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Why we need more women leaders

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In all our institutions, we are still experiencing a tremendous leadership gap. We will talk about the remaining barriers and unconscious biases towards female leadership and the different existing initiatives to overcome it.

Published in: Leadership & Management

Why we need more women leaders

  1. 1. Why we need more women leaders Women are much less likely than men to be considered leaders. In 2015, only 5 percent of the companies in the Standard and Poor’s 500 index had WHAT IS THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP, AND WHY DOES IT MATTER?
  2. 2. fantasty or reality? 1 in 4 Americans think it is more likely that humans will colonize on Mars than that half of Fortune 500 CEOs will be women.
  3. 3. Exhibit 4 Gender diversity of executive management team1 Percent of companies by percent race/ethnicity diversity 1 9 22 38 1613 21– 30%11– 20%1–10%0% 41– 50%31– 40% 01 7 16 31 16 30 > 50%41–50%31–40%21–30%11–20%1–10%0% 00 10 19 7 63 21– 30%11– 20%1–10%0% 41– 50%31– 40% Population diversity Percent, 2012 Women 50.9% Men49.1% Women 50.8% Men49.2% Women 50.8% 49.2% Men Average percent women in executive team 12% 16% 6% 1 Number of companies = 107 for UK, 186 for US, 67 for Brazil Women are still underrepresented at the top of corporations globally SOURCE: US Census Bureau, McKinsey Diversity Database SOURCE: US Census Bureau, McKinsey Diversity Database Exhibit 5 Compared with other countries, the UK is doing a better job in racial
  4. 4. Davos: 20% of women in 2017
  5. 5. What about being your own boss?
  6. 6. And it is the same in any field
  7. 7. Source: UN Women
  8. 8. In the air… • Only about 450 women worldwide are airline captains -- pilots in command who supervise all the other crew members on a flight, according to the International Society of Women Airline Pilots. • In the USA, about 5.12% of airline or commercial pilots are women. • The gender gap varies by region: it’s even wider in Mexico (only 2.33% women) and narrower in France (7.62%), Sweden (8.20%) or Finland (12.07%).
  9. 9. Or in the kitchen…
  10. 10. Is chef a male word?
  11. 11. Yet leadership is changing From gender diversity to leadership variety
  12. 12. A leadership more relational than hierarchical • As our economy continues to globalize, as the world gets “flatter” and as technology continues to change how we work, leadership is evolving into a relational rather than a hierarchical activity. • We’re transitioning from command and control to facilitative and collaborative leadership that works across teams, time zones, cultures and disciplines. • What we think of as “soft skills” are becoming critical to leadership– and early career women, generally speaking, are comfortable and adept leading with these kinds of skills and abilities.
  13. 13. Simply having female leaders changes the norms about who can lead and what qualities are necessary in leadership. • The evidence shows that female leaders typically have more compassion and empathy, and a more open and inclusive negotiation style. • This is not, of course, necessarily true of all women -- there are many different leadership styles. • That said, modern ideas of transformative leadership are more in line with qualities women generally share: empathy, inclusiveness and an open negotiation style.
  14. 14. Significant benefits in having women in leadership roles. • Diversity of thought • In contrast to leadership teams that are comprised predominantly,if not entirely,of men from very similar demographic and professional backgrounds,groups that are more mixed will consider a wider range of issues, froma variety of perspectives, and generate more innovativesolutions. • Better governance and organisational performance • Research shows that when women and men work together on boards, much better governance and economic performance results. This is often referred to as the business case for gender diversity. • Leveraging human capital • Women have higher participation and completion rates in tertiary education compared to men, and they are increasingly out-numbering men in education achievement. To get the very best leaders we need to be selecting candidates fromthe widest possibletalent pool. • The lack of women in leadership roles represents a failureto exploit the available talent pool. • Representation • Research shows that the interests of women, children and families are more likely to be taken into account by women. Diversity promotes a better understanding of a diverse market place. International data suggests that women are responsiblefor 80 percent of household purchasing decisions,and the figurefor New Zealand is likely to be similar. • The business case for gender diversity • The evidence-based business case for gender diversity is well documented and widely accepted internationally. Thereis a concerted global effort to increase the numbers of women in leadership and this is happening in New Zealand too. • Many large international studies report that companies with a higher proportion of women on their boards perform significantly better than their competitors in economic terms. Moreover, several studies have reported that companies with a higher proportion of women on their boards performed better than their competitors during therecent financial crisis. • A New Zealand study by Goldman Sachs Closing TheGender Gap: Plenty Of Potential EconomicUpsideestimated that closing the gap between male and female employment rates would boost New Zealand's GDP by 10 percent. The report identified thelack of women in leadership,and on boards in particular, as an area requiring urgent attention.
  15. 15. DIVERSITY IS THE NEW DARWINISM FINDINGS AND ACTIONS: DIVERSITY IS THE NEW DARWINISM FINDINGS AND ACTIONS:
  16. 16. So how do you explain this leadership gap?
  17. 17. It starts very young
  18. 18. EXECUTIVESUMMARY KEY FINDINGS 1. Many Boys and Girls Expressed Bias Against Girls as Leaders in Powerful Professions: • When asked who is more effective in specific professions, almost a quarter of teen girls—23%— preferred male over female political leaders while only 8% of girls preferred female political leaders, with 69% reporting no difference in preference. • Forty-percent of teen boys preferred male over female political leaders while only 4% preferred female political leaders with 56% expressing no preference. A higher percentage of boys preferred male business leaders (36%) to female leaders (6%). There was no significant difference between girls’ preference for male versus female business leaders. • Both boys and girls preferred females by large margins in traditionally female professions, e.g., as child care directors and arts program directors. 2. Students Were Least Likely to Support Granting More Power to White Girls as Council Leaders: • In response to the scenario intended to detect implicit biases3 , students were least likely to support giving more power to the student council when it was led by white girls and most likely to support giving more power when it was led by white boys.4 Black and Latino boys and girls appear to face leadership biases as well based on our scenario. See footnote and finding #6 below for more information on racial biases.5 • We also looked at whether students in each school preferred giving more power to one type of council over another. In 59% of the schools we surveyed, students on average expressed more support for a council headed by white boys than for one headed by white girls. 3. White Girls Appear to be Biased Against Other White Girls as Leaders: The gap between white boys and white girls appears to be largely explained by the fact that white girls tended not to support giving power to white girls. White girls presented with boy-led councils expressed higher average support for the council than white girls presented with girl-led councils. Further, when we looked at what types of councils students tended to support in each school, we found that in 61% of our schools, white girls’ average level of support was higher for councils led by white males than those led by white females. These findings mirror studies of women in the workplace. A 2013 Gallup poll found, for example, that 35% of all respondents would prefer to have a male boss while only 23% of respondents would prefer to have a female boss, with 41% reporting no preference. The preference for male bosses was even stronger among female respondents (Newport & Wilke, 2013). Leaning Out | Teen Girls and Leadership Biases 3 and self-esteem and projecting that lack of confidence onto other girls, and girls being viewed as too emotionally “dramatic.” These findings are consistent with other research on girls ((Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999; Marwick & Boyd, 2014). 6. Awareness of Bias Appears to Matter: Our data suggest that awareness of gender discrimination may be related to less implicit, unconscious bias against girls as leaders. Although white girls tended to support councils led by white boys over white girls, white girls who perceive high levels of gender discrimination at their school show greater preference for female-led student councils. While our study was mainly focused on gender bias, our data also suggests that students of color face racial biases and that awareness of racial discrimination may be related to less racial bias.7 While much of our data is encouraging (e.g. high percentages of both males and females express no preference between male and female political leaders), the percentage of teens who do express bias against female political leaders combined with our other data on implicit and explicit biases is cause for concern. 4% of boys and 8% of girls preferred female political leaders. 36% of boys preferred male business leaders; 6% preferred female leaders. 6. See methodology section in report for more information on parent respondent population, which included approximately 1200 parents. 7. Finding is marginally statistically significant.
