Unit 14 lesson 3


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Unit 14 lesson 3

  1. 1. Soviet Union: Communism Under Khrushchev and Brezhnev
  2. 2. Nikita Khrushchev - 1953-1964 <ul><li>- Leader after Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Was popular at first because he believed Stalin was too harsh on loyal citizens so he aimed for the &quot;destalinization&quot; of the country </li></ul>- Promised change for the Soviet Union and its satellite countries; however, life did not change in Eastern Europe and many people in the satellite countries rebelled against Communism, mostly without success
  3. 3. Leonid Brezhnev - 1964-1982 <ul><li>Party leaders replaced Khrushchev with Brezhnev after falling out of favor </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted repressive domestic policies and arrested or exiled the opposition </li></ul><ul><li>- When Czech Communist leader Dubcek loosened censorship in his country (known as the Prague Spring), Brezhnev and members of the Warsaw Pact invaded Czechoslovakia </li></ul>- Issued the Brezhnev Doctrine, which stated the Soviet Union had the right to prevent the satellite countries from rejecting Communism
  4. 4. Soviet Union and China <ul><li>The Soviets assumed China would adopt Soviet policies and stay in its shadows; however, China began to resent that assumption </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the Chinese and Soviets stopped sharing technology and aid with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Some border fighting occurred but overall peace between both countries remained fragile </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brinkmanship to Détente <ul><li>- The thought of nuclear war and the brinkmanship policy between the U.S. and the Soviet Union were continuous after World War II </li></ul><ul><li>By the time President Nixon was elected, tensions between the countries lessened as U.S. citizens protested direct confrontations between the countries (Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>- This purposeful lessoning of tensions was called &quot;detente,&quot; which was derived from the idea of &quot;realpolitik,&quot; or &quot;realistic politics&quot; in German </li></ul><ul><li>- “Realpolitik” emphasized dealing with other countries in realistic and flexible ways while trying to contain Communism in non-confrontational manners </li></ul>
  6. 6. SALT I Talks <ul><li>In 1971, Nixon visited China to make them an ally when Nixon would meet with Brezhnev </li></ul><ul><li>- The next year, Nixon met with the Soviets and signed the SALT I, which stood for Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>This five-year agreement limited the number of intercontinental and submarine-launched missiles each country could have </li></ul><ul><li>By 1975, 33 additional countries signed the Helsinki Accords, which symbolized a commitment to détente policies </li></ul>
  7. 7. SALT II Talks <ul><li>While Nixon and Ford were in office, they continued détente policies </li></ul><ul><li>When Carter became president, issues such as how protesters in the Soviet Union were treated and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan delayed and almost ended the possibility of a second round of SALT negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>After the talks took place, the Soviet issues prevented the SALT II from being ratified by the U.S. Congress </li></ul>
  8. 8. The End of Détente <ul><li>- When Reagan became president, he ended détente policies, increased military spending, and announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), or program aimed at protecting against enemy missiles </li></ul>
  9. 9. The End <ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul><ul><li>All pictures came from Microsoft Office Clip </li></ul><ul><li>Art except: </li></ul><ul><li>http://fisher.osu.edu/~kinard_1/MBA808W08/images/NikitaKhrushchev.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDbreznev.JPG </li></ul>