Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Renewable energy considerations for the Bahamas

  • Login to see the comments

  • Be the first to like this

Renewable energy considerations for the Bahamas

  1. 1. RENEWABLE ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE BAHAMAS Charvari Watson Rahming Applied Meteorology November 10th 2015 Solar Panels – Andros Hotel Credits: Bahamas Out Island Promotion Board
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES  Assess the need for an alternative energy resource  Analyze the breakdown of electrical utility market and population in the Bahamas  Discuss the viability of solar energy as an energy resource of choice in the Bahamas  Analyze the implementation of photo voltaic cells and solar parks to the electrical utility market in the family islands, New Providence and Grand Bahama  Propose goals and potential action plan for implementation of solar power in the Bahamas
  3. 3. THE BAHAMAS AND ENERGY RESOURCES Satellite image of the Bahamas: Courtesy of Rolling Harbor Residential Power Line installation: Courtesy of the Seeley family
  4. 4. THE BAHAMAS ENERGY MARKET  Imported oil products accounts for 99% of total energy utilized for energy consumption  44% from heavy fuel  56% from automotive diesel oil  Two electrical utility companies  Bahamas Electricity Corporation – 80%  Grand Bahama Power company – 20%
  5. 5. BAHAMAS ENERGY DISTRIBUTION AND DEMAND  Distributed among 17 island grids  Operates 30 diesel generating plants in 26 Island locations  Capacity = 20MW or less  Energy demand in the Bahamas  7500 kWh per household per year on average  664,588 MWh per year
  6. 6. MARKET SUMMARIES FOR ELECTRICAL PROVIDERS Utility Companies Bahamas Electricity Corporatio n (BEC) Grand Bahama Electricity (GBE) Totals Plants 29 1 30 Capacity (MW) 438 141 579 Peak Demand (MW) 359** 74 433 Percentage of Peak Demand / Capacity(%) 81.96 52.48 74.78 ** Projected Peak Demand By 2013; Represents all Islands Except Grand
  7. 7. NEED FOR ALTERNATE RENEWABLE RESOURCES  Electrical energy produced comes almost exclusively from fossil fuels  Contributor to Green House gas emissions and Global Warming  Contributor to other air pollutant emissions  Electrical grids stressed due to heavy demands from growing market of consumers  High utility prices and fuel surcharge  Increased usage of generators by private homes and companies  Monthly outages 4 times higher than other Caribbean companies
  8. 8. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLUTION Photovoltaic Solar Park, Modi India: Courtesy of Reuters
  9. 9. ENERGY FROM THE SUN  170,000 terawatt hours of energy daily  about 2,850 times the energy required by people around the world.  Amount of energy released from sun in 40 minutes = energy that is consumed by the entire population of the planet in one year.  Amount of energy released from sun in 20 days = All the energy stored in Earth's reserves of coal, oil, and natural gas  Currently harness about 1% of this energy
  10. 10. REVIEW OF PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY  Called solar cells  Energy from photons from sun  Direct transformation of solar radiation energy into electrical energy  Silicon (semi-conductor) or thin film technology  Energy transferred to electrons in solid  Produces electric voltage through movement of electrons
  11. 11. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL Courtesy of: The Finest Solar Company, Berkshire England
  12. 12.  Hypothesis - The Bahamas is able to viably utilize solar radiation for the generation of electrical power. The premise is supported by two variables:  Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) - is the total amount of shortwave radiation received from above by a surface horizontal to the ground.  Technical potential - represents the achievable energy generation of a particular technology given system performance, topographic limitations, environmental, and land-use constraints SOLAR ENERGY – A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLUTION
  13. 13.  Global Horizontal Irradiance= 5.3kWh/m2/day  (less than region’s - 5.5 and higher)  Based on latitude, seasonal and diurnal cycle of the sun  Technical potential = 58 MW/ 58000 kW  Average maximum output of a system, considering limitations GHI AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF SOLAR POWER
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF PHOTO VOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY  Manufacture  Use of hazardous materials  Strong acids, trichloro-ethene and acetone used in cleaning semi conductor surface  Gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride in thin film PV cells  Life-cycle greenhouse emissions from production  0.08 – 0.2 pounds of CO2 equivalent per KWh  Operation  Land degradation  Loss of habitat  Water used for cooling
  15. 15. COST OF IMPLEMENTATION  Solar power plants  $4950 – 11311 per kW  20 MW = $99 million  Based on delivery system, solar multiple, storage and capacity factors  Building integrated solar panels  $8500 – 11000 for 4 kwp system
  16. 16. POTENTIAL SAVINGS  A 20 MW power station will therefore consume about 5,000 litres an hour of fuel.  1321.8 gallons  Diesel fuel costs = $3.81 per gallon  Total operating cost for 20 MW power station  1321.8 x24 x365 x 3.81  $44,115,868 / $44 million  Solar power station will pay itself off in 2.25 years.