  19. 19. rs in e in specific teen girls—23%— cal leaders while political leaders, with eference. red male over female eferred female ing no preference. rred male business (6%). There was no s’ preference for ders. males by large ofessions, e.g., rogram directors. ely to Support White Girls as ded to detect east likely to support t council when it likely to support ed by white boys.4 information on racial biases.5 • We also looked at whether students in each school preferred giving more power to one type of council over another. In 59% of the schools we surveyed, students on average expressed more support for a council headed by white boys than for one headed by white girls. 3. White Girls Appear to be Biased Against Other White Girls as Leaders: The gap between white boys and white girls appears to be largely explained by the fact that white girls tended not to support giving power to white girls. White girls presented with boy-led councils expressed higher average support for the council than white girls presented with girl-led councils. Further, when we looked at what types of councils students tended to support in each school, we found that in 61% of our schools, white girls’ average level of support was higher for councils led by white males than those led by white females. These findings mirror studies of women in the workplace. A 2013 Gallup poll found, for example, that 35% of all respondents would prefer to have a male boss while only 23% of respondents would prefer to have a female boss, with 41% reporting no preference. The preference for male bosses was even stronger among female respondents (Newport & Wilke, 2013). he implicit bias scenario nstead, they were present- to indicate how likely wer to that council. About ented with each council ed to give more power to a they wanted to give more We then compared the ncil. in the percent of students 5. Some of our reported findings are specific to white girls and boys, because that is where we saw the most statistically significant findings. However, responses to our implicit bias scenario suggest that students and parents do not view students’ capacity for leadership through one simple gender or race lens. It was hard for us to clearly assess students’ views about race because most differences in students’ responses to student council leaders on the implicit bias scenario were not statisti- cally significant. Yet it does appear from our data that students have complex views about how race and gender mix. For example, students expressed roughly the same amount of support for Latina councils as for white male councils. These findings—and how students generally E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 4. Some Mothers Appear to be Biased Against Girls as Leaders On average, mothers presented with councils led by boys expressed stronger support than mothers presented with councils led by girls. We were not able to determine whether fathers had biases against girls because our sample of fathers was too small.6 5. Biases Against Girls have Many Causes: Our focus groups and interviews suggested a variety of reasons for students’ biases against girls and for white girls’ biases against each other, including highly competitive feelings among girls, girls lacking confidence and self-esteem and projecting that lack of confidence onto other girls, and girls being viewed as too emotionally “dramatic.” These findings are consistent with other research on girls ((Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999; Marwick & Boyd, 2014). 6. Awareness of Bias Appears to Matter: Our data suggest that awareness of gender discrimination may be related to less implicit, unconscious bias against girls as leaders. Although white girls tended to support councils led by white boys over white girls, white girls who perceive high levels of gender discrimination at their school show greater preference for female-led student councils. While our study was mainly focused on gender bias, our data also suggests that students of color face racial biases and that awareness of racial discrimination may be related to less racial bias.7 While much of our data is encouraging (e.g. high percentages of both males and females express no preference between male and female political leaders), the percentage of teens who do express bias against female political leaders combined with our other data on implicit and explicit biases is cause for concern. 4% of boys and 8% of girls preferred female political leaders. 36% of boys preferred male business leaders; 6% preferred female leaders. 40% of teen boys and 23% of teen girls preferred male over female political leaders.
  20. 20. 12 MAKING CARING COMMON | A Project of the Harvard Graduate School of Education cited here, suggests males’ biases female leaders. GENDER BIASES HAVE MANY CAUSES Our focus groups and interviews suggested a variety of reasons for students’ biases toward white girls and for girls’ biases against each other. A few students, for example, indicated that because many girls have low self-esteem, they may assume that other girls have little self-esteem and thus wouldn’t be good leaders. As one student put it: “Girls wouldn’t vote for themselves, so why would they vote for another girl?” Other students mentioned highly competitive feelings among girls. As one student stated flat-out, “I’m determined to beat other girls.” Some students suggested that many girls are viewed as too “dramatic” to be good leaders. Finally, a smaller number of students shared other reasons for girls not picking other girls: “girls don’t trust each other” or girls “aren’t nice.” These findings are consistent with other research, including research indicating that girls caught up in social hierarchies undercut each other in struggles for leadership and research documenting girls’ competitive feelings and tendency for “drama” (Brown, 2003; Marwick & Boyd, 2014). Teen girls’ explicit and implicit, unconscious biases toward other girls are likely the result of many additional factors interacting differently for girls at While these biases have many complex roots, the good news is that our findings suggest that awareness of gender bias and discrimination is linked to less reported bias. One hopes that as people become aware of biases, they are better able to bring them under conscious control and counteract them. That may be true of white girls in our study in terms of leadership biases. We asked students whether students at their school were discriminated against or excluded based on their gender. White girls who perceived no gender discrimination at their school were, on average, biases against girl-led councils, unlike white girls who perceived high levels of discrimination. The more discrimination white girls perceived, the lower their bias.13 “Girls wouldn’t vote for themselves, so why would they vote for another girl?” 13. Our data did not indicate that boys’ awareness of gender discrimina- tion was associated with less gender bias. But that may be because boys interpreted gender discrimination differently than girls. It’s possible that many boys who reported awareness of gender discrimination at their school thought that “gender discrimination” referred to discrimination not against girls but against boys. It seems far less likely that girls inter- preted “gender discrimination” as discrimination against boys.
  21. 21. E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 4. Some Mothers Appear to be Biased Against Girls as Leaders On average, mothers presented with councils led by boys expressed stronger support than mothers presented with councils led by girls. We were not able to determine whether fathers had biases against girls because our sample of fathers was too small.6 5. Biases Against Girls have Many Causes: Our focus groups and interviews suggested a variety of reasons for students’ biases against girls and for white girls’ biases against each other, including highly competitive feelings among girls, girls lacking confidence and self-esteem and projecting that lack of confidence onto other girls, and girls being viewed as too emotionally “dramatic.” These findings are consistent with other research on girls ((Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999; Marwick & Boyd, 2014). 6. Awareness of Bias Appears to Matter: Our data suggest that awareness of gender discrimination may be related to less implicit, unconscious bias against girls as leaders. Although white girls tended to support councils led by white boys over white girls, white girls who perceive high levels of gender 4% of boys and 8% of girls preferred female political leaders. 40% of teen boys and 23% of teen girls preferred male over female political leaders. Leaning Out | T 5. Biases Against Girls have Many Causes: Our focus groups and interviews suggested a variety of reasons for students’ biases against girls and for white girls’ biases against each other, including highly competitive feelings among girls, girls lacking confidence and self-esteem and projecting that lack of confidence onto other girls, and girls being viewed as too emotionally “dramatic.” These findings are consistent with other research on girls ((Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999; Marwick & Boyd, 2014). 6. Awareness of Bias Appears to Matter: Our data suggest that awareness of gender discrimination may be related to less implicit, unconscious bias against girls as leaders. Although white girls tended to support councils led by white boys over white girls, white girls who perceive high levels of gender discrimination at their school show greater preference for female-led student councils. While our study was mainly focused on gender bias, our data also suggests that students of color face racial biases and that awareness of racial discrimination may be related to less racial bias.7 While much of our data is encouraging (e.g. high percentages of both males and females express no preference between male and female political leaders), the percentage of teens who do express bias against female political leaders combined with our other data on implicit and explicit biases is cause for concern. 4% of boys and female poli 36% of boys pre leaders; 6% 6. See methodology section in report for more information on parent respondent population, which included approximately 1200 parents. 7. Finding is marginally statistically significant.
  22. 22. REPORT leadership positions, especially in high-power fields. EXPLICIT BIAS: POWERFUL BOYS AND NURTURING GIRLS Many teen girls have explicit biases toward other girls when it comes to powerful, high status professions. Explicit and implicit biases are very different beasts. Implicit biases are unconscious and typically automatic and people are generally motivated to eradicate them. A teen girl who wholeheartedly believes that women are just as capable business leaders as men will be distressed to discover that she holds an implicit bias against women business leaders and will be motivated to learn how to handle this bias. Explicit biases, on the other hand, reflect what people overtly believe to be true. Some teen girls and boys, for example, simply believe that males are better political leaders than females.10 Many girls in our survey expressed explicit biases toward females as political leaders. Girls didn’t express explicit biases toward other girls when it comes to leadership in general. When asked directly on our survey whether boys or girls are better leaders, girls are, in fact, more likely to report that girls are better leaders. Girls are also just as likely as boys to report that they anticipate that they will “be effective leaders as adults.” Girls reported, too, that they are just as smart as boys and can handle pressure as well as boys. Yet when asked explicitly who they prefer as political leaders, 23% of girls preferred males while only 8% of girls preferred females, with 69% of girls reporting no preference. Girls expressed no significant preference for males or females as business leaders. 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Girls’ Answers Boys’ Answers Males Females Males Females WHO MAKES BETTER CHILDCARE LEADERS Neither Females FemalesFemales50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Girls’ Answers Boys’ Answers Males Neither Males Neither Girls were more likely to view females as better leaders than males in traditionally female professions, such as child care directors, health care directors and art directors. Fully 49% of girls saw girls as more capable child care directors while only three girls (which rounds to 0%) reported that males were better child care directors. Boys were more likely to report both that males were better leaders overall and in powerful professions. Forty percent of boys preferred male to female political leaders and only 4% preferred female political leaders with 56% expressing no preference. That a significantly higher percentage of both boys and girls prefer male political leaders can clearly matter a great deal in political elections at every level, which are often won by small margins. 10. This data is based on 2 of our surveys combined (about 2,600 students). ARE TEEN GIRLS LEANING OUT? Our results suggest that teen girls both hold biases and suffer from biases that may corrode their relationships and sense of justice, sap their confidence in their leadership potential, and dampen their desire to seek leadership positions, especially in high-power fields. EXPLICIT BIAS: POWERFUL BOYS AND NURTURING GIRLS Many teen girls have explicit biases toward other girls when it comes to powerful, high status professions. Explicit and implicit biases are very different beasts. Implicit biases are unconscious and typically automatic and people are generally motivated to eradicate them. A teen girl who wholeheartedly believes that women are just as capable business leaders as men will be distressed to discover that she holds an implicit bias against women business leaders and will be motivated to learn how to handle this bias. Explicit biases, on the other hand, reflect what people overtly believe to be true. Some teen girls and boys, for example, simply believe that males are better political leaders than females.10 Many girls in our survey expressed explicit biases toward females as political leaders. Girls didn’t express explicit biases toward other girls when it comes to leadership in general. When asked directly on our survey whether boys or girls are better leaders, girls are, in fact, more likely to report that girls are better leaders. Girls are also just as likely as boys to report that they anticipate that they will “be effective leaders as adults.” Girls reported, too, that they are just as smart as boys and can handle pressure WHO MAKES BETTER POLITICAL LEADERS 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Girls’ Answers Boys’ Answers Neither Males Females Neither Males Females WHO MAKES BETTER CHILDCARE LEADERS Neither Females FemalesFemales50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Girls’ Answers Boys’ Answers Males Neither Males Neither Girls were more likely to view females as better leaders than males in traditionally female professions, such as child care directors, health care directors and art directors. Fully 49% of girls saw girls as more capable child care directors while only three girls (which rounds to 0%) reported that males were better child care directors.
