuttal- Broken Windows is not abou...
Criticisms of Broken Windows
(Continued)
• Criticism-Broken Windows sounds similar to
“Zero Tolerance”
• Rebuttal- Broken ...
Criticisms of Broken Windows
• Criticism-Agencies have hired more police officers, that
seems like the most logical reason...
Things I can’t contest
• Advancements in crime-fighting technology
• Computerized statistics
• Hot Spots- Putting “cops on...
Works Cited
• Peel, Robert. 1829. Police Patrol to Prevent Crime.
• Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great Americ...
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Broken Windows Policing-Final Presentation

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Broken Windows Policing-Final Presentation

  1. 1. Broken Windows Policing Akhil Raman HS4623 Economics 4896 Spring 2013
  2. 2. What is Broken Windows? • A broken window can lead to decay and disorder, which in turn leads to increased criminal activity. • Simply put-Take care of the little things and the major things will take care of themselves. • Do not take “Broken Windows” literally. The term refers to any signs of disorder that does not coincide with community values.
  3. 3. Why do humans commit crimes? Contrasting Views Liberal View • Man is inherently good, no evil within. • However, mans’ surroundings have a powerful influence on him. • Society's’ inability to provide basic needs is the root of criminal activity. Conservative View • Man is born with a natural capacity of good or evil. • Necessary to build moral character through family, religion, and education. • Individuals have “freedom of choice” to be criminals. • Society is not at fault, but, they need to hold individuals accountable for crimes.
  4. 4. Incarceration-Contrasting Views Liberal View • Primary responsibility is the welfare of the convicted individuals and their rehabilitation. • An emphasis on returning the criminal to society as early as possible • Society is responsible for the crime, not the criminal. • Any real punishment of the crime is barbaric and vengeful Conservative View • Primary responsibility is to society • Rehabilitation of the criminal is a large concern, through the reformation of the criminals morals and character. • Jail sentence of the criminal is necessary to ensure victims of crime that their loss/suffering is taken seriously by society.
  5. 5. Origins of Broken Windows Robert Peel (1829) “ The principal object to be attained is “the prevention of Crime.” To this great end every effort of the Police is to be directed. The security of person and property, the preservation of the public tranquility, and all the other objects of a Police Establishment, will thus be better effected, than by the detection and punishment of the offender, after he has succeeded in committing the crime.” Source: Peel, Robert. 1829. Sanction of Establishment of Police. No 8 Augmentation. Home Office
  6. 6. Origins of Broken Windows Continued Jane Jacobs (1961) “It does not take many incidents of violence to make people fear the streets. And as they fear them, they use them less, which makes the streets still more unsafe. First, we must understand that the public peace—the sidewalk and street peace—of cities is not kept primarily by the police, necessary though they are. [The public peace] is kept primarily by an intricate, almost unconscious, network of voluntary controls and standards among the people themselves.” Source: Death of Life of Great American Cities (1961)
  7. 7. Origins of Broken Windows Continued Herman Goldstein and Egon Bittner (1967) • Police officers should invest in understanding community, taking time to meet with citizens. • Law enforcement agencies should engage in ethnically diversifying. • There should be a medium of communication between citizens and police officers outside of regular dispatch. • A system of police discretion needs to be utilizes. This will ensure that resources and energy are not wasted entirely on petty criminals. .
  8. 8. Origins of Broken Windows Continued Philip Zimbardo (1969) • Tested Broken Window Theory • Left two unattended cars with hoods open, one in the Bronx, and one in Palo Alto, CA. • Car in Bronx was attacked within 10 minutes of leaving. It was completely destroyed. • Initially, car in Palo Alto was fine. Until….Zimbardo Smashed it with a sledgehammer…….Suddenly a whole mass of individuals joined in, and the car was utterly destroyed. • Comparing Broxn and Palo Alto, crimes like this can happen ANYWHERE.
  9. 9. James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling (1982) • Tagged along with police officers, because they were mandated to step outside their vehicles and engage in foot patrol • Foot Patrol allowed officers to survey community more thoroughly than inside a vehicle • Think back to Jane Jacobs, doesn’t take much to frighten citizens. However, more police officers on foot made citizens feel “Safer” • Broken Windows credits “Roots” as the cause of criminal activity, and assesses what is the real role of police officers. • Broken Windows focuses more on crime prevention rather than waiting until crimes occur.
  10. 10. Traditional vs. Broken Windows Model Traditional Policing Model • Roots and Demographics are the cause of Criminal Behavior • Criminals cause crime, which harm the community • Community calls 911 for help • Dispatch alerts nearby police officers • Police Officers respond to crime, and engage in proper solution to problem. • No “foot patrol” officers constantly on the streets. Broken Windows Policing Model • Roots and Demographics are the cause of criminal behavior • Constant communication between Police Officers and Community. • Community aids in crime reduction by constantly keeping eyes on the streets, reporting suspicious activity. • Police officers everywhere, on foot , bikes, vehicles etc.
