Edu 290 power point, part i


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"Earth's Evolution: Using Geology to Understand Our Planet's History"

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  • This presentation shows how scientists use geological principles to reconstruct Earth’s history and to understand the processes that shape the Earth.
  • This slide defines what is meant by geology as a field of study and describes what natural phenomena and physical properties and processes that geologists study today and in the past.
  • This slide illustrates the linkage between the development of the scientific method and the emergence and development of geology as a distinct field of study.
  • This slide emphasizes the important role that scientific observation plays in geology in terms of explaining how the Earth evolved into its modern form. It is important to understand that early geologists used an early form of the Scientific Method to make observations about the Earth. In the past, geologists used their careful observations of the natural world to develop basic descriptions of the Earth’s rock record, to put these rocks into a relative order in terms of time, and to conceptualize and explain the natural forces and processes that formed and shaped the Earth.
  • This slide profiles early workers in geology and outlines their contribution to the field of geology.
  • This slide describes the contributions of Nicholas Steno to the field of geology.
  • This slide outlines the contributions of James Hutton to geology. Many consider Hutton to be the “Father of Modern Geology.”
  • This slide features some of the specific geological observations that Hutton made in more than one location and that led him to propose his Principle of Uniformitarianism.
  • This slide describes the contributions of Charles Lyell to geology.
  • This slide outlines Smith’s contributions to the field of geology.
  • This slide shows through comparison between mud cracks in the two pictures, that geological forces that result in distinctive geological features have remained exactly the same through geological time.
  • The Grand Canyon provides compelling evidence that geological forces act on rock over very long time periods.
  • This slide is an overview of the use of relative dating techniques in geology.
  • This slide is an overview of absolute dating techniques used in geology.
  • This slide presents the “big picture” problems of interest to geologists in the past, as well as those working in geology today.
  • References Page
  • Edu 290 power point, part i

    1. 1. Earth’s Evolution: <ul><li>Using Geology To Understand Our Planet’s History </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Benison </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. William Merrill </li></ul><ul><li>EDU 290 </li></ul>
    2. 2. What is Geology? <ul><li>Geology means “study of the Earth” </li></ul><ul><li>Geologists ask questions/make observations to figure out what things are </li></ul><ul><li>What geologists study today is broader than what early scientists studied </li></ul><ul><li>Modern geologists study both the Earth and other planets </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul> What is this thing?
    3. 3. Early History of Geology <ul><li>Geology and the Enlightenment (late 1600s-1700s) </li></ul><ul><li>--Early Geologists Used Logic to Explain Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Early Form of the “Scientific Method” </li></ul><ul><li>--Making Observations </li></ul><ul><li>--Collecting Data </li></ul><ul><li>--Trying to Understand “Forces of Nature,” or Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>--Newton and his Apple </li></ul>
    4. 4. Geology and Scientific Observation <ul><li>Early Scientists Used a Kind of Scientific Method to Understand the Past </li></ul><ul><li>Did Three Important Things; They: </li></ul><ul><li>--Made Observations about the Modern World </li></ul><ul><li>--Studied Rocks from Around the World </li></ul><ul><li>--Used What They Knew about the Modern Earth to Explain How Rocks Formed in the Past </li></ul>
    5. 5. Early Workers in Geology <ul><li>Nicholas Steno (1638-1686), Dutch physician to Italian nobleman </li></ul><ul><li>James Hutton (1726-1797), Scottish gentleman farmer and keen observer of the natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Lyell (1797-1875), London scientist who championed Hutton’s ideas </li></ul><ul><li>William Smith (1769-1839), British scientist and early paleontologist who studied fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Nicholas Steno <ul><li>Observed Sediment Deposition After Floods in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Evidence, Proposed Geological Principles Used Today </li></ul><ul><li>The Most Important of These Is: </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of Stratigraphic Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul>http://www. rpdp .net
    7. 7. James Hutton <ul><li>Scratches in Scottish rocks like those on rocks near glaciers in Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Realized that streams took a long time to cut through hard bedrock </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rocks “crosscut” by other rocks took a long time to form </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this, called Earth “immeasurably old” </li></ul><ul><li>Hutton’s work led to Principle of Uniformitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Hutton’s Observations <ul><li>The top image shows glacial scratches </li></ul><ul><li>--Scratches are not parallel and so may have formed over long time periods </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom image shows flat rock beds that formed over a long time “crosscut” by dark volcanic rock intrusion </li></ul>
    9. 9. Charles Lyell <ul><li>Popularized Hutton’s Uniformitarianism in his famous Principles of Geology (1830-1833) </li></ul><ul><li>Lyell argued that slow-moving natural forces shaped Earth over very long time periods </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul>
    10. 10. William Smith <ul><li>Studied Fossils in Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Not All Fossils Present in All Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Some Fossils Changed to Other Fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Evidence, Proposed Principle of Fossil Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Used This to Relate Different Rocks and to Date Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Understanding Uniformitarianism <ul><li>The natural forces and processes that lead to the recent mud cracks in the top picture… </li></ul><ul><li>Are the same as those that formed the older hardened mud cracks in the bottom picture </li></ul>
    12. 12. Uniformitarianism and the Big Picture <ul><li>Principle of Uniformitarianism is a powerful tool that helps geologists figure out what the rock record is telling them </li></ul><ul><li>The Grand Canyon is a good example of universal natural forces causing geology over very long time periods </li></ul>
    13. 13. Relative Dating <ul><li>Based on Steno’s Principle of Superposition, geologists date rocks relative to one another </li></ul><ul><li>--In the graphic, lower rocks are oldest, higher horizontal rocks are younger, and the diagonal rock intrusion is the youngest </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Absolute Dating <ul><li>Uses an understanding of radioactive decay and analysis of parent/ daughter isotope ratios to date rocks to a specific time </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the estimated age of target rocks, different kinds of absolute dating are used </li></ul><ul><li>C-14 most widely known dating technique </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Wicander and Monroe (2011) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Geology: Story of the Earth <ul><li>Geology tries to tell the “Story of the Earth” </li></ul><ul><li>Past geologists focused on the order of the story, or the “what happened when” </li></ul><ul><li>Today, geology focuses on understanding processes (“the how”) behind what happens on Earth </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Wicander, Reed, and James S. Monroe Geol . Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole, 2011. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons (Pictures) </li></ul><ul><li>Google Images (Clip Art and Pictures) </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube (Sir Isaac Newton video) </li></ul>References