  23. 23. People become leaders by internalizing a leadership identity and developing a sense of purpose. • An absence of affirmation, however, diminishes self-confidence and discourages him or her from seeking developmental opportunities or experimenting. • Leadership identity, which begins as a tentative, peripheral aspect of the self, eventually withers away, along with opportunities to grow through new assignments and real achievements. • Over time, an aspiring leader acquires a reputation as having—or not having—high potential.
  24. 24. • Stereotypically male characteristics— independence, aggression, competitiveness, rationality, dominance, objectivity— all correlate with current expectations of leadership (Crites et al., 2015).
  25. 25. What Is Second-Generation Gender Bias? • Women are not deliberately excluded from leadership. • But subtle and often invisible barriers for women that arise from cultural assumptions and organizational structures, practices, and patterns of interaction that inadvertently benefit men while putting women at a disadvantage. • Among them are: • A paucity of role models for women. • Gendered career paths and gendered work. – entrenched organizational structures and work practices designed to fit men’s lives (rotationto sales or operations, international outpost) – undervalue behind-the-scenes work (building a team, avoiding a crisis), which women are more likely to do, while rewarding heroic work, which is most often done by men.
  26. 26. What Is Second-Generation Gender Bias? • Women’s lack of access to networks and sponsors. – lack of access to influential colleagues. men in positions of power tend to direct developmental opportunities to junior men. • Double binds. – In most cultures masculinity and leadership are closely linked: The ideal leader, like the ideal man, is decisive, assertive, and independent. – In contrast, women are expected to be nice, caretaking, and unselfish. The mismatch between conventionally feminine qualities and the qualities thought necessary for leadership puts female leaders in a double bind. – Numerous studies have shown that women who excel in traditionally male domains are viewed as competent but less likable than their male counterparts. Behaviors that suggest self-confidence or assertiveness in men often appear arrogant or abrasive in women. – Meanwhile, women in positions of authority who enact a conventionally feminine style may be liked but are not respected. They are deemed too emotional to make tough decisions and too soft to be strong leaders.
  27. 27. a group of people to follow. Leadership can be used wisely or foolishly; it is not inherently good. This report focuses on “positional leaders,” that is, people who occupy positions of power that are recognized and rewarded in observable ways. This focus, however, does not suggest that other forms of leadership are less important, simply that they are more difficult to measure. LEADERSHIP AND MASCULINITY Despite stereotypes about macho leaders, leadership is not inherently mas- culine. Because white men have held most leadership positions in society for so long, the concept of leadership has been infused with stereotypically masculine traits: aggression, decisiveness, willingness to engage in conflict, strength, and so on. These traits are not uniquely available to white men, of course, nor are they predominant personality traits in all men. Indeed, researchers have explored the essential ingredients of leadership and found no gender differences in leadership effectiveness (Hyde, 2014). The question of whether women and men have different approaches to leadership has been the subject of numerous studies and books. Women can and do use typically male leadership styles. For example, medical emergen- cies call for quick, coordinated action that requires decisive, authoritative leadership. A recent study of medical residents found that both men and women use this form of leadership effectively—although women are more likely to apologize to their colleagues for abrupt behavior after the event (Kolehmainen et al., 2014). Researchers have also found that women tend to adopt a transformational leadership style, which motivates followers through
  28. 28. women of color confront race and ethnic discrimination that white women do not face, they also experience gender bias differently than white women do—and they experience racial bias differently than do the men in their racial or ethnic group (J. Williams et al., 2014). Scholars use the term “inter- sectionality” to describe this phenomenon. WOMEN LEADERS ACROSS TIME Women have been leaders throughout history. From the pharaohs of Egypt to the queens of England, women rulers are found in nearly every culture and time period. Yet, in almost all circumstances, male leaders greatly out- number female leaders. Moreover, customs and laws against female leader- ship can be found throughout history, most notably in every major religion (Christ, 2014). Women have served as leaders in social movements; for example, prominent women such as Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman campaigned fear- lessly for the liberation of African Americans (Ngunjiri et al., 2012). In the early 1900s, Native American women led their own women’s clubs to learn subjects that they had been denied access to because of their gender and ethnicity (Tetzloff, 2007). More recently, women have led efforts to improve sanitation and health care, develop public education, establish public librar- ies, and create a social welfare system. They have led social change in such
  29. 29. 15AAUW WHAT EXPLAINS THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? s there still a dearth of women leaders in the United States? Are there ough qualified candidates? Is there still discrimination against women s? Are women simply choosing to prioritize family over career? uestion can be posed another, equally important way: Why are men presented in leadership roles? Are they not qualified for or interested er kinds of work? Is there still discrimination against men who are not s? Are men simply choosing to prioritize career over family? nal choices are never made in a vacuum. Organizational, cultural, mic, and policy barriers shape both men’s and women’s choices and tunities. Women’s underrepresentation in leadership has been framed eficit in which something is holding women back from becoming s. Initially described as a glass ceiling—the symbolic wall women hit -management levels—barriers to women’s advancement can also be ht of as a labyrinth. Alice Eagly and Linda Carli (2007) proposed this pt to describe how, all along the way, women confront distinct barriers ymie or derail their progress. dless of metaphor, one thing is clear: Women are not simply denied adership opportunities at the culmination of a long career. Rather, 16 Barriers and Bias resembling the careers of men. PERSISTENT SEX DISCRIMINATION Some bias against women is subtle, but overt—and illegal—discrimin against women in the workplace remains an issue. Companies somet still unguardedly state a gender preference for some positions—such Hostile work environments are a form of discrimination that can shape careers. Women leaders are still perceived as masculine and are sometimes negatively stereotyped as “lesbians.” “Microaggressions” to describe small mean- spirited acts, such as exclusion and low-level verbal harassment. Many women’s experiences in business, education, and politics are profoundly affected by sexual harassment.
  30. 30. the status quo is holding women back from leadership roles, it is holding men back from embracing caretaking and support roles. LACK OF EFFECTIVE NETWORKS AND MENTORS Access to influential networks is critical to moving up the leadership hierar- chy. Some studies have found that the social capital gained from networking with influential leaders is even more important for advancement than job performance (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Hewlett et al., 2010). Research suggests that, although women and men are equally likely to have mentors, women may benefit less than men from this arrangement, especially in the areas of salary and promotions. More recently, scholars have focused on sponsor- ship, a form of mentorship in which sponsors share both status and oppor- tunity. For example, sponsors can co-author articles, provide key contacts, share important meeting opportunities, and actively seek out future career opportunities. This influential and specific professional relationship has been shown to be more effective than traditional mentorship (Catalyst, 2011). Women of color aspiring to leadership positions face unique challenges in finding a sponsor. Compared with white men, women and men of color have limited access to social networks that can provide information about jobs, promotions, professional advice, resources, and expertise. In addition, the lives of women of color outside of work are less likely to overlap with those of influential managers, who tend to be white. White women are more likely to live in the same neighborhoods, send their children to the same schools, and participate in the same community organizations as the power- ful men in their workplace. For women of color, networking requires more effort. Women are generally considered to have strong communication skills, so it Access to influential networks is critical to moving up the leadership hierarchy. Some studies have found that the social capital gained from networking with influential leaders is even more important for advancement than job performance (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Hewlett et al., 2010). More recently, scholars have focused on sponsorship, a form of mentorship in which sponsors share both status and opportunity. 15AAUW WHAT EXPLAINS THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? s there still a dearth of women leaders in the United States? Are there ough qualified candidates? Is there still discrimination against women s? Are women simply choosing to prioritize family over career? uestion can be posed another, equally important way: Why are men presented in leadership roles? Are they not qualified for or interested er kinds of work? Is there still discrimination against men who are not s? Are men simply choosing to prioritize career over family? nal choices are never made in a vacuum. Organizational, cultural, mic, and policy barriers shape both men’s and women’s choices and tunities. Women’s underrepresentation in leadership has been framed eficit in which something is holding women back from becoming s. Initially described as a glass ceiling—the symbolic wall women hit -management levels—barriers to women’s advancement can also be ht of as a labyrinth. Alice Eagly and Linda Carli (2007) proposed this pt to describe how, all along the way, women confront distinct barriers ymie or derail their progress. dless of metaphor, one thing is clear: Women are not simply denied adership opportunities at the culmination of a long career. Rather,