  17. 17. POTENTIAL SAVINGS  Cost of electricity per kWh  0 – 200 units = 10.95 cents per kilowatt hour  Bill = $400 a month  $4800 a month  Price of PV system = $11,000  System will pay itself off in 2.29 years
  18. 18. CASE STUDY - TOKELAU Tokelau natives response to BHP Billiton claim of coal being the answer to poverty: courtesy of
  19. 19. CASE STUDY - TOKELAU  Island in the South Pacific  Population – 1500  Received 7 million funding from New Zealand for installations  100% powered by solar energy  Resorts to coconut oil during cloudy days  Generates 150% of total demand for island
  20. 20. TOKELAU – PAVING THE WAY FORWARD  Serves as a model for island nations for the use of hybrid micro-grids  By switching to renewable energy:  reduced their reliance on imported fuels,  kept money in the local economy,  provided their residents with reliable power, and lower their carbon emissions.  serves as “test beds” for adoption of new technologies and models of what can happen on a larger scale.
  21. 21. IMPLEMENTATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER GENERATION  There are three was in which PV power can be implemented (BEST Commission)  Building Integrated Photovoltaic Cells  Confined to rooftops/ building facade  Green Field Power Plants  Up to 8-9 hectares  Solar Parks  Up to 100 hectares  Will explore the implementation of each in Out Islands, New Providence and Grand Bahama
  22. 22. POWERING THE OUT ISLANDS Dock at Governor’s Harbour Eleuthera: Courtesy of Matt
  23. 23. THE OUT ISLANDS  Accounts for approx. 15% of the Bahamian population (Census 2010)  Accounts for approx. 30% of BEC’s load  Population ranges for each island is as high as 17,000 to as low as 100 persons  As a result, demand on electrical grid is relatively low  Possibility of utilizing solar parks and green fields to power the out islands 100%  Reduces peak load percentage of BEC to 58%
  24. 24. UTILIZING SOLAR PARKS/ GREEN FIELDS Advantages Disadvantages Clean Energy Land Mass Availability Low Maintenance Expense Reduction of Diesel Plants/ Usage/ GH Gas Emissions Inconsistent Lower fuel Surcharge Large Scale Environmental Impact
  25. 25. SITE SELECTIONS FOR GREEN FIELDS/ SOLAR PARKS  Small population  Small load on electrical grid  Available land  Solar irradiance
  26. 26. INTRODUCTION OF SOLAR PARKS AND GREEN FIELDS TO THE OUT ISLANDS  Peak Load for New Providence = 254  Projected for Bahamas (BEC) = 359  Load for Out Island = 105 MW  Total Peak Load – Peak Load (NP) = Peak Load (OI)  359 – 254 = 105 MW  29.24% of BEC’s peak load
  27. 27. POPULATION USAGE FACTORS 248,948 , 70% 51,756, 15% 52,954, 15% Bahamas Population 2010 Census New Providence Grand Bahama Out Islands 254, 59%74, 17% 105, 24% Peak Load Per Island (MW)
  28. 28. DEMAND IN LESS POPULATED OUT ISLANDS  Correlation of population to peak load = 0.988  Used calculated correlation to determine the peak load in the following islands  Can determine the ability of an island to fully convert to solar energy in the form of solar parks once peak demand does not exceed 58 MW  Ensures efficiency of the system
  29. 29. BAHAMAS POPULATION AND PEAK LOAD CALCULATION Island Population (2010 census) Peak Load (MW) Rum Cay 99 45.6 Mayaguana 271 45.8 Crooked Island 323 45.9 Acklins 560 46.1 Berry Islands 798 46.3 San Salvador 930 46.4 Spanish Wells 1537 46.9 Harbour Island 1702 47.0 Bimini 2008 47.3 Andros 7386 51.8 Eleuthera 7826 52.1 Abaco 16692 59.8
  30. 30. APPLICATION OF SOLAR FIELDS  100 kwp blocks used  Performance prediction (BEST) for FS-275 module  Thin film module  Fixed Mounting  Performance ratio = 86.7%  Energy Produced = 185 MWh year  Approx 176% of capacity of the Out Islands
