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Chapter 5 Lecture
Chapter 5:
Light and Matter:
Reading Messages
from the Cosmos
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Light and Matter: Reading Messages from
the Cosmos
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5.1 Light in Everyday Life
• Our goals for learning:
• How do we experience light?
• How do light and matter interact?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
How do we experience light?
• The warmth of sunlight tells us that light is a
form of energy.
• We can measure the flow of energy in light in
units of watts: 1 watt = 1 joule/s.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Colors of Light
• White light is made up of all the colors of the
rainbow.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
How do light and matter interact?
• Emission
• Absorption
• Transmission
• Transparent objects transmit light.
• Opaque objects block (absorb) light.
• Reflection/scattering
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reflection and Scattering
• A mirror reflects light
in a particular
direction.
• A movie screen
scatters light in all
directions.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Interactions of Light with Matter
• Interactions between light and matter determine
the appearance of everything around us.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
Why is a rose red?
A. The rose absorbs red light.
B. The rose transmits red light.
C. The rose emits red light.
D. The rose reflects red light.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
Why is a rose red?
A. The rose absorbs red light.
B. The rose transmits red light.
C. The rose emits red light.
D. The rose reflects red light.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What have we learned?
• How do we experience light?
• Light is a form of energy.
• Light comes in many colors that combine to
form white light.
• How do light and matter interact?
• Matter can emit light, absorb light, transmit
light, and reflect (or scatter) light.
• Interactions between light and matter
determine the appearance of everything
we see.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5.2 Properties of Light
• Our goals for learning:
• What is light?
• What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is light?
• Light can act either like a wave or like a particle.
• Particles of light are called photons.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Waves
• A wave is a
pattern of motion
that can carry
energy without
carrying matter
along with it.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Properties of Waves
• Wavelength is the distance between two wave
peaks.
• Frequency is the number of times per second
that a wave vibrates up and down.
Wave speed = wavelength × frequency
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Light: Electromagnetic Waves
• A light wave is a vibration of electric and
magnetic fields.
• Light interacts with charged particles through
these electric and magnetic fields.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Wavelength and Frequency
wavelength × frequency = speed of light =
constant
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Particles of Light
• Particles of light are called photons.
• Each photon has a wavelength and a frequency.
• The energy of a photon depends on its
frequency.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Wavelength, Frequency, and Energy
λ × f = c
λ = wavelength, f = frequency
c = 3.00 × 108 m/s = speed of light
E = h × f = photon energy!
h = 6.626 × 10-34 joule × s = Planck's constant
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Special Topic: Polarized Sunglasses
• Polarization describes the direction in which a
light wave is vibrating.
• Reflection can change the polarization of light.
• Polarized sunglasses block light that reflects off
of horizontal surfaces.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Thought Question
The higher the photon energy,
A. the longer its wavelength.
B. the shorter its wavelength.
C. energy is independent of wavelength.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
The higher the photon energy,
A. the longer its wavelength.
B. the shorter its wavelength.
C. energy is independent of wavelength.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What have we learned?
• What is light?
• Light can behave like either a wave or a particle.
• A light wave is a vibration of electric and magnetic
fields.
• Light waves have a wavelength and a frequency.
• Photons are particles of light.
• What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
• Human eyes cannot see most forms of light.
• The entire range of wavelengths of light is known as
the electromagnetic spectrum.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5.3 Properties of Matter
• Our goals for learning:
• What is the structure of matter?
• What are the phases of matter
• How is energy stored in atoms?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is the structure of matter?
Atomic Terminology
• Atomic number = # of protons in nucleus
• Atomic mass number = # of protons + neutrons
• Molecules: consist of two or more atoms
(H2O, CO2)
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Atomic Terminology
• Isotope: same # of protons but different # of
neutrons (4He, 3He)
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What are the phases of matter?
• Familiar phases:
• Solid (ice)
• Liquid (water)
• Gas (water vapor)
• Phases of same material behave differently
because of differences in chemical bonds.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Phase Changes
• Ionization: stripping of
electrons, changing atoms
into plasma
• Dissociation: breaking of
molecules into atoms
• Evaporation: breaking of
flexible chemical bonds,
changing liquid into solid
• Melting: breaking of rigid
chemical bonds, changing
solid into liquid
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Phases and Pressure
• Phase of a substance depends on both
temperature and pressure.