  31. 31. The women reported a lack of understanding and support from family and colleagues, as well as different expectations for themselves and their male peers. 18 Barriers and Bias whereas the “president’s wife” is (Oguntoyinbo, 2014). CAREGIVING AND WOMEN’S “CHOICES” Balancing work and family responsibilities is one of the most challenging obstacles for women seeking leadership positions (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Sandberg, 2013), and it can be especially daunting for the millions of work- ing women raising children on their own (Hess & Kelly, 2015). Women are usually the primary (if not the only) parent caring for children and other family members during their peak years in the workforce. They are more likely than men to work irregularly and spend time out of the workforce (Rose & Hartmann, 2008), and they are more likely to work part time (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2016). They also take more time off for fam- ily commitments than men do (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015c). Moreover, women (and men) may feel deeply conflicted about leaving theirBalancing work and family responsibilities is one of the most challenging obstacles for women seeking leadership positions (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Sandberg, 2013), and it can be especially daunting for the millions of working women raising children on their own (Hess & Kelly, 2015). Women are usually the primary (if not the only) parent caring for children and other family members during their peak years in the workforce. Differences in women’s and men’s earnings also contribute to the leadership gap. 15AAUW WHAT EXPLAINS THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? s there still a dearth of women leaders in the United States? Are there ough qualified candidates? Is there still discrimination against women s? Are women simply choosing to prioritize family over career? uestion can be posed another, equally important way: Why are men presented in leadership roles? Are they not qualified for or interested er kinds of work? Is there still discrimination against men who are not s? Are men simply choosing to prioritize career over family? nal choices are never made in a vacuum. Organizational, cultural, mic, and policy barriers shape both men’s and women’s choices and tunities. Women’s underrepresentation in leadership has been framed eficit in which something is holding women back from becoming s. Initially described as a glass ceiling—the symbolic wall women hit -management levels—barriers to women’s advancement can also be ht of as a labyrinth. Alice Eagly and Linda Carli (2007) proposed this pt to describe how, all along the way, women confront distinct barriers ymie or derail their progress. dless of metaphor, one thing is clear: Women are not simply denied adership opportunities at the culmination of a long career. Rather,
  32. 32. The gender imbalance in leadership is both a women’s issue and a men’s issue. Being a leader is not inherently valuable or desirable. Leadership roles can be time consuming and often require great responsibility, which can cause a great deal of stress and leave littleroom for other priorities. Just as the status quo is holding women back from leadership roles, it is holding men back from embracing caretaking and support roles. 15AAUW WHAT EXPLAINS THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? s there still a dearth of women leaders in the United States? Are there ough qualified candidates? Is there still discrimination against women s? Are women simply choosing to prioritize family over career? uestion can be posed another, equally important way: Why are men presented in leadership roles? Are they not qualified for or interested er kinds of work? Is there still discrimination against men who are not s? Are men simply choosing to prioritize career over family? nal choices are never made in a vacuum. Organizational, cultural, mic, and policy barriers shape both men’s and women’s choices and tunities. Women’s underrepresentation in leadership has been framed eficit in which something is holding women back from becoming s. Initially described as a glass ceiling—the symbolic wall women hit -management levels—barriers to women’s advancement can also be ht of as a labyrinth. Alice Eagly and Linda Carli (2007) proposed this pt to describe how, all along the way, women confront distinct barriers ymie or derail their progress. dless of metaphor, one thing is clear: Women are not simply denied adership opportunities at the culmination of a long career. Rather,
  33. 33. Stereotypes and bias affect how we see ourselves, as well as how we see others. • For example, there is a self-confidence gap between women and men (Schuh et al., 2014). • Whereas men are socialized to be confident, assertive, and self- promoting, cultural attitudes toward women as leaders continue to suggest to women that it is often inappropriate or undesirable to possess those characteristics (Enloe, 2004; Flammang, 1997). • Women’s tendency to diminish and undervalue their professional skills and achievements is in place by adolescence. • At the same time, male students overestimate their skills and female students underestimate theirs relative to objective indicators of competence (Pajares & Schunk, 2001; Wigeld et al., 1996). • In other words, both men and women miss the mark when it comes to self-evaluation. • These kinds of errors can result in lost opportunities, wasted time, and poor choices.
  34. 34. Stereotype Threat • Stereotype threat arises when people become aware that they are negatively stereotyped in their current role or activity. • Negative stereotypes affect individuals’ performance when they attempt difficult tasks in the domains in which they are negatively stereotyped (Logel et al., 2012; Hoyt et al., 2010). • Stereotype threat can reduce working memory and, because of its relation- ship with stress, anxiety, and disengagement, can lead to a wide variety of negative attitudes and behaviors (Hoyt & Blascovich, 2010).
  35. 35. • If women are assertive, it can be seen as aggressive. "It's a Catch-22," says SonyaRhodes, Ph.D., a psychotherapist and author of new book"The Alpha Woman Meets Her Match." "Whatever women do at work, they have to do it nicely.But the more you back off,the more they don't take you seriously." Women have to walk a thin linebetween being too nice and too forceful. • When women are successful, they're often called "bitchy" and seen as less likable.In one well-known 2003 study,business students were given two identical resumes, one using thename Heidi and the other Howard."Howard was judged as terrifically competent, but Heidi was judged as bitchy," says Rivers. When the experiment was repeated 10 years later, the woman was found to be slightly morelikable but less trustworthy than theman. • Women are more likely to get lower initial offers. In another study using identical resumes, female scientists were offered a starting salary of $26,500,and men were offered $30,200."Hiring managers will offer a slightly lower salary because they thinkthey can get away with it," says Rhodes. And because women are often so grateful to get theposition,she says they are less likely to negotiatethe offer, which compounds and perpetuates the cycle of lower pay. • Women are less likely to get credit in group projects. When men and women work together,the men are more likely to get the credit — even if shedid the bulk of the work and he's junior,says Rivers. It may be a combination of men being assumed more competent andwomen not actively taking credit for their work. "Women undersell themselves, and people undersell women," adds Rhodes.
  36. 36. • Women are assumed to be incompetent until they prove themselves. As Linda Hudson, former CEO of security and defense company BAE Systems, recently told the authors of "The Confidence Code": "I think the environment is such that even in the position I am now, everyone's first impression is that I'm not qualified to do the job. When a man walks into a room, they're assumed to be competent until they prove otherwise." Women, however, are automatically assumed to be incompetent. • Women get promoted on performance, and men get promoted on potential. Research shows that women must prove that they are capable of succeeding in a role before they are promoted into it, whereas men may be promoted on their perceived potential. That means men often move up faster in organizations. "When a men walks in the door, he gets the benefit of male stereotypes," says Rivers. • Talkative men are seen as competent, and talkative women as incompetent. A study comparing the volubility of powerful men and women found that male leaders talk more— and with good reason. When men and women talked the same amount, she was seen as significantly less competent and less suited to leadership.
  37. 37. Unconscious bias • When women show anger, they are often judged as too emotional. Research shows that both men and women think women should be nice and kind and nurturing, says Rivers, and that men should be strong. When men show anger it looks like strength,but when women do the same, they are perceived as too emotional and out of control. "These stereotypes are deeply ingrained," she says. • Men get a fatherhood bonus, and women a motherhood penalty. While employers believe men will put more effort into succeeding at work once they become fathers, they believe women will direct more effort towards their kids. "The minute women become mothers, the attitude towards them changes," Rivers says. "When women become mothers, they suffer financially. Women make significantly less over a lifetime."
  38. 38. Unconscious bias • Women are often interrupted or ignored in meetings. Especially when there are only one or two women around the table, their voices can easily go unheard. Rhodes says it's very common that others may interrupt them, finish their sentences, or not give them the focus and subtle encouragement to continue. More frustrating is when a woman offers her idea, and no one responds. Then, a few minutes later, a man in the room presents the same idea, and only then is it heard and received well. When Beth Brooke, global vice chair at Ernst & Young, experienced this at a board meeting, she pulled the leader aside to mention it, and he hadn't even noticed that it happened. • When speaking in public, women have to take command of a room. Women presenters at male-dominated events have a harder time getting the attention of the room, says Rhodes. For example, one of her clients, a woman in her late 20s who works for a financial company, says when she stands up to give a presentation, she can't get the guys to settle down. "Women don't command that kind of attention," she says. "They have to take control." • Women may not be invited to social events. Getting together to drink, watch the game, or play sports is typically how social bonds are formed at the office and when valuable information, like who's position might be opening up or how to get in the graces of a certain boss, is shared. When women aren't included in these events, says Rhodes, it can marginalize them and limit their knowledge.
  39. 39. Unconscious bias • Women are judged more harshly on their appearance. • In a major survey conducted by the Center for Talent Innovation and detailed in the book "Executive Presence," senior executives listed twice as many appearance blunders committed by women than men. Additionally, women were judged more harshly. For example, a woman might be seen as lacking leadership skills if she's overweight, while a man receives the same judgment if obese.
  40. 40. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work The overall picture from female managers is one of a relative lack of career ambition or expectation, coupled with lower levels of confidence and self-esteem.
