Chapter08 Revised

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Ch 8 Photosynthesis

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Chapter08 Revised

  1. 1. Saving for a Rainy Day <ul><li>Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank account. </li></ul><ul><li>1. What are the benefits of having a bank account? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does your body do when it needs energy? </li></ul>Section 8-1 Interest Grabber
  2. 2. 8-1 Energy and Life <ul><li>ATP is the universal “currency” for energy in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>ATP = adenosine triphosphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= three phosphate groups bonded together (tri = three) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is stored when bonds are formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is released when bonds are broken </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups Section 8-1 ATP
  4. 4. ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Section 8-1 Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery
  5. 5. ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Section 8-1 Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery
  6. 6. ATP, continued <ul><li>AMP + P -> ADP (M = mono-) (D = di- ) </li></ul><ul><li>ADP + P -> ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ATP stores the maximum amount of energy </li></ul><ul><li>-> ATP is like a FULL battery (maximum) </li></ul><ul><li>-> ADP is like a HALF battery (half the energy storage capacity) -> AMP is like a DEAD or EMPTY battery (BUT it can be recharged!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AMP to ADP to ATP = STORES energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP to ADP to AMP = RELEASES energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy to make ATP comes from breaking down GLUCOSE (in mitochondria) </li></ul><ul><li>-> Glucose has up to 90 times the amount of energy in an ATP molecule </li></ul>
  7. 7. Video 1 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 1 ATP Formation
  8. 8. Energy for living things on Earth <ul><li>Most living things generate their energy directly or indirectly from the SUN = photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Some organisms (at hydrothermal vents or geysers or anaerobic mud) use chemical compounds (hydrogen sulfide) to make organic compounds (carbs) through chemosynthesis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trapping Energy <ul><li>Have you ever used a solar-powered calculator? No matter where you go, as long as you have a light source, the calculator works. You never have to put batteries in it. </li></ul>Section 8-2 Interest Grabber
  10. 10. <ul><li>1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes? </li></ul>Section 8-2 Interest Grabber continued
  11. 11. <ul><li>8–2 Photosynthesis: An Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Investigating Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Van Helmont’s Experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Priestley’s Experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Jan Ingenhousz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. The Photosynthesis Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Light and Pigments </li></ul></ul>Section 8-2 Section Outline
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Photosynthesis Equation </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 + 6H 2 O ---(light)-------  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water (and light) make glucose and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Light and Pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Pigments = light-absorbing molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll = plants’ principal pigment; absorbs light energy for the plant to use during photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>White light contains all colors </li></ul>
  13. 13. Balancing The Photosynthetic Equation: <ul><li>_ CO 2 + _ H 2 O -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + _O 2 </li></ul># Carbons : 6 on the right, so how many on the left? 6! 6 Carbons on the left, so how many oxygen atoms in 6 CO 2 ? 12! 12 Hydrogen atoms on the right, so how many water molecules on the left? (Watch out! – it’s H 2 O) 6! 6 CO 2 molecules and 6 H 2 O molecules makes how many O atoms on the left? Last step: How many O 2 molecules do you need on the right, to get 18 O atoms? (Watch out! – there are 6 already in glucose!) 18! 6! 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  14. 14. Light Energy Chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 O Sugars + O 2 Section 8-2 Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products
  15. 15. Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b V B G Y O R Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a Section 8-2 Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption
  16. 16. A Look Into the Future <ul><li>It is 100 years in the future and you are a research scientist. An enormous volcanic eruption has recently sent huge quantities of dust and ash into the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Working with a partner, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>2. plant life </li></ul><ul><li>3. animal life </li></ul><ul><li>4. human societies </li></ul>Section 8-3 Interest Grabber
  17. 17. <ul><li>8–3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Inside a Chloroplast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Electron Carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Light-Dependent Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. The Calvin Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>Section 8-3 Section Outline
  18. 18. Video 2 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 2 Photosynthesis
  19. 19. Chloroplast Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle NADPH ATP ADP + P NADP + Chloroplast Section 8-3 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview H 2 O Light Light O 2 Sugars CO 2
  20. 20. 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis <ul><li>Light Dependent Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Occurs : </li></ul><ul><li>a. across the thylakoid membrane and in the stroma of the chloroplast </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>2. Uses </li></ul><ul><li>a. Light energy </li></ul><ul><li>b. H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>3. To make: </li></ul><ul><li>i. From sun </li></ul><ul><li>Turns electrons into high energy electrons </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Drives the light reactions </li></ul><ul><li>i. Energy splits apart the water molecule into 2 Hydrogen + atoms and 1 Oxygen atom </li></ul><ul><li>ii. O find a friend to make O 2 – oxygen gas is released </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Extra 2e - collect sun’s energy </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>NADP + </li></ul><ul><li>d. ADP </li></ul><ul><li>i. High energy electron carrier </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Picks up 2 e- and a H+ to become NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>i. Picks up a phosphate to make ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Goes on to Calvin Cycle </li></ul>* Light-dependent reactions use H 2 O and produce O 2 gas and intermediate energy-storing compounds