• Often more than one phase is present.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
How is energy stored in atoms?
• Electrons in atoms are restricted to particular
energy levels.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ground state
Excited states
Energy Level Transitions
• The only allowed
changes in energy
are those
corresponding to a
transition between
energy levels.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Not allowed Allowed
What have we learned?
• What is the structure of matter?
• Matter is made of atoms, which consist of a nucleus
of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of
electrons.
• What are the phases of matter?
• Adding heat to a substance changes its phase by
breaking chemical bonds.
• As temperature rises, a substance transforms from a
solid to a liquid to a gas, then the molecules can
dissociate into atoms.
• Stripping of electrons from atoms (ionization) turns
the substance into a plasma.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What have we learned?
• How is energy stored in atoms?
• The energies of electrons in atoms
correspond to particular energy levels.
• Atoms gain and lose energy only in amounts
corresponding to particular changes in
energy levels.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5.4 Learning from Light
• Our goals for learning:
• What are the three basic types of spectra?
• How does light tell us what things are
made of?
• How does light tell us the temperatures of
planets and stars?
• How does light tell us the speed of a
distant object?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What are the three basic types of spectra?
• Spectra of astrophysical objects are usually
combinations of these three basic types.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Three Types of Spectra
Continuous Spectrum
• The spectrum of a common (incandescent) light
bulb spans all visible wavelengths, without
interruption.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Emission Line Spectrum
• A thin or low-density cloud of gas emits light
only at specific wavelengths that depend on its
composition and temperature, producing a
spectrum with bright emission lines.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Absorption Line Spectrum
• A cloud of gas between us and a light bulb can
absorb light of specific wavelengths, leaving
dark absorption lines in the spectrum.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
How does light tell us what things are
made of?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chemical Fingerprints
• Each type of atom
has a unique set of
energy levels.
• Each transition
corresponds to a
unique photon
energy, frequency,
and wavelength.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chemical Fingerprints
• Downward transitions produce a unique pattern
of emission lines.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chemical Fingerprints
• Because those atoms can absorb photons with
those same energies, upward transitions
produce a pattern of absorption lines at the
same wavelengths.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chemical Fingerprints
• Each type of atom has a unique spectral
fingerprint.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chemical Fingerprints
• Observing the fingerprints in a spectrum tells us
which kinds of atoms are present.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chemical Fingerprints
Example: Solar Spectrum
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Energy Levels of Molecules
• Molecules have additional energy levels
because they can vibrate and rotate.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Energy Levels of Molecules
• The large numbers of vibrational and rotational
energy levels can make the spectra of
molecules very complicated.
• Many of these molecular transitions are in the
infrared part of the spectrum.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
Which letter(s) label(s) absorption lines?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
A B C D E
Thought Question
Which letter(s) label(s) absorption lines?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
A B C D E
Thought Question
Which letter(s) label(s) the peak (greatest
intensity) of infrared light?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
A B C D E
Thought Question
Which letter(s) label(s) the peak (greatest
intensity) of infrared light?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
A B C D E
Thought Question
Which letter(s) label(s) emission lines?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
A B C D E
Thought Question
Which letter(s) label(s) emission lines?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
A B C D E
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
How does light tell us the temperatures of
planets and stars?
Thermal Radiation
• Nearly all large or dense objects emit thermal
radiation, including stars, planets, you.
• An object's thermal radiation spectrum depends
on only one property: its temperature.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Properties of Thermal Radiation
1. Hotter objects emit more light at all frequencies
per unit area.
2. Hotter objects emit photons with a higher
average energy.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
Which is hottest?
A. a blue star
B. a red star
C. a planet that emits only infrared light
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
Which is hottest?
A. a blue star
B. a red star
C. a planet that emits only infrared light
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
Why don't we glow in the dark?
A. People do not emit any kind of light.
B. People only emit light that is invisible to our
eyes.
C. People are too small to emit enough light for us
to see.
D. People do not contain enough radioactive
material.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
Why don't we glow in the dark?
A. People do not emit any kind of light.
B. People only emit light that is invisible to our
eyes.
C. People are too small to emit enough light for us
to see.