  41. 41. Lower ambitions and expectations • In summary, the research reveals that women managers are impeded in their careers by lower ambitions and expectations. Compared to their male counterparts, they tend to lack self-belief and confidence – which leads to a cautious approach to career opportunities – and follow a less straightforward career path. The higher expectations and increased confidence of male managers propel them into management roles on average three years earlier than women. • We found that at the outset of their career women have less clarity of career direction than men, and lower career ambitions. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  42. 42. The ambition gap • The career ambitions of women managers also lag behind those of men. • In general, women set their sights lower than men do, and are more likely to limit their ambitions to more junior ranks of management. • Fewer women than men expect to reach a general manager or director level by the end of their careers. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  43. 43. High expectations of leadership and management role Low or no expectations of leadership and management role Percentage Figure 6: Levels of confidence and expectations of reaching a leadership or management level Whenyou started work, did you expect to take on a management or leadership role? 0 20 40 60 Higher-confidence women Key Higher-confidence men Lower-confidence women Lower-confidence men 59.0 18.0 67.0 11.0 30.0 38.0 37.0 24.0 0.7 0.5 I have a highlevel of personal confidence and rarely feel any self-doubt I have quite a high level of personal confidence, but occasionally have a few doubts about myself Percentage Figure 5: Confidence How best would you describe your own level of personal confidence? 0 20 40 MenKey Women I feel fairly self-confident but do suffer doubts about myself as well I do tend to lack self-confidence and can feel real doubts about myself Ireallylackself- confidenceandhave severedoubtsabout myself 15.7 53.6 25.3 4.7 4.7 45.1 40.9 8.8 24% of women under 30 expect to start their own business within 10 years Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  44. 44. Female managers also have lower career confidence. • Men are more confident across all age groups, with 70% of men having high or quite high levels of self-confidence, compared to 50% of women. • Half of women managers admit to feelings of self- doubt, but only 31% of men do. • We also found that women with low confidence have lower expectations of reaching a leadership and management role and are actually less likely to achieve their career ambitions. • This lack of confidence is evident in women’s more cautious approach to applying for jobs or promotions. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  45. 45. are childless, compared to 28% of men, shows the difficult choice facing female managers who aspire to senior positions. The Taking charge While women display little expectation of becoming senior managers later in their careers, they are more likely This suggests women increasingly see enterprise as offering greater opportunities than employment, perhaps in terms High expectations of leadership and management role Low or no expectations of leadership and management role Percentage Figure 6: Levels of confidence and expectations of reaching a leadership or management level Whenyou started work, did you expect to take on a management or leadership role? 0 20 40 60 Higher-confidence women Key Higher-confidence men Lower-confidence women Lower-confidence men 59.0 18.0 67.0 11.0 30.0 38.0 37.0 24.0 0.7 0.5 I have a highlevel of personal confidence and rarely feel any self-doubt I have quite a high level of personal confidence, but occasionally have a few doubts about myself Percentage Figure 5: Confidence How best would you describe your own level of personal confidence? 0 20 40 MenKey Women I feel fairly self-confident but do suffer doubts about myself as well I do tend to lack self-confidence and can feel real doubts about myself Ireallylackself- confidenceandhave severedoubtsabout myself 15.7 53.6 25.3 4.7 4.7 45.1 40.9 8.8 24of women under 30 expect to start their own business within 10 years Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  46. 46. Career leaves • Women are also more likely than men to voluntarily step off the career ladder, impeding their progress: – 42% had taken statutory maternity leave, and 21% had left work to care for children; – only 9% of men had taken paternity leave, and just 2% had left work to care for children. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  47. 47. Women in the Workplace 2016
  48. 48. Women in the Workplace 2016
  49. 49. Women in the Workplace 2016
  50. 50. Women in the Workplace 2016
  51. 51. A closer look at the corporate pipeline Based on employee pipeline data from 132 companies, two broad themes emerge this year: (1 ) On average, women are promoted and hired at lower rates than men, so far fewer women become senior leaders. (2) At more senior levels, we see women shift from line to staff roles, so very few end up on the path to becoming CEO. 4 | WOMEN IN THE WORKPLACE: CORPORATE PIPELINE Women in the Workplace 2016
  52. 52. as directors—and more than three times as many are hired as SVPs. women from the outside than men, and this is especially pronounced in senior management. However, there is reason for optimism. The percentage of women being promoted into middle and senior management is higher than the percentage of women currently at those levels. If this pattern holds over time, the representation of mid- and senior-level women will slowly increase. GAP IN RATE OF FIRST PROMOTIONS FOR EVERY 100 WOMEN PROMOTED TO MANAGER, 130 MEN ARE PROMOTED WOMEN MEN Women in the Workplace 2016
  53. 53. Women in the Workplace 2016
  54. 54. 7 Includes respondents who feel this “often” or “very often” applies to them. 8 Includes respondents who reported they have received this opportunity in the past two years. 9 Includes respondents who “agree” or “strongly agree” with this statement. meaningfully in meetings7 challenging assignment8 49% 54% Are turned to for input on important decisions7 56% 63% Believe their contributions are appropriately valued7 54% 44% The best opportunities go to the most deserving employees9 They have the same opportunity for growth as their peers9 Their gender will make it harder to get a raise, promotion, or chance to get ahead % OF WOMEN AND MEN WHO THINK . . . 61% 54% 12% 33% . . . AND ARE MORE LIKELY TO QUESTION THE FAIRNESS OF THE WORKPLACEWomen in the Workplace 2016
  55. 55. average are less likely to be promoted. The bad news is that women who negotiate10 are disproportionately penalized for it. They are 30 percent more likely than men who negotiate to receive feedback that they are “intimidating,” “too aggressive,” or “bossy” and 67 percent more likely than women who don’t negotiate to receive the same negative feedback. Moreover, despite lobbying for promotions at similar rates, women are on average less likely to be promoted than men. HOW OFTEN WOMEN AND MEN NEGOTIATE—AND THE RESULTING PUSHBACK11 WOMEN MEN % OF WOMEN AND MEN WHO . . . 39% 36% Lobbied for a promotion or new assignment12 29% 27% Asked for an increase in compensation12 30 23 “BOSSY” “AGGRESSIVE” “INTIMIDATING” 30% 23% % OF WOMEN AND MEN WHO NEGOTIATED AND RECEIVED FEEDBACK THAT THEY WERE . . . 10 Women who say they lobbied for a promotion or an increase in their compensation in the last two years. 11 Based on employees’ self-reported experiences. 12 In the past 2 years. Women in the Workplace 2016
  56. 56. Women in the Workplace 2016
  57. 57. Women in the Workplace 2016
  58. 58. Women anticipate a steeper path to the top. Women who aspire to become a top executive are less likely to think they’ll get there than men with the same aspiration—and more likely to worry they won’t be able to manage work and family commitments. Women and men also see many of the same benefits of becoming a top executive, including higher compensation and more opportunities to mentor, with one important exception: men see greater potential to impact the business. This could be rooted in the different experiences women and men are having in the workplace. Women may not think their ideas and contributions carry the same weight as men’s. GAP IN LEADERSHIP AMBITION WOMEN MEN % OF WOMEN AND MEN WHO WANT TO BE A TOP EXECUTIVE AND BELIEVE IT’S LIKELY THEY’LL BECOME ONE 32% 24% % OF WOMEN AND MEN WHO WANT TO . . . Get promoted to the next level Become a top executive 80% 74% 56% 40% Women in the Workplace 2016
  59. 59. Men will also benefit from a broader definition of leadership Creating a more inclusive workplace is important for women and men. Only about half of men say their companies embrace diverse leadership styles, and the reasons men point to as barriers to advancement are telling. Twenty-one percent of men don’t want to be a top executive because it’s not consistent with who they are as a person, while almost a third of men who aspire to reach the top don’t think they’ll make it because they lack “the typical style of a top executive.” WHY WOMEN AND MEN DON’T WANT TO BE A TOP EXECUTIVE WOMEN MEN I wouldn’t be able to balance family and work commitments Too much politics I am not interested in that type of work I don’t want the pressure Not enough benefits for the personal costs It’s not consistent with who I am I’m not confident that I would be successful 42% 42% 39% 40% 35% 37% 32% 21% 21% 21% 15% 21% 13% 13% Women in the Workplace 2016
  60. 60. People who do more work at home are less interested in becoming top executives At every stage in their careers, women do more housework and child care than men—and there appears to be a link between the amount of work people do at home and their leadership ambition. While 43 percent of women who share responsibilities evenly with their partner aspire to become top executives, only 34 percent of women who do a majority of housework and child care have the same aspiration. This trend holds true for men: the more work they do at home, the less interested they are in very senior leadership. Women in senior management are seven times more likely than men at the same level to say they do more than half of the housework. People who do more work at home are less interested in becoming top executives At every stage in their careers, women do more housework and child care than men—and there appears to be a link between the amount of work people do at home and their leadership ambition. While 43 percent of women who share responsibilities evenly with their partner aspire to become top executives, only 34 percent of women who do a majority of housework and child care have the same aspiration. This trend holds true for men: the more work they do at home, the less interested they are in very senior leadership. Women in senior management are seven times more likely than men at the same level to say they do more than half of the housework. Women in the Workplace 2016
  61. 61. Means placing a lower priority on individual performance Means favoritism to some people over others Other more pressing issues require attention Diversity efforts highlight differences, not commonalities I don’t see the value 44% 53% 27% 44% 28% 24% 20% 23% 20% 18% TOP 5 REASONS WHY EMPLOYEES DON’T PRIORITIZE GENDER DIVERSITY % OF EMPLOYEES WHO THINK GENDER DIVERSITY IS AN IMPORTANT PERSONAL PRIORITY 48% ENTRY LEVEL 54% MIDDLE MANAGEMENT SENIOR MANAGEMENT 62% ALL EMPLOYEES 52% COMPANIES ARE STRUGGLING TO PUT THEIR COMMITMENT INTO PRACTICE . . . WOMEN MEN % OF EMPLOYEES WHO OFTEN OR ALMOST ALWAYS OBSERVE PRACTICES TO IMPROVE GENDER DIVERSITY Senior leaders communicate the importance of gender diversity Senior leaders encourage candid, open dialogue on gender diversity Senior leaders are held accountable for improving gender diversity Progress on gender diversity is measured and shared across the company Managers are recognized for making progress on gender diversity 24% 38% 24% 34% 29% 36% 18% 26% 7% 12% 50% % OF EMPLOYEES WHO OFTEN OR ALMOST ALWAYS SEE PRACTICES INTENDED TO IMPROVE GENDER DIVERSITY . . . AND MANY EMPLOYEES ARE NOT ON BOARD WOMEN MEN 100% Women in the Workplace 2016
  62. 62. consistently applied criteria to evaluate performance, but only 57 percent of employees report managers do this in practice. Companies should review their policies for hiring, promotions, and performance reviews to make sure there aren’t any gaps in these end-to-end processes and look for opportunities to further reduce bias and foster diversity. For example, blind résumé reviews are a relatively simple way to minimize bias, yet only 4 percent of companies say they do this. promotions, yet fewer than half of companies require diverse slates of candidates. POLICIES THAT COMPANIES HAVE IN PLACE COMPANIES EMPLOYEES 91% 56% Clear and consistently applied criteria for evaluating candidates 73% 46% 16% 93% 37% 58% 76% Review of job descriptions for biased language Dedicated outreach to underrepresented groups Mandated slates of diverse candidates for new hires Clear and consistently applied criteria for performance reviews Mandated slates of diverse candidates for internal positions Third-party review of performance feedback to ensure fairness Formal process for dispute resolution in the review process HIRING POLICIES PERFORMANCE REVIEW POLICIES COMPANIES THAT SAY THEY USE CLEAR CRITERIA VS. EMPLOYEES WHO SEE THEM IN PRACTICE15 93% 57% % OF COMPANIES WITH POLICIES IN PLACE 15 Includes companies that report they use clear and consistently applied criteria for performance reviews versus employees who report that managers often or almost always evaluate employee performance using standardized, clear, and objective metrics. Women in the Workplace 2016
  63. 63. of companies offer anti-harassment/discrimination training, far fewer offer employees bias training for hiring (67 percent) and performance reviews (56 percent). When employees don’t understand how bias works, they are less likely to make fair and accurate decisions and push back on bias when they see it. As evidence of this, only 24 percent of employees report that managers regularly challenge gender-biased language and behavior. A LACK OF KNOWLEDGE LEADS TO A LACK OF ACTION % OF EMPLOYEES WHO SAY THEY SEE MANAGERS CHALLENGE GENDER-BIASED LANGUAGE OR BEHAVIOR16 24% % OF MANAGERS WHO SAY THEY KNOW WHAT TO DO TO IMPROVE GENDER DIVERSITY 51% 16 Based on employees who report that managers often or almost always challenge gender-biased language or behavior. MANAGERS EMPLOYEES Women in the Workplace 2016
  64. 64. Although most companies track metrics on women’s representation, targets are far less common. Only 44 percent of companies set pipeline targets, and even fewer set targets for external hiring and promotions. And targets matter—it is easier to track and make progress when a company has clear goals in place. % OF COMPANIES THAT TRACK . . . COMPANIES THAT TRACK GENDER METRICS COMPANIES 91% 79% Gender representation by level 60% 58% 34% Attrition by gender Gender representation at promotion rounds Salary differences in comparable positions by gender Bonuses in comparable positions by gender 15% Assignment of high-visibility projects by gender 72% Gender representation of external candidates for hire Women in the Workplace 2016
  65. 65. Women in the Workplace 2016
  66. 66. Women in the Workplace 2016
  67. 67. Women in the Workplace 2016
  68. 68. Which strategies follow to get more women at the top? Time will not solve the gender leadership gap; action will.