  31. 31. TABLE SHOWING POTENTIAL ANNUAL YIELD FOR 9 ISLANDS Island Available Land for open field power plant (ha) Technical Capacity (MW) Structural capacity (MW) Annual Yield (MWh/a) Abaco 9357 4678 30.48 52730 Acklins- Crooked Island 3 2 1.04 1799 Andros 1570 785 7.32 12664 Eleuthera 1306 653 13.96 24151 Exuma Cays 109 54 10.67 18459 Grand Bahama 185 92 92.35 159758 Inagua 14 7 - - Mayaguana 2 1 0.31 536 New Providence 1206 603 315.20 545296Technical Capacity: land = 1MW: 2 hectares
  32. 32. LIMITATIONS AND SOLUTIONS  Land availability  1 hectare required for 1 MW of power  i.e. 20 MW = 20 hectares = 50 acres  Can pose a problem for islands with larger populations and limited available land space  Resolution: Can link solar parks to existing grid to compensate for shortages  Resolution: Integrate biaxial tracking system instead of single axis tracking on smaller islands  Resolution: Introduce building integrated systems to reduce the use of land space
  33. 33. LIMITATIONS AND SOLUTIONS CONTD.  Area related risk  Equipment may be at risk for damages, especially during the hurricane season  Resolution: to minimize damages, reinforcements such as steel beam foundation and reinforcement may be used
  34. 34. POWERING THE URBANIZED AREAS Freeport Harbour, Freeport Grand Bahama: Courtesy of the_bahamas.net
  35. 35. DEMAND IN NEW PROVIDENCE AND GRAND BAHAMA  Accounts for 85% of the population of the Bahamas (Population Census 2010)  Heavy demand, due to growing population, tourist population arrivals and industrial activity  Insufficient space and available power to construct small scale green fields  Frequent blackouts as a result of capacity overload
  36. 36. UTILIZING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS  Rooftops of facades of buildings can be outfitted with photovoltaic cells  Can be connected to existing grid (grid tied)  Already implemented by hotels, businesses and home owners  Negligible operational environmental impact  Vendors exist – standard 4kwp system  price ranges between $8500 and $11,000
  37. 37. UTILIZING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS CONTD.  Success and electricity generation heavily dependent on sunshine climatic data  Examples: The United Kingdom  Scotland  3.61 hours of average daily sunshine  4kwp system can generate 3200 kwh a year  Northern Ireland  3.45 hours of average daily sunshine  4kwp system can generate 3,400 kwh a year.  South England  4.42 hours of average daily sunshine  4kwp system can generate 3800 kwh a year
  38. 38. CALCULATING POWER GENERATED USING SUNSHINE CLIMATE DATA  Climate data of Grand Bahama and New Providence obtained  Correlation calculated using UK values for average daily sunshine and power generated from 4kwp systems  Calculation of power generated by 4kwp system in both New Providence and Grand Bahama
  39. 39. CLIMATE DATA – AVERAGE SUNSHINE DATA 1981-2010 Mont h Average Daily Sunshine Freeport (hours) Average Daily Sunshine New Providence (hours) Jan 7 7.3 Feb 7.6 8 Mar 8.1 8.4 Apr 9.1 9.4 May 9.1 9 Jun 7.8 7.9 Jul 8.3 8.5 Aug 8.1 8.4 Sep 7 7.4 Oct 7.6 7.6 Nov 7.2 7.3 Dec 6.7 6.8
  40. 40. CLIMATE DATA – GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Hours Climat Data For Sunshine 1981-2010 Average Daily Sunshine Freeport (hours Average Daily Sunshine New Providence (hours)
  41. 41. CALCULATIONS  Correlation = 0.88  Average sunlight hours: energy generated  New Providence; 7.975: 5619.32 kwh per annum  Grand Bahama; 7.700: 5476.6 kwh per annum  Average energy consumption per capita = 7500 kwh per annum  664,588 MWh per year (entire Bahamas)  Building integrated PV modules  Up to 10 Kwh – Residential Homes (up to 2 –4 kWp systems)  Up to 1 Mwh – Large commercial/public building (up to 200 4-kwp systems)
