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Exploring Social Studies Education as Communication Strategy

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Conflict refers to a situation where there is more than one group of people who engage in a situation where they are in opposition to one another

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Exploring Social Studies Education as Communication Strategy

  1. 1. EXPLORING SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION AS COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR PEACE BUILDING AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AMONG STUDENTS OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN OGUN STATE BY DR. A. A. ADEDIRAN AND M.O. LIJADU Social Studies Department School of Arts & Social Sciences Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Email: speaktoa3@yahoo.com Tel.: 08060932337
  2. 2. Conflict refers to a situation where there is more than one group of people who engage in a situation where they are in opposition to one another, have differing opinions or competition of interests that may lead to a struggle, tension violent or non-violent struggles or activities that are injurious to members of the opposite group (Abebe, Gbesso, Nyawalo, 2006).There exist many varied definitions to conflict proposed by various scholars from different disciplines depending on their theoretical orientation. Conflicts have become more complex with time especially with terrorism threats increasing rampantly. Many lives are lost, property destroyed, many people rendered homeless forcing others to flee as refugees and this gives less hope for development and prosperity for the young generation. It is for these reasons that there is a dire need for peace. One way to realize this need is through education focused on the importance of peace and peaceful coexistence among communities and with each other as well as how to respond in situations that may lead to conflict. Background to the study
  3. 3. Social Studies as “the study which equips man with the tools necessary for solving problems in his emerging social and physical environment in an attempt to make the society a more livable one”. In order to understand the meaning of Social Studies at a glance, the following have been put forward by Iyamu (1991) that: (a) Social Studies focuses on the relation of man to the environment in which he lives and the world, (b) Social Studies is concerned with the relation of man to other human beings as a member of the family, peer group, community, school, work place, church and so on; (c) Social Studies is concerned with the relation of human beings to themselves;(d) Social Studies is basically a programme of citizenship education; and (e)Social Studies is a problem-approach discipline.
  4. 4. Sustainable development can be broadly seen as the ability of the economy to support the needs of the people of a country overtime, taking into consideration the economic, social and ecological constraints of the country. Underlying this concept is a “sustainability requirement” namely that the fulfilment of the need of the present generation should not compromise the ability of future generation to meet their own need, (Cheps, 2000). Thus, sustainable development can be seen not so much as a technical concept but as an educational one, a process of learning how to think in terms of “forever”.
  5. 5. The Agenda has seventeen (17) goals known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 169 targets and indicators. The SDGs are the successors to the 8 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which expired at the end of 2015. The SDGs set out targets across the three dimension – social, economic and environment of sustainable development. Another distinguishing feature is that, while the MDGs were focused on the developing countries alone, the SDGs are applicable to the developed and developing countries. Olagoke (2017) summarized that SDA is a universal plan and agenda to tackle some of the
  6. 6. Table 1: Summary of the Sustainable Development Goals SDG No. 1. End hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. 2. End poverty in all forms. 3. Ensure healthy living and promote wellbeing of all ages. 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. 8. Promote sustained inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
  7. 7. 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries. 11. Make cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and product pattern. 13. Take urgent action to control climate change and its impact 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 15. Protect, restore and promote use of terrestrial ecosystem, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. (Source: Akpama, Bessong & Bessong (2017) (Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2015).
  8. 8. Social Studies Education through communication strategy for peace building and conflict management, plays a key role in sustainable development and equips one with skills necessary in life. Similarly, the introduction of Peace Education Programme into the Social Studies curriculum is aimed at fostering peace and conflict transformation in Nigeria at the long run. Tracing back since its inception in Nigeria in 2008, educational system has experienced challenges in its implementation, provision of trained personnel and the nature of its implementation at the classroom level.
  9. 9. However, this study therefore seeks to analyze and examine the role of Social Studie in the school curriculum in conflict transformation since its inception in Nigeria and whether having peace education within Social Studies programme taught in school has had an impact on conflict transformation for peace building and conflict management in the country.
  10. 10. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to explore Social Studies education as interaction and information strategies for peace building among students of higher institutions in ogun state. However, the specific objectives are to: i. Examine the level of social studies education as interaction strategy for peace building in higher institution in Ogun State ii. Examine if there is significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria tertiary education institutions iii. Examine if there will be significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system. iv. investigate the role of peace education as a medium tool in higher institution to address the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria.
  11. 11. Research Hypotheses i. There will be no significant effect on the effective teaching of social studies education as interactive strategies for peace building in higher institution. ii. There will be no significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria tertiary education institutions. iii. There will be no significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system. iv. The role of peace education will not significantly serve as a mean of addressing the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria.
  12. 12. Methodology The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population for this study consists of all students selected in Four (4) higher institutions in Ogun State. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to select four (4) higher institutions in Ogun State. A multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the selection of 200 students as sample from the four (4) selected higher institutions in Ogun State. Self-designed questionnaire was used as a potent instrument for data collection. a structural questions which requires that respondent pick from options of their best choice. The option however, ranges from Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly Disagree.