  69. 69. 117 years until gender parity? Put gender on your agenda. In its Global Gender Parity Report 2015, the World Economic Forum estimates it will take 117 years to achieve gender parity in the workplace. How can we accelerate this pace? We surveyed men and women leaders from 400 companies around the world to help illuminate the way forward and blended their recommendations with our experience to create the following accelerators. Accommodate work/life integration for all Speed up company culture change with progressive corporate policy for advancement, make role models visible and set leadership pipeline programs and targets Make a difference through tone-at-the- top, sponsorship for promotions and education about conscious and unconscious bias Build supportive environments Illuminate the path to leadership Accelerators How © 2016 EYGM Limited. All Rights Reserved. EYG no. EX0263 ED none Women. Fast forward Eighty years until gender parity? Pledge your support to speed up the clock. #WomenFastForward ey.com/womenfastforward Three accelerators for women in the workplace How you can take action today: • Visit us online at ey.com/womenfastforward • Tweet using #WomenFastForward • Follow the story on Flipboard • Join the conversation on LinkedIn linkedIn.com/company/ women-fast-forward • Visit internationalwomensday.com
  70. 70. 35AAUW There is no magic bullet to solve the leadership gap, but this problem does not require magic. There are many commonsense steps we can take as individuals, employers, and policy makers to create significant change. Drawing from the research examined in this report, we offer the following recommendations. INDIVIDUALS Become a student of leadership. There are thousands of academic and popular books, journals, and webi- nars for women seeking leadership roles in business, politics, education, and a host of other fields. This report does not endorse any particular approach; instead, we recommend that women immerse themselves in the leadership literature most relevant to their own career paths. Seek evidence-based leadership training. Focused, interactive training can be empowering when implemented well. For example, AAUW’s Elect Her program trains college women to run for office on campus and beyond. AAUW also holds an annual National Con- ference for College Women Student Leaders, which brings together nearly 1,000 women to hone their leadership skills, learn about public policy issues facing women today, participate in a career and graduate school fair, and network with the AAUW community. Seek out employers that promote women’s leadership. Before you join a company, take a look around: Do you see women and people of color in leadership roles? Blazing a trail is a possibility, but it can be challenging. Look for volunteer opportunities that include leadership skill development. This report focuses on positional leadership, but there are many types of leadership. Volunteer leaders have been involved in building schools, librar- ies, and hospitals; they have fought for civil rights and advocated for children and the poor. Volunteering can be a wonderful way to develop your leader- ship skills while helping to make a difference in the world. EMPLOYERS Offer flexible schedules. Some jobs do require fixed times and places. But employers can change the default rules that govern offices and many other workplaces so that all employees have the flexibility to work at times and places that mesh with 35AAUW HOW DO WE CLOSE THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? There is no magic bullet to solve the leadership gap, but this problem does not require magic. There are many commonsense steps we can take as individuals, employers, and policy makers to create significant change. Drawing from the research examined in this report, we offer the following recommendations. INDIVIDUALS Become a student of leadership. There are thousands of academic and popular books, journals, and webi- nars for women seeking leadership roles in business, politics, education, and a host of other fields. This report does not endorse any particular approach; instead, we recommend that women immerse themselves in the leadership literature most relevant to their own career paths. Seek evidence-based leadership training. Focused, interactive training can be empowering when implemented well. For example, AAUW’s Elect Her program trains college women to run for office on campus and beyond. AAUW also holds an annual National Con- ference for College Women Student Leaders, which brings together nearly 1,000 women to hone their leadership skills, learn about public policy issues facing women today, participate in a career and graduate school fair, and network with the AAUW community.
  71. 71. 36 Barriers and Bias Ask for more. Learn and practice negotiation skills to ensure that salaries and benefits start fair and stay fair. AAUW Start Smart and AAUW Work Smart salary nego- tiation workshops teach women effective techniques to negotiate their salary and benefits at different stages of their careers. Find a sponsor or become one. Investing in the next generation of leaders takes time and effort. Be on the lookout for opportunities to learn from people in leadership positions, and as you advance in your field, make it your responsibility to invest in future leaders. Explore and address your biases. We all have implicit biases that are in conflict with our conscious beliefs. Find out about your biases and learn some practical tips for avoiding the mental shortcuts that can lead to unfounded judgments. Visit the AAUW website and take our gender and leadership Implicit Association Test. Understand stereotype threat. Simply knowing about stereotype threat can help diminish its effect on you. Role models can be helpful in countering stereotypes. Encouraging a “growth mindset” in yourself—that is, the belief that your mind is always learning and growing—can serve as a defense against the notion of fixed capabilities, which is at the core of stereotype threat. Set leadership goals. When women don’t meet all the qualifications for a position, they are less likely than men to pursue it. Even if you don’t want to pursue leadership roles at this stage of your life, look ahead to opportunities that are on the horizon. Plan for potential career interruptions. Work-family balance can be difficult for anyone to achieve. Although women are still more likely than men to handle the housework and care- giving, men are increasingly taking on these roles. Taking time out of the workforce can be the right decision for both men and women. 35AAUW HOW DO WE CLOSE THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? There is no magic bullet to solve the leadership gap, but this problem does not require magic. There are many commonsense steps we can take as individuals, employers, and policy makers to create significant change. Drawing from the research examined in this report, we offer the following recommendations. INDIVIDUALS Become a student of leadership. There are thousands of academic and popular books, journals, and webi- nars for women seeking leadership roles in business, politics, education, and a host of other fields. This report does not endorse any particular approach; instead, we recommend that women immerse themselves in the leadership literature most relevant to their own career paths. Seek evidence-based leadership training. Focused, interactive training can be empowering when implemented well. For example, AAUW’s Elect Her program trains college women to run for office on campus and beyond. AAUW also holds an annual National Con- ference for College Women Student Leaders, which brings together nearly 1,000 women to hone their leadership skills, learn about public policy issues facing women today, participate in a career and graduate school fair, and network with the AAUW community.