  42. 42. LIMITATIONS AND SOLUTIONS  Monetary expenses for initial purchase and installation  Resolution: governmental subsidies ie. reduction of tariffs for import, feed in tariffs at government level, duty free items, compensation for excess power to feed the grid (offsets demand)  Receive finding from international bodies  Insufficient power from cells in larger homes and businesses and due to limited sunshine in less sunny months. (below average)  Resolution: Compensate by educating public on conservation techniques, invest in larger system, access power into grid
  43. 43. GOALS AND ACTION PLANS China’s largest concentrated solar power plant: Courtesy of EVWind
  44. 44. GOALS  Reduce the consumption of fossil fuels to 65% by the year 2030  Construct solar parks with capacity of 20MW or less, removing them from the electrical grid.  Increase accessibility and affordability of photo voltaic cells to the general public  Increase incentives and awareness of the benefits of solar power to the general public
  45. 45. ACTION PLAN  Replace Out Island power plants with photo voltaic plants  Out Fit government buildings with photo voltaic cells  Education of the public in utilizing energy efficient appliances  Grant incentives for homeowners to purchase and outfit homes with solar panels  Lower the import duty on photo voltaic cells  Introduce subsidies geared towards the solar power industry
  46. 46. REFERENCES  Department of Statistics; “PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY ISLAND 2000 AND 2010 CENSUSES”. The Bahamas Government; May 2011. http://statistics.bahamas.gov.bs/download/082103200.pdf (Accessed 10/25/15)  Energy Savings Plus; Solar Panels,” Last updated, September 2014 http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/domestic/solar-panels (Accessed 10/27/2015)  Guevara-Stone, L. An Island (Tokelau) Powered 100% By Solar Energy, The Rocky Mountain institute. October 6th, 2013 http://cleantechnica.com/2013/10/06/an-island-tokelau-powered-100-by-solar-energy/ (Accessed 10/30/2015)  Hartnell, Neil; “Bahamas Fails To Enact 27% Energy Demand Cut Plan“ The Tribune, Nassau Bahamas; December 11th , 201http://www.tribune242.com/news/2013/dec/11/bahamas-fails-enact-27-energy-demand-cut-plan/ (Accessed 10/25/15)  Maura, S.; Climatic Data for annual average Sunshine by Month. 1981-2010, Bahamas Department of Meteorology; Date retrieved October 24th, 2015  Ministry of the Environment and Housing; Ministry of Works and Urban Development: “The Bahamas National Energy Policy 2013-2033” http://www.thebahamasweekly.com/uploads/16/energypolicy.pdf (Accessed 10/21/15)  Organization of American States; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Energy Policy and Analysis in the Caribbean 2010- 2011”. May 2012 http://www.ecpamericas.org/data/files/Initiatives/lccc_caribbean/LCCC_Report_Final_May2012.pdf (Accessed 10/25/15)  Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) “Potential Health and Environmental Impacts Associated With the Manufacture and Use of Photovoltaic Cells” November 2003, http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/500-04-053.PDF (Accessed 10/25/15)  Solar Tribune; “4000 Watt Solar kits,”.http://solartribune.com/solar-kits/4000-watt/ (Accessed 10/31/15)  The BEST Commission; Promoting Sustainable Energy in the Bahamas; The Bahamas Government; September 2010, http://www.best.bs/webdocs/1016_finalreport.pdf (Accessed 10/25/15)  The union of concerned scientists;. “Environmental Impacts of Solar Power” Last Revised: March 5th, 2013 www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/environmental-impacts-solar-power.htmlThink Global Green Organization; Solar Power, http://www.thinkglobalgreen.org/solar.html Accessed 10/31/15)

×