  11. 11. Reduction of Crime in New York City • From 1990-2000, burglary, homicide, robbery, and theft all declined by 70 percent! • 2000-2012 crimes fell an additional 37 percent • Crimes declined across the country, however, NYC at twice the national average.
  12. 12. Mayor Guliani and “get-tough” • Enacted policy changes, specifically aggressive policing of “petty crimes” • “Obviously, murder and graffiti are two vastly different crimes. But they are part of the same continuum, and a climate that tolerates one is more likely to tolerate the other.“ –Rudolph Guilliani (1998)
  13. 13. Broken Windows is not the silver bullet • Broken windows is not a magical solution, something that will reduce crimes rates instantly. • It is a thought process, specifically, problem- solving and police action • The main question- How can law enforcement (police) work with citizens to ensure a safer, less disorderly environment?
  14. 14. Bill Bratton • Began career with Boston P.D., rose quickly through the ranks • Appointed Chief of Boston P.D. 1991-1993 • As chief of Boston, crimes reduced • Appointed NYC Police Chief in 1994 • As chief of NYC, crimes reduced for the next two years • Took over LAPD from 2002- 2009, homicides reduced from 654 to 312.
  15. 15. Bill Bratton and Broken Windows • 2006, Bill Bratton credits Broken Windows (1982) as the source of his policy makeover. • Implemented tough, aggressive stance on low-level crimes in Boston, New York City, and Los Angeles. • Advocated use of police discretion. • Recognized for advocating a more ethnically diverse police force. To ensure all citizens of the community were represented • Recently hired as consultant to the OAKLAND POLICE DEPARTMENT!!! (Keep your fingers crossed)
  16. 16. Crimes Reduced in Bay Area • Many Bay Area cities have reduced crimes rates in half since their peak in the 1980’s • Thirteen of the 15 major Bay Area cities recorded fewer murders, assaults, rapes and kidnappings. • Aforementioned areas have also reduced petty crimes. • Proved that crimes can still be controlled, even with a weakened economy, which should have led to increased crime. • Source: http://www.fbi.gov/about- us/cjis/ncic
  17. 17. Policies seem to expand Broken Windows • Policies implemented by Bay Area cities similar to Broken Windows • San Francisco, Santa Clara, Milpitas, Sunnyvale along with other agencies are investing heavily into community involvement • Many agencies run a “citizens volunteer program.” Creating a medium of communication between regular citizens and police officers. • Agencies advocating a more ethnically diverse police force. • Discretion utilize in regards to incarceration. More resource and energy are geared towards imprisoning violent criminals, not petty ones. • Vacation House Checks • Citizen volunteers patrolling neighborhoods in unmarked police vehicles • Explorers program for youth, interested in law enforcement. • Using explorers as “bait” for selling liquor to underage individuals. • Neighborhood watch programs for suspicious behavior • Source: http://www.ci.milpitas.ca.gov/govern ment/police/community_relations.as p
  18. 18. Criticisms of Broken Windows • Criticism – Broken Windows seems unfair to the poor? • Rebuttal- Broken Windows is not about the poor, its about the community. That being said, the poor do suffer most from disorder and crime. So, according to Broken Windows, drawing crime to the poor can reduce crime everywhere. • Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1 982/03/broken-windows/304465/
  19. 19. Criticisms of Broken Windows (Continued) • Criticism-Broken Windows sounds similar to “Zero Tolerance” • Rebuttal- Broken Windows and Zero Tolerance are not similar. In fact, Broken Windows encourages police discretion, contrary to Zero Tolerance, which punishes any individual for any crime. Also, Broken Windows utilizes police officers in a more professional manner, while zero tolerance makes them look like robots with no soul.
  20. 20. Criticisms of Broken Windows • Criticism-Agencies have hired more police officers, that seems like the most logical reason. • Rebuttal- Might be, however, studies have shown a positive correlation between numbers and crime. Also, evidence suggests the elasticity of crimes in relation to police officers is at around -.2. That is, a 10 percent increase in police officers only reduces crime rates by 2 percent. In addition, agencies are hiring because of retirements. • Source: Bradford, Ben. "Police Numbers and Crime Rates – a Rapid Evidence Review | Ben Bradford - Academia.edu." Police Numbers and Crime Rates – a Rapid Evidence Review | Ben Bradford - Academia.edu. Academia, July 2011. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
  21. 21. Things I can’t contest • Advancements in crime-fighting technology • Computerized statistics • Hot Spots- Putting “cops on the dots” • Legalized abortion (I’m serious, look up Steven Levitt) • Crack-cocaine consumption declining from its peak in 1984-1990 • Stricter gun control Laws • “Graying of America” Baby boomers “Mellowing out” after reaching the age or 40, and not taking risks by committing crimes.
  22. 22. Works Cited • Peel, Robert. 1829. Police Patrol to Prevent Crime. • Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House • Goldstein, Herman. 1963. “Police Discretion: The Ideal Versus the Real.” Public Administration Review. • Bittner, Egon. 1967. “The Police on Skid Row.” American Sociological Review. 32(5):699-715 • Goldstein, Herman. 1979. “Means Over Ends Syndrome” “Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach.” Crime & Delinquency April 1979 Vol. 25(2): 236-258. • Wilson, James Q., and George L. Kelling. "Broken Windows." The Manhattan Institute(1982): 1-10. Web.

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