  72. 72. 37AAUW and the poor. Volunteering can be a wonderful way to develop your leader- ship skills while helping to make a difference in the world. EMPLOYERS Offer flexible schedules. Some jobs do require fixed times and places. But employers can change the default rules that govern offices and many other workplaces so that all employees have the flexibility to work at times and places that mesh with family caretaking responsibilities. Schedule conferences and important meet- ings during core working hours to accommodate employees’ personal needs. Focus on productivity, not face time. The notion that “face time” (arriving at work early and leaving late) and frequent travel will prime employees to become effective leaders is simply misplaced. When managers focus on and recognize employees’ contribu- tions rather than watching the clock, productivity and morale may improve. Offer evidence-based diversity training. Diversity training programs should reflect best practices. While there are many programs available, employers should look for those that take into account the latest evidence-based findings about bias and stereotypes. Actively encourage sponsorship programs. While mentoring programs can be useful, sponsorship involves the sharing of credibility and standing in the field. Design better human resource materials. Bias affects different groups differently, and too often practices do not reflect individuals’ real experience of gender, racial, and ethnic bias. Policies and programs designed to reduce bias, such as blind review of résumés, can limit bias in crucial aspects of the hiring process. POLICY MAKERS Tackle persistent sex discrimination. The gender imbalance in leadership can only be solved by creating an equitable workplace. Enforcement agencies like the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the U.S. Department of Justice need adequate resources to enforce existing civil rights laws so that employers can get the technical assistance they need and employees can get meaningful access to the protections they deserve. Strengthen pay equity laws. 35AAUW HOW DO WE CLOSE THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? There is no magic bullet to solve the leadership gap, but this problem does not require magic. There are many commonsense steps we can take as individuals, employers, and policy makers to create significant change. Drawing from the research examined in this report, we offer the following recommendations. INDIVIDUALS Become a student of leadership. There are thousands of academic and popular books, journals, and webi- nars for women seeking leadership roles in business, politics, education, and a host of other fields. This report does not endorse any particular approach; instead, we recommend that women immerse themselves in the leadership literature most relevant to their own career paths. Seek evidence-based leadership training. Focused, interactive training can be empowering when implemented well. For example, AAUW’s Elect Her program trains college women to run for office on campus and beyond. AAUW also holds an annual National Con- ference for College Women Student Leaders, which brings together nearly 1,000 women to hone their leadership skills, learn about public policy issues facing women today, participate in a career and graduate school fair, and network with the AAUW community.
  73. 73. 38 Barriers and Bias Design better human resource materials. Bias affects different groups differently, and too often practices do not reflect individuals’ real experience of gender, racial, and ethnic bias. Policies and programs designed to reduce bias, such as blind review of résumés, can limit bias in crucial aspects of the hiring process. POLICY MAKERS Tackle persistent sex discrimination. The gender imbalance in leadership can only be solved by creating an equitable workplace. Enforcement agencies like the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the U.S. Department of Justice need adequate resources to enforce existing civil rights laws so that employers can get the technical assistance they need and employees can get meaningful access to the protections they deserve. Strengthen pay equity laws. Passage of the Paycheck Fairness Act would create incentives for employers to follow the law, empower women to negotiate for equal pay, and enforce the laws we already have. State and local policy makers can follow the lead of states like California and Massachusetts and strengthen their state’s equal pay provisions. Increase salary transparency. The federal government is helping to fight the pay gap by making sure federal contractors do not retaliate against employees who share salary information. In addition, the U.S. Department of Labor and the EEOC must finalize and implement new regulations to collect wage data by gender and race from employers. These data will provide better insight into the wage gap and discriminatory pay practices that hold women back across industries and occupations. 35AAUW HOW DO WE CLOSE THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? There is no magic bullet to solve the leadership gap, but this problem does not require magic. There are many commonsense steps we can take as individuals, employers, and policy makers to create significant change. Drawing from the research examined in this report, we offer the following recommendations. INDIVIDUALS Become a student of leadership. There are thousands of academic and popular books, journals, and webi- nars for women seeking leadership roles in business, politics, education, and a host of other fields. This report does not endorse any particular approach; instead, we recommend that women immerse themselves in the leadership literature most relevant to their own career paths. Seek evidence-based leadership training. Focused, interactive training can be empowering when implemented well. For example, AAUW’s Elect Her program trains college women to run for office on campus and beyond. AAUW also holds an annual National Con- ference for College Women Student Leaders, which brings together nearly 1,000 women to hone their leadership skills, learn about public policy issues facing women today, participate in a career and graduate school fair, and network with the AAUW community.
  74. 74. Strengthen leave policies. While some employers choose to provide these protections as a benefit to some or all employees, many U.S. workers do not have guaranteed paid annual leave, paid time off for illness or family care, or paid parental leave. Without these policies, caregiving responsibilities can hinder women’s career trajectories and leadership opportunities. The Family and Medical Insur- ance Leave Act would establish paid medical and parental leave for all workers, and the Healthy Families Act would allow workers to earn paid sick days to cover temporary and minor illnesses and caregiving. State and local policy makers can also pass laws that set these standards for all workers. Update laws to protect pregnant workers. Pregnancy should not prevent a woman from pursuing her career. The Pregnant Workers Fairness Act would require employers to make reasonable accommodations to protect the health of pregnant workers and ensure that they are not forced out of their jobs or denied leadership opportunities. Support educational programs for women seeking high-wage jobs. Jobs that have been traditionally held by men tend to be in high-wage, high- growth fields. Educational programs that provide bias-free counseling and promote gender equity can encourage effective workplace culture change. Fully enforce Title IX. Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in education, including discriminatory policies in admissions, recruitment, counseling, and athletics and in address- ing the persistent sexual harassment and violence in our schools. These factors all limit women’s ability to complete their education and pursue lead- ership opportunities. The U.S. Department of Education needs adequate funding to provide technical assistance and to fully enforce the law. The High School Data Transparency Act would help schools, parents, students, and community members ensure the promise of Title IX by making infor- mation about gender and sports in high schools publicly available. 35AAUW HOW DO WE CLOSE THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? There is no magic bullet to solve the leadership gap, but this problem does not require magic. There are many commonsense steps we can take as individuals, employers, and policy makers to create significant change. Drawing from the research examined in this report, we offer the following recommendations. INDIVIDUALS Become a student of leadership. There are thousands of academic and popular books, journals, and webi- nars for women seeking leadership roles in business, politics, education, and a host of other fields. This report does not endorse any particular approach; instead, we recommend that women immerse themselves in the leadership literature most relevant to their own career paths. Seek evidence-based leadership training. Focused, interactive training can be empowering when implemented well. For example, AAUW’s Elect Her program trains college women to run for office on campus and beyond. AAUW also holds an annual National Con- ference for College Women Student Leaders, which brings together nearly 1,000 women to hone their leadership skills, learn about public policy issues facing women today, participate in a career and graduate school fair, and network with the AAUW community.
  75. 75. HAVE ANY STRATEGIES ALREADY HELPED NARROW THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? Training Implicit Association Testing Gender Quotas and Hiring Goals Employment Practice Reforms Role Models HOW DO WE CLOSE THE GENDER LEADERSHIP GAP? Individuals Employers 27 27 30 31 31 32 35 35 37
  76. 76. Exposure to counterstereotypical role models can actually reduce the effects of stereotypical thinking • Women’s advancement is strongly linked to board gender diversity (Skaggs et al., 2012). • When women are in top leadership positions, women are more likely to be promoted to leadership.
  77. 77. Role models and mentors • Frequent, high-quality interactions with successful female role models have been shown to improve college women’s self- concepts of their leadership abilities and career ambitions (Asgari et al., 2012). • Employers can benefit from raising the pro le, voice and visibility of successful women leaders across the organisation as a whole through internal communications, networking and development events, and leveraging their experience to help nurture other women managers. • Mentoring programmes also have an important role to play in raising women managers’ aspirations and self-confidence, and driving their leadership development. Employers should look to identify successful leaders of both sexes to serve as mentors to female managers and provide advice and encouragement based on their own experience, helping them build networks and encouraging them to seize career opportunities. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  78. 78. Employment practice reforms • Research has shown that education alone is not enough to remedy historical inequities in the workplace. For meaningful progress, managers must be held accountable, especially for promoting women and men of color into leader- ship positions (Duguid & Thomas-Hunt, 2015). • Job descriptions using gender-neutral language (so as not to imply that one gender or another is better suited for a position) have also been shown to make a positive di erence (Lennon et al., 2013). • The recommendation process is especially fraught with opportunities for bias.
  79. 79. Coaching confidence • Powerful way to build managers’ self- belief, crystallise career ambitions and encourage them to take measured risks. • Creating a safe setting—a coaching relationship, a women’s leadership program, a support group of peers—in which women can interpret these messages is critical to their leadership identity development. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  80. 80. Talent management • We know that women are more hesitant than men when applying for new positions. While men are willing to take greater risks when applying for stretching jobs, women are more risk averse, preferring to apply for roles where they are satisfied they meet the job description. • To counteract this, organisations should consider structuring their talent management systems to ensure that the most talented individuals – including women managers – are proactively identified and encouraged to apply for leadership positions. • Open advertising for internal positions may not necessarily produce the best person for a role. Personalised development and support programmes for these pre- selected employees can help women set more ambitious goals and stretch assignments, and support and encourage greater risk taking. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  81. 81. Flexible attitudes • Women are far more likely than men to leave the career ladder in order to raise families, pursue education and tackle other interests. This often capsizes women’s careers and places them at a disadvantage when chasing senior leadership and management positions. • An emphasis on ‘anytime, anywhere’ availability and linear career paths is clearly not compatible with the roles many people with family demands are likely to pursue. Flexible working and work-life balance policies have a huge part to play in helping women align a more fragmented career route with senior management responsibilities. Institute of Leadership & Management Ambition and gender at work
  82. 82. Three actions we suggest to support women’s access to leadership positions • Educate women and men about second- generation gender bias, • Create safe “identity workspaces” to support transitions to bigger roles, • Anchor women’s development efforts in a sense of leadership purpose rather than in how women are perceived.