D. People do not contain enough radioactive
material.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example: How do we interpret an actual
spectrum?
• By carefully studying the features in a spectrum,
we can learn a great deal about the object that
created it.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reflected sunlight:
Continuous spectrum
of visible light is like
the Sun's except that
some of the blue light
has been absorbed—
object must look red.
What is this object?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thermal radiation:
Infrared spectrum
peaks at a wavelength
corresponding to a
temperature of 225 K.
What is this object?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Carbon dioxide:
Absorption lines are
the fingerprint of CO2
in the atmosphere.
What is this object?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ultraviolet emission
lines: Indicate a hot
upper atmosphere
What is this object?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mars!
What is this object?
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
How does light tell us the speed of a distant
object?
Measuring the Shift
• We generally measure the Doppler effect from
shifts in the wavelengths of spectral lines.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Measuring the Shift
• The amount of blueshift or redshift tells us an
object's speed toward or away from us.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Measuring the Shift
• Doppler shift tells us ONLY about the part of an
object's motion toward or away from us:
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
I measure a line in the lab at 500.7 nm. The same
line in a star has wavelength 502.8 nm. What can I
say about this star?
A. It is moving away from me.
B. It is moving toward me.
C. It has unusually long spectral lines.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Thought Question
I measure a line in the lab at 500.7 nm. The same
line in a star has wavelength 502.8 nm. What can I
say about this star?
A. It is moving away from me.
B. It is moving toward me.
C. It has unusually long spectral lines.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Rotation Rates
• Different Doppler
shifts from different
sides of a rotating
object spread out its
spectral lines.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Spectrum of a Rotating Object
• Spectral lines are wider when an object rotates
faster.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What have we learned?
• What are the three basic type of spectra?
• Continuous spectrum, emission line
spectrum, absorption line spectrum
• How does light tell us what things are made
of?
• Each atom has a unique fingerprint.
• We can determine which atoms something is
made of by looking for their fingerprints in the
spectrum.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
What have we learned?
• How does light tell us the temperatures of
planets and stars?
• Nearly all large or dense objects emit a
continuous spectrum that depends on
temperature.
• The spectrum of that thermal radiation tells
us the object's temperature.
• How does light tell us the speed of a distant
object?
• The Doppler effect tells us how fast an object
is moving toward or away from us.
© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Cosmology CSUDH

  • 1. Chapter 5 Lecture Chapter 5: Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. 5.1 Light in Everyday Life • Our goals for learning: • How do we experience light? • How do light and matter interact? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. How do we experience light? • The warmth of sunlight tells us that light is a form of energy. • We can measure the flow of energy in light in units of watts: 1 watt = 1 joule/s. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. Colors of Light • White light is made up of all the colors of the rainbow. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 6. How do light and matter interact? • Emission • Absorption • Transmission • Transparent objects transmit light. • Opaque objects block (absorb) light. • Reflection/scattering © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 7. Reflection and Scattering • A mirror reflects light in a particular direction. • A movie screen scatters light in all directions. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. Interactions of Light with Matter • Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance of everything around us. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. Thought Question Why is a rose red? A. The rose absorbs red light. B. The rose transmits red light. C. The rose emits red light. D. The rose reflects red light. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Thought Question Why is a rose red? A. The rose absorbs red light. B. The rose transmits red light. C. The rose emits red light. D. The rose reflects red light. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 11. What have we learned? • How do we experience light? • Light is a form of energy. • Light comes in many colors that combine to form white light. • How do light and matter interact? • Matter can emit light, absorb light, transmit light, and reflect (or scatter) light. • Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance of everything we see. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 12. 5.2 Properties of Light • Our goals for learning: • What is light? • What is the electromagnetic spectrum? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 13. What is light? • Light can act either like a wave or like a particle. • Particles of light are called photons. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 14. Waves • A wave is a pattern of motion that can carry energy without carrying matter along with it. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. Properties of Waves • Wavelength is the distance between two wave peaks. • Frequency is the number of times per second that a wave vibrates up and down. Wave speed = wavelength × frequency © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 16. Light: Electromagnetic Waves • A light wave is a vibration of electric and magnetic fields. • Light interacts with charged particles through these electric and magnetic fields. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. Wavelength and Frequency wavelength × frequency = speed of light = constant © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 18. Particles of Light • Particles of light are called photons. • Each photon has a wavelength and a frequency. • The energy of a photon depends on its frequency. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19. Wavelength, Frequency, and Energy λ × f = c λ = wavelength, f = frequency c = 3.00 × 108 m/s = speed of light E = h × f = photon energy! h = 6.626 × 10-34 joule × s = Planck's constant © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 20. Special Topic: Polarized Sunglasses • Polarization describes the direction in which a light wave is vibrating. • Reflection can change the polarization of light. • Polarized sunglasses block light that reflects off of horizontal surfaces. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 21. