Module 6, lesson 1 photosynthesis

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  • So, in effect, photosynthesis is respiration run backwards powered by light. Cellular Respiration oxidize C 6 H 12 O 6  CO 2 & produce H 2 O fall of electrons downhill to O 2 exergonic Photosynthesis reduce CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6 & produce O 2 boost electrons uphill by splitting H 2 O endergonic
  • Module 6, lesson 1 photosynthesis

    1. 1. Photosynthesis (Life from ) 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 ----> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Light
    2. 2. A little background <ul><li>Grass  Caterpillar  Bird </li></ul><ul><li>Autotroph  Heterotroph  Heterotroph </li></ul><ul><li>All energy originates with Autotrophs </li></ul>Organisms autotrophs heterotrophs Make own food Obtain food from others
    3. 3. The fuel of living things <ul><li>ATP- Adenosine triphosphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-carbon sugar called ribose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three phosphate groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key to ATP’s ability to release energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Adenine Ribose P P P
    4. 4. ADP <ul><li>ADP is a cousin of ATP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADP has 2 phosphates ATP has 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADP has less energy then ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>This is where The bond breaks To turn ATP into ADP ADP
    5. 5. The photosynthesis equation <ul><li>The process by which light energy is converted into chemical energy and stored in organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as biochemical pathway </li></ul><ul><li>6H 2 O + 6CO 2  energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants Products </li></ul>
    6. 6. Energy needs of Life <ul><li>All life needs a constant input of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs (animals, fungi, most bacteria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>get their energy from “eating others” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consumers of other organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consume organic molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs (plants, some bacteria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>get their energy from “self” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use sunlight energy to synthesize organic molecules </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>We will be looking at how autotrophs and how they synthesize these organic molecules through photosynthesis </li></ul>
    8. 8. Where does photosynthesis occur? In the chloroplasts! absorb sunlight & CO 2 make energy & sugar CO 2
    9. 9. Light: absorption spectrum <ul><li>Light reaction can perform work with wavelengths of light that are absorbed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorophyll a — the dominant pigment — absorbs best in red & blue wavelengths & least in green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other pigments with different structures have different absorption spectra </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Green because absorb light wavelengths in red & blue and reflect green back out </li></ul>THAT IS WHY PLANTS LOOK GREEN TO US! WE SEE WHAT IS RELFECTED.
    11. 11. Photosynthesis: Overall Equation <ul><li>This is the equation you are used to seeing, but this is not the whole story… </li></ul>+ water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    12. 12. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Actually two separate reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use sunlight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make energy (ATP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul></ul></ul>Energy building reactions Sugar building reactions ATP ADP sugar sun CO 2
    13. 13. Energy Building Reactions O 2 H 2 O Energy Building Reactions sunlight ATP H 2 O ATP O 2 light energy  + + <ul><li>makes ATP energy </li></ul><ul><li>releases oxygen as a waste product </li></ul>
    14. 14. Sugar Building Reactions sugars C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 Sugar Building Reactions ATP CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 ADP ATP  + + ADP <ul><li>builds sugars </li></ul><ul><li>uses ATP </li></ul><ul><li>cycles ADP back to make more ATP </li></ul>
    15. 15. Putting it all together sugars C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 ATP ADP H 2 O O 2 sunlight Sugar Building Reactions Energy Building Reactions <ul><li>Plants make both: </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>sugars </li></ul>CO 2 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 O 2 light energy  + + +
    16. 16. So what does a plant need? <ul><li>Takes in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Releases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produced and moved around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sugars </li></ul></ul>roots shoot leaves
    17. 17. How can a leaf do this? Let’s briefly examine the leaf structure H 2 O CO 2 CO 2 O 2 H 2 O phloem (sugar) O 2 xylem (water) Stoma (pore/hole)
    18. 18. Stomata <ul><li>Function of stomata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O out </li></ul></ul>guard cell Stomata (pore or hole)
    19. 19. Xylem carry water up from roots
    20. 20. Phloem: food-conducting cells <ul><li>carry sugars around the plant wherever they are needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seeds </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Putting it all together <ul><li>Making a living… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leaves = solar collectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gases: CO 2 in & O 2 out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stomata = gases in & out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roots take in water from soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pulled up by leaf evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roots take in from soil </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis connected? Respiration Photosynthesis glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + + + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    23. 23. Energy cycle Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration O 2 CO 2 plants animals, plants ATP H 2 O sun The Great Circle of Life! glucose
    24. 24. Resources <ul><li>www.bio.kimunity.com </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, Ken and Joe Levine. Prentice hall Biology . Pearson Education Inc. New Jersey, 2005. </li></ul>

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