  83. 83. Women in Leadership: Why It MattersWomen in Leadership: Why It Matters
  84. 84. 83% 89% Women 77% Men Total More than 8 in 10 Americans believe that not having women in leadership positions as role models fails to inspire women and has contributed to preventing women from securing top leadership positions. On a more personal note, a striking majority of Americans (81%) say that if a daughter of theirs were to pursue a leadership position in a business of her choice, they would feel confident in her abilities to succeed, and three-quarters (76%, rising to 82% among women) think it would be helpful for her to have female role models in her aspired positions to help her reach her goal. But in reflecting their aware- ness of the barriers facing women in business, just 60% think that it’s realistic that she would actually be able to reach that top position, despite the confidence they personally have in her abilities. Women role models are uniquely important—among those who have had mentors that supported them in the workplace, majorities of men and women alike say their mentor was the same gender as them, suggesting the need for, and potential influence of, more women in top positions. Specifically, among women who had mentors in the workplace, nearly two-thirds (63%) say that their mentor was another woman, rising to 72% among millennial women who have had mentors, Women in leadership offer uniquely important mentorship Women need role models The only way to address and overcome these pre- conceptions and barriers is to have more women in positions of leadership; providing the support and role models women desperately need to advance in their careers, and bringing about much-needed changes in the workplace benefitting both genders. And Americans are on board. Two-thirds (65%) say it’s highly important to them that younger women starting their careers have more women in leadership positions as role models. This desire is especially intense among millennial women (82% of women younger than 35), compared with 74% among women 35-54 years old, and even lower (67%) among women 55 or older. 18-34y/o women 82% 35-54 y/o women74% 55+ y/o women 67% 2/3 of Americans say it is especially important for women starting their careers to have women in leadership positions as role models. There is an appetite and a readiness to change work- place cultures contributing to gender inequities, and Americans believe that businesses have a crucial role to play to impact change. Broad majorities agree that businesses have a responsibility to provide career development resources to their female employees (88%, including 87% of men and 88% of women alike) and to actively recruit women into leadership positions (84%, including 81% of men and 86% of women). Notably, some occupational fields are more hospitable to women leaders than others: Perceived barriers for women are larger in particular sectors, with a majority (62%) of Americans saying that women have fewer opportunities than men in corporate America to serve in leadership positions. Government (55%) and In addition to inspiring and empowering women in their careers, sizable majorities think that having more women in leadership positions would have significant positive impacts in the workplace, including: helping to reduce the pay gap between men and women doing the same work (76%), changing workplace policies in ways that benefit both men and women (74%), and attracting a more diverse workforce (71%). Women in leadership have a positive impact on workplace policies More than 70% of Americans say that having more women in leadership positions would have significant impacts, The presence of women in leadership positions is an important consideration to Americans in choosing where to work—two-thirds (67%) say it’s at least some- what important to them, rising to 76% among women, suggesting that businesses’ efforts would help recruit and retain the talent that is crucial to the success of their organizations.
  85. 85. Portray inspiring stories of women leaders Because you can’t be what you can’t see
  86. 86. First full female crew flying on Ethiopian airlines
  87. 87. Brunei crew landing in Saudi Arabia where women are not allowed to drive
  88. 88. Develop mentoring program
  89. 89. Get career advice
  90. 90. A recruiting website dedicated to female employees in Saudi Arabia
  91. 91. Apres facilitates the reintegration of women in the workforce
  92. 92. Rate the companies
  93. 93. Join a community
  94. 94. Femmes d’Avenir Mediterranee
  95. 95. Find your accelerator
  96. 96. Map the women innovators
  97. 97. Bring up your kids consciously
  98. 98. 4 MAKING CARING COMMON | A Project of the Harvard Graduate School of Education EXECUTIVESUMMARY RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations for parents, educators, and other adults are based on the beliefs that good intentions are not enough to prevent leadership or other types of biases and that biases can’t easily or simply be eliminated. Reducing and preventing biases is a practice that we as adults need to model as well as cultivate in children and teens. 2.Cultivate Family Practices that Prevent and Reduce Bias Biases often take root early in childhood. Parents and other adults can help prevent leadership and other biases from forming in children by developing reflexes and practices in both ourselves and our children that stem gender biases. We can, for example, provide children with gender-neutral toys, games, and clothes and orchestrate tasks and activities in ways that don’t reinforce traditional gender stereotypes. A chore wheel, for example, which boys and girls spin to see who does what family chores, can prevent boys and girls from falling into familiar gender-based family roles. We can ask girls to imagine themselves as senators, sports team managers, and business leaders, and we can ask boys to imagine themselves as child care directors or school arts program directors. We can work to expose girls and boys to culturally diverse women who model constructive leadership. As parents, we can periodically ask teens whether they think their school—or our family—is modeling gender equality and brainstorm with them what they or others might do about perceived inequities and biases. 3.Teach Teens to Spot and Effectively Confront Stereotypes and Discrimination Girls are bombarded with constricting, demeaning images and stereotypes of females both in their daily interactions and in the media and culture that can erode their confidence in their leadership and negatively affect every corner of their lives (Levin & Kilbourne, 2008; Sax, 2010). These images also cultivate and reinforce boys’ biases. Adults need to mobilize girls and boys to both identify and actively combat these biases. We can, for example, ask girls and boys to identify denigrating images and messages in television and games—we might ask teens to count the number of male versus female leaders they see on television. We can brainstorm with children strategies for dealing with their peers’ gender biases, and recognize children who stand up to gender bias. 1. Check your own Biases Preventing gender biases in teens and children means first understanding and managing our own biases. Parents’ and teachers’ biases can deeply influence what they model for children and how they facilitate children’s daily lives. Do we inadvertently reinforce traditional gender roles, assigning girls caretaking tasks more than boys, for instance, or criticizing girls more than boys if they are arrogant or “bossy?” Are we as active in promoting and recognizing assertiveness in girls as we are in boys? Are we modeling nontraditional gender roles? At times it’s also important for us to seek feedback from those we trust and respect about whether we are expressing biases.
  99. 99. Leaning Out | Teen Girls and Leadership Biases 5 7. Use this Report to Spur Discussion Ask teens how they understand the data reported here and facilitate discussions with teens about how to achieve greater gender equity at school and/or in the larger society. Have teens interview each other across gender and racial groups about their aspirations for leadership of various kinds: If you could be a leader, what would you want to be a leader of? Why? For a guide to discussing this report with teenagers, see Appendix B. 4.Don’t Just Let “Boys be Boys.” Girls’ confidence in their leadership and self-worth can be eroded by the degradations they experience in their daily interactions with boys, including sexual harassment and other forms of misogyny. Ironically, at the same time that more teen girls and young women outpace males in school and work, high percentages of young women face degradation in their romantic and sexual relationships (Khazan, 2015; Kimmel, 2009; Hill & Kearl, 2011). Yet too many adults are passive even when these denigrations are in their midst. Adults should be alert to and challenge these affronts by, for example, pointing out to boys the false bravado in degrading girls and the real strength and honor in defying one’s peers when they devalue girls in general or divide girls into “good girls” and “bad girls.” 5.Challenge Teens’ Biased Assumptions and Beliefs Teens’ biases are often explicit and inherent in their basic beliefs. For example, many teens believe that males are better political leaders and females are better child care directors. It’s imperative that adults constructively challenge these beliefs, but this is delicate work, because it’s important not to shame teens who hold these beliefs. Instead, we can, ask teens to consider on what basis these judgments are made and to question the “evidence” supporting these beliefs. 6.Use Programs and Strategies that Build Girls’ Leadership Skills While a wide variety of programs and interventions directly or indirectly foster leadership skills in young girls—and some programs seek to prepare girls specifically for political roles and civic leadership—high percentages of girls don’t participate in these programs or don’t have access to high quality programs. For a list of promising programs and resources, please see Appendix E For a list of the key ingredients of effective programs and strategies, see Appendix A. PHOTOCREDIT:STEVENDEPOLO
  100. 100. SONPREVENTINGANDREDUCINGGENDERBIAS TRY THIS (CONT’): • Help girls develop specific leadership skills. Give girls chances to practice public speaking, to participate in decision-making processes, to work in teams, and to give and receive feedback. Invite them to practice these skills in decisions your family makes, for example, or encourage them to take action on problems they’re concerned about in their schools and communities. • Talk to girls about their fears. Start conversations with girls about the things they feel hold them back from leadership. Model for them that it’s okay to feel nervous or worried about how they’ll be perceived or the reactions they may get when in leadership roles. Explore with girls various strategies for dealing with disapproval and criticism. Consider with girls how they might engage peers as supporters and allies when they face disapproval. • Encourage girls to lead in collaboration with diverse groups of girls. Collaboration and teamwork are essential skills for leadership in today’s workplace, helping to develop social awareness, problem-solving abilities, perspective-taking and other key skills. And working in racial and economically diverse groups can enrich girls’ understandings of different cultures, expose girls to a wide range of leadership styles and abilities, and enable girls to draw on various kinds of cultural wisdom about leadership.
  101. 101. Leadership Tips for Parents Brought to you by LeanIn.Org & Girl Scouts of the USA
  102. 102. 1. Encourage Girls and Boys Equally to Lead THE SITUATION > Parents and grandparents are crucial architects of a girl’s leadership potential. Yet as early as middle school, parents place a higher value on leadership for boys than for girls.3 THE SOLUTION > Reflect on the different messages you may be giving a daughter or son about ambition, future success, and leadership. Parents can legitimize a girl’s most ambitious dreams with acknowledgment and encouragement. Ask your daughter how she would change the world. Invite her to tell you what leadership means to her. Does she see herself as a leader? What are the ways she leads now, and in what ways would she like to lead more in the future? #BANBOSSY banbossy.com girlscouts.org/banbossy DID YOU KNOW? In a comprehensive study of adolescents and their families, parents of seventh graders placed greater importance on leadership for boys thanfor girls.4 4

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