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 22. Thought Question The higher the photon energy, A. the longer its wavelength. B. the shorter its wavelength. C. energy is independent of wavelength. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 23. Thought Question The higher the photon energy, A. the longer its wavelength. B. the shorter its wavelength. C. energy is independent of wavelength. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 24. What have we learned? • What is light? • Light can behave like either a wave or a particle. • A light wave is a vibration of electric and magnetic fields. • Light waves have a wavelength and a frequency. • Photons are particles of light. • What is the electromagnetic spectrum? • Human eyes cannot see most forms of light. • The entire range of wavelengths of light is known as the electromagnetic spectrum. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 25. 5.3 Properties of Matter • Our goals for learning: • What is the structure of matter? • What are the phases of matter • How is energy stored in atoms? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 26. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the structure of matter?
  • 27. Atomic Terminology • Atomic number = # of protons in nucleus • Atomic mass number = # of protons + neutrons • Molecules: consist of two or more atoms (H2O, CO2) © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 28. Atomic Terminology • Isotope: same # of protons but different # of neutrons (4He, 3He) © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 29. What are the phases of matter? • Familiar phases: • Solid (ice) • Liquid (water) • Gas (water vapor) • Phases of same material behave differently because of differences in chemical bonds. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 30. Phase Changes • Ionization: stripping of electrons, changing atoms into plasma • Dissociation: breaking of molecules into atoms • Evaporation: breaking of flexible chemical bonds, changing liquid into solid • Melting: breaking of rigid chemical bonds, changing solid into liquid © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 31. Phases and Pressure • Phase of a substance depends on both temperature and pressure. • Often more than one phase is present. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 32. How is energy stored in atoms? • Electrons in atoms are restricted to particular energy levels. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Ground state Excited states
  • 33. Energy Level Transitions • The only allowed changes in energy are those corresponding to a transition between energy levels. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Not allowed Allowed
  • 34. What have we learned? • What is the structure of matter? • Matter is made of atoms, which consist of a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons. • What are the phases of matter? • Adding heat to a substance changes its phase by breaking chemical bonds. • As temperature rises, a substance transforms from a solid to a liquid to a gas, then the molecules can dissociate into atoms. • Stripping of electrons from atoms (ionization) turns the substance into a plasma. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 35. What have we learned? • How is energy stored in atoms? • The energies of electrons in atoms correspond to particular energy levels. • Atoms gain and lose energy only in amounts corresponding to particular changes in energy levels. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 36. 5.4 Learning from Light • Our goals for learning: • What are the three basic types of spectra? • How does light tell us what things are made of? • How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars? • How does light tell us the speed of a distant object? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 37. What are the three basic types of spectra? • Spectra of astrophysical objects are usually combinations of these three basic types. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 38. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Types of Spectra
  • 39. Continuous Spectrum • The spectrum of a common (incandescent) light bulb spans all visible wavelengths, without interruption. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 40. Emission Line Spectrum • A thin or low-density cloud of gas emits light only at specific wavelengths that depend on its composition and temperature, producing a spectrum with bright emission lines. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 41. Absorption Line Spectrum • A cloud of gas between us and a light bulb can absorb light of specific wavelengths, leaving dark absorption lines in the spectrum. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 42. How does light tell us what things are made of? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 43. Chemical Fingerprints • Each type of atom has a unique set of energy levels. • Each transition corresponds to a unique photon energy, frequency, and wavelength. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 44. Chemical Fingerprints • Downward transitions produce a unique pattern of emission lines. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 45. Chemical Fingerprints • Because those atoms can absorb photons with those same energies, upward transitions produce a pattern of absorption lines at the same wavelengths. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 46. Chemical Fingerprints • Each type of atom has a unique spectral fingerprint. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 47. Chemical Fingerprints • Observing the fingerprints in a spectrum tells us which kinds of atoms are present. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 48. Chemical Fingerprints Example: Solar Spectrum © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 49. Energy Levels of Molecules • Molecules have additional energy levels because they can vibrate and rotate. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 50. Energy Levels of Molecules • The large numbers of vibrational and rotational energy levels can make the spectra of molecules very complicated. • Many of these molecular transitions are in the infrared part of the spectrum. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 51. Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) absorption lines? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. A B C D E
  • 52. Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) absorption lines? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. A B C D E
  • 53. Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) the peak (greatest intensity) of infrared light? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. A B C D E
  • 54. Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) the peak (greatest intensity) of infrared light? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. A B C D E
  • 55. Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) emission lines? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. A B C D E
  • 56. Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) emission lines? © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. A B C D E
  • 57. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars?
