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Gender and Leadership
By: Christopher Arcos
Can women Lead?
In a meta analysis comparing the effectiveness of female and male leaders,
overall both were equally effec...
Thus, women were less effective to the extent that
the leadership role was masculinized.
For example, women were less effe...
Additionally, women were substantially more effective in middle
management where interpersonal skills are highly valued.
I...
“ In government, in business, and in the
professions there may be a day when
women will be looked upon as persons.
We are,...
Women occupy more than half of all management and
professional positions and make up half of the labor
force, but are stil...
The invisible barrier preventing women
from ascending into elite leadership
positions is referred to as ”The Glass
Ceiling...
By continually working to disavow the glass ceiling we
will gradually fulfill the promise of equal opportunity by
allowing...
Underrepresentation of women in high level leadership
positions revolve around 3 types of explanations:
1. Human Capital
2...
Human Capital Differences
Domestic and child rearing expectations impose an added
burden to women climbing the leadership ...
Gender Differences
Empirical Research indicates that women are less likely to promote
themselves for leadership positions ...
Prejudice
A prominent explanation is “Gender Bias” stemming from stereotyped
expectations that women take care and men tak...
It is clear that women in leadership roles are more than capable to
excel and often assist their organizations in achievin...
That 33% is the “Business Strategic Financial Acumen”
In order to push through the glass ceiling women must Prove Business...
Gender and leadership  by  Christopher Arcos
Gender and leadership  by  Christopher Arcos
Gender and leadership  by  Christopher Arcos
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Gender and leadership by Christopher Arcos

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Gender and leadership by Christopher Arcos

  1. 1. Gender and Leadership By: Christopher Arcos
  2. 2. Can women Lead? In a meta analysis comparing the effectiveness of female and male leaders, overall both were equally effective. However, there were gender differences such that each gender were more effective in leadership roles that were congruent with their gender.
  3. 3. Thus, women were less effective to the extent that the leadership role was masculinized. For example, women were less effective than men in military positions but more effective in education, government, and social service organizations.
  4. 4. Additionally, women were substantially more effective in middle management where interpersonal skills are highly valued. In these roles women were also more likely to utilize Transformational Leadership Styles, Contingent Reward Systems, and other styles that are associated with contemporary notions of effective leadership.
  5. 5. “ In government, in business, and in the professions there may be a day when women will be looked upon as persons. We are, however, far from that day as yet.” - Eleanor Roosevelt, 1940
  6. 6. Women occupy more than half of all management and professional positions and make up half of the labor force, but are still underrepresented in upper echelons of America's corporate and political systems.
  7. 7. The invisible barrier preventing women from ascending into elite leadership positions is referred to as ”The Glass Ceiling”. While this typically is used to reference the disparity of gender in leadership positions it is also important to recognize that this can also apply to other non- dominant groups such as ethnic and racial minorities.
  8. 8. By continually working to disavow the glass ceiling we will gradually fulfill the promise of equal opportunity by allowing everyone the possibility of taking on leadership roles.
  9. 9. Underrepresentation of women in high level leadership positions revolve around 3 types of explanations: 1. Human Capital 2. Gender Differences 3. Prejudice
  10. 10. Human Capital Differences Domestic and child rearing expectations impose an added burden to women climbing the leadership ladder In order to combat this, some women choose not to marry or have children. Others choose to become “Super Women” and attempt to excel in every role. Still others choose part time employment to juggle work-home conflicts.
  11. 11. Gender Differences Empirical Research indicates that women are less likely to promote themselves for leadership positions than men and women are more likely to take on “informal roles” which use terms such as Facilitator or Organizer instead of Leader.
  12. 12. Prejudice A prominent explanation is “Gender Bias” stemming from stereotyped expectations that women take care and men take charge. According to role congruity theory, the agentic qualities thought necessary for leaders are incompatible with the communal qualities stereotypically associated with women.
  13. 13. It is clear that women in leadership roles are more than capable to excel and often assist their organizations in achieving by diligently working to bring out the best from others to be successful as a team but there is still 33% missing in the career success equation for women.
  14. 14. That 33% is the “Business Strategic Financial Acumen” In order to push through the glass ceiling women must Prove Business Acumen, Set a Strategic Acumen and Track Record, and Display Actions based on Financial Acumen. Additionally, Boards must set proportional success pools and examine the mindset they have on gender and intentionally set a level playing field for advancement.

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