  23. 23. 4. Steps in Light Reactions <ul><li>Sun energy gets absorbed by pigments in Photosystem II </li></ul><ul><li>This energy splits H 2 O into 2H + atoms and 1 oxygen atom, leaves 2 electrons to hang out and wait in PSII </li></ul><ul><li>Sun is absorbed by the pigments, the electrons get this energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons become high energy electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Travel down the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), losing energy as they travel down each protein </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>f. Come to Photosystem I, light gets absorbed again, electrons become high energized again </li></ul><ul><li>High energy electrons need a special “carrier” to bring them to the Calvin Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Get picked up by NADP + , which also picks up an H + left over from H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>NADP + + 2e- + H +  NADPH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i. High energy electron carrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii. Heads to Calvin Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>J. ADP + P  ATP at the ATP Synthase </li></ul><ul><li>i. heads to Calvin Cycle </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hydrogen Ion Movement Photosystem II Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma ATP synthase Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I ATP Formation Chloroplast Section 8-3 Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions
  26. 26. Video 3 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 3 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1
  27. 27. Video 4 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 4 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2
  28. 28. B. Calvin Cycle / Light Independent Reaction / Dark Reactions <ul><li>Takes place in: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Stroma – area outside of thylakoids but within the chloroplast </li></ul>*Calvin Cycle -> produces carbohydrates using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and ATP and NADPH energy-storing compounds from the light-dependent reaction
  29. 29. <ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><li>a. ATP </li></ul><ul><li>b. CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>c. NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>To make </li></ul><ul><li>Need energy to make glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Gets broken back down into ADP </li></ul><ul><li>Heads back to the light reactions to get used again there </li></ul><ul><li>i. Uses 6 molecules of CO 2 to produce 1 molecule of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>i. High energy electrons help to make glucose </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Gets broken back down to NADP + and returns to light reactions </li></ul>
  30. 30. ChloropIast CO 2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Section 8-3 Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle * Calvin Cycle -> produces carbohydrates using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and ATP and NADPH energy-storing compounds from the light-dependent reaction
  31. 31. Video 5 <ul><li>Click the image to play the video segment. </li></ul>Video 5 Calvin Cycle
  32. 32. Photosynthesis includes of take place in takes place in uses to produce to produce use Section 8-3 Concept Map Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle Thylakoid membranes Stroma NADPH ATP Energy from sunlight ATP NADPH O 2 Chloroplasts High-energy sugars
  33. 33. Video Contents <ul><li>Click a hyperlink to choose a video. </li></ul><ul><li>ATP Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin Cycle </li></ul>Videos
  34. 34. Internet <ul><li>ATP activity </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive test </li></ul><ul><li>For links on Calvin cycle, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3082. </li></ul><ul><li>For links on photosynthesis, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3083. </li></ul>Go Online
  35. 35. Section 1 Answers <ul><li>1. What are the benefits of having a bank account? </li></ul><ul><li>To save money and earn interest. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money? </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the bank and take out the money you need. </li></ul><ul><li>3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities? </li></ul><ul><li>Students will likely say that the body stores the energy. </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does your body do when it needs energy? </li></ul><ul><li>Student answers may include that energy is gotten from food. </li></ul>Interest Grabber Answers
  36. 36. Section 2 Answers <ul><li>1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works? </li></ul><ul><li>They convert light energy into electrical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants? </li></ul><ul><li>Plants convert light energy into chemical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green? </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are green, as are some stems. </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes? </li></ul><ul><li>The green color is the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun and converts it to chemical energy in the process of photosynthesis. </li></ul>Interest Grabber Answers
  37. 37. Section 3 Answers <ul><li>Working with a partner, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. photosynthesis The rate of photosynthesis will decrease due to reduced sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>2. plant life Plants will grow more slowly or die off due to decreased rate of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>3. animal life Animal populations will decrease after a while due to fewer plants for herbivores to eat. Fewer herbivores will eventually result in fewer carnivores. Also, less oxygen will be available. </li></ul><ul><li>4. human societies Human societies will have to adjust their eating habits as some food species die out. </li></ul>Interest Grabber Answers
  38. 38. End of Custom Shows <ul><li>This slide is intentionally blank. </li></ul>

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