  • 58. Thermal Radiation • Nearly all large or dense objects emit thermal radiation, including stars, planets, you. • An object's thermal radiation spectrum depends on only one property: its temperature. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 59. Properties of Thermal Radiation 1. Hotter objects emit more light at all frequencies per unit area. 2. Hotter objects emit photons with a higher average energy. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 60. Thought Question Which is hottest? A. a blue star B. a red star C. a planet that emits only infrared light © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 61. Thought Question Which is hottest? A. a blue star B. a red star C. a planet that emits only infrared light © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 62. Thought Question Why don't we glow in the dark? A. People do not emit any kind of light. B. People only emit light that is invisible to our eyes. C. People are too small to emit enough light for us to see. D. People do not contain enough radioactive material. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 63. Thought Question Why don't we glow in the dark? A. People do not emit any kind of light. B. People only emit light that is invisible to our eyes. C. People are too small to emit enough light for us to see. D. People do not contain enough radioactive material. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 64. Example: How do we interpret an actual spectrum? • By carefully studying the features in a spectrum, we can learn a great deal about the object that created it. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 65. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Reflected sunlight: Continuous spectrum of visible light is like the Sun's except that some of the blue light has been absorbed— object must look red. What is this object?
  • 66. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Thermal radiation: Infrared spectrum peaks at a wavelength corresponding to a temperature of 225 K. What is this object?
  • 67. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbon dioxide: Absorption lines are the fingerprint of CO2 in the atmosphere. What is this object?
  • 68. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Ultraviolet emission lines: Indicate a hot upper atmosphere What is this object?
  • 69. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Mars! What is this object?
  • 70. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. How does light tell us the speed of a distant object?
  • 71. Measuring the Shift • We generally measure the Doppler effect from shifts in the wavelengths of spectral lines. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 72. Measuring the Shift • The amount of blueshift or redshift tells us an object's speed toward or away from us. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 73. Measuring the Shift • Doppler shift tells us ONLY about the part of an object's motion toward or away from us: © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 74. Thought Question I measure a line in the lab at 500.7 nm. The same line in a star has wavelength 502.8 nm. What can I say about this star? A. It is moving away from me. B. It is moving toward me. C. It has unusually long spectral lines. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 75. Thought Question I measure a line in the lab at 500.7 nm. The same line in a star has wavelength 502.8 nm. What can I say about this star? A. It is moving away from me. B. It is moving toward me. C. It has unusually long spectral lines. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 76. Rotation Rates • Different Doppler shifts from different sides of a rotating object spread out its spectral lines. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 77. Spectrum of a Rotating Object • Spectral lines are wider when an object rotates faster. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 78. What have we learned? • What are the three basic type of spectra? • Continuous spectrum, emission line spectrum, absorption line spectrum • How does light tell us what things are made of? • Each atom has a unique fingerprint. • We can determine which atoms something is made of by looking for their fingerprints in the spectrum. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 79. What have we learned? • How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars? • Nearly all large or dense objects emit a continuous spectrum that depends on temperature. • The spectrum of that thermal radiation tells us the object's temperature. • How does light tell us the speed of a distant object? • The Doppler effect tells us how fast an object is moving toward or away from us. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.