  13. 13. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation when it was given to expert in measurement and evaluation department. Reliability concern the students to which a particular procedure gives similar result over a number of repeated trials (Orodho, 2009). The instruments in the category were the same for piloting and actual study from four (4) selected higher institutions in Ogun State. Data collected were analyzed using chi-square statistical tool which was used to test the accuracy of the hypotheses used at 0.05 level of significance.
  14. 14. Testing of Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: There will be no significant effect on the effective teaching of social studies education as interactive strategies for peace building in higher institutions. TABLE 1: Contingency Table on the effective teaching of Social Studies Education & Peace Building Respondents N Cal. Value (x2) d.f Tab. Value (x2) Level of Significant Decision 140 60 200 200 31.5 3 7.812 0.05 REJECTED
  15. 15. Table 1 show that the calculated chi-square value of 31.5 at a degree of freedom of 3 is greater than the critical value of 7.812 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis which states that there will be no significant effect on the effective teaching of social studies education as interactive strategies for peace building in higher institution was rejected. This implies that there will be significant effect on the effective teaching of social studies education as interactive strategy for peace building in higher institution.
  16. 16. Hypothesis 2: There will be no significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions. TABLE 2: Contingency table on the Teachers’ qualification in Social Studies &Conflicts Resolution Respondents N Cal. Value (x2) d.f Tab. Value (x2) Level of Significant Decision 129 71 200 200 27.8 3 7.812 0.05 REJECTED
  17. 17. Table 2 indicates that the calculated chi-square value of 27.8 at a degree of freedom of 3 is greater than the critical value of 7.812 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis which states that there will be no significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions was rejected. This implies that there will be a significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria tertiary institutions.
  18. 18. Hypothesis 3: There will be no significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system. TABLE 3: Contingency table on the Peace Education and Conflict Resolution in the Nigerian Education System Respondents N Cal. Value (x2) d.f Tab. Value (x2) Level of Significant Decision 125 75 200 200 28.9 3 7.812 0.05 REJECTED
  19. 19. Table 3 indicates that the calculated chi-square value of 28.9 at a degree of freedom of 3 is greater than the critical value of 7.812 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis which states that there will be no significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system was rejected. This implies that there will be significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system.
  20. 20. Hypothesis 4: The role of peace education will not significantly serve as a mean of addressing the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria. TABLE 4: Contingency table on the Peace Education & solution to Violence, Insurgency and Terrorism Respondents N Cal. Value (x2) d.f Tab. Value (x2) Level of Significant Decision 109 91 200 200 36.6 3 7.812 0.05 REJECTED
  21. 21. Table 4 indicates that the calculated chi-square value of 36.6 at a degree of freedom of 3 is greater than the critical value of 7.812 at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis which states that the role of peace education will not significantly serve as a mean of addressing the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria was rejected. This implies that the role of peace education will significantly serve as a mean of addressing the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria.
  22. 22. Discussion of Findings In research hypothesis one which states that there will be no significant effect on the effective teaching of social studies education as interactive strategies for peace building in Higher Institution was rejected thus: It was indicated that there will be significant effect on the effective teaching of social studies education as interactive strategies for peace building in Higher Institution. This statement was in line according to Ezeoba (2012), as asserted that the ultimate aim of social studies is to equip individuals with knowledge and understanding for peaceful relationships and living.
  23. 23. In research hypothesis two which states that there will be no significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions was rejected thus: There will be significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria Tertiary Education Institutions. However, this study was in support with Owolabi (2003) submitted that a teacher as an instructor is responsible to teach, direct, control, interpret and instruct the learners for better attainment. In research hypothesis three which states that there will be no significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system was rejected thus: There will be significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system.
  24. 24. However, this statement was supported by According to Danesh (2006), the universal presence of conflict and war in human history has always necessitated that priority be given to education for conflict management and war preparation, and for the preservation of the larger community. In research hypothesis four which states that the role of peace education will not significantly serve as a mean of addressing the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria was rejected thus: The role of peace education will significantly serve as a mean of addressing the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria. Therefore, this statement was supported by Ben-Nun (2013) peace education curriculum and its presentation can sometimes lead to a strengthening of in group ties which may be counter-productive and result in the entrenchment of previously held views, traditions or stereotypes.
  25. 25. Conclusion Based on the findings and discussion of this study, it was concluded that there will be significant relationship in the teachers’ qualification in social studies and conflicts resolution in Nigeria Tertiary Education Institutions. It was also concluded that there will be significant relationship between the teaching of peace education and conflict resolution in the Nigerian education system and more also, it was established that the role of peace education will significantly serve as a mean of addressing the problem of violence, insurgency and terrorism in Nigeria.
  26. 26. Recommendations The following are recommendations proffered based on the findings of the study. 1. That, schools should run workshops on the development of skills on how to solve conflict among inter-schools and more also between educators (teachers) and the learners (students). 2. That, the Social Studies teachers/lecturers in the study area should be encouraged to adopt the technique of that will teaches the concept of social study for their students for optimum academic performance. 3. That, the managements of universities should improve on their communication network between the management and staff on one hand and among staff on the other hand in order to enhance administrative effectiveness.
  27. 27. 4. Efforts should be made by the management to organize seminars/workshops on organizational conflict management from time to time for the employees. This will enable employees learn about conflict and how it can be effectively managed for individual and organization effectiveness.
  28. 28. THANK YOU

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