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  • These are some the differences in the intent and approaches between quantitative and qualitative research. There are other significant differences in approach as well, but these are some of the highlights. Keep in mind that research design is not a simple task.
  • Sir Tariq M Research 1st Slide

    1. 1. Case Study on Wal-mart By Harvard Business Review
    2. 2. Tarique Mehmood Master Trainer Learning Innovation Division HEC Islamabad Introduction to Marketing Research
    3. 3. Learning Objectives Characteristics of Good Research Formulating Research Problem Decision Making Process Introduction to Research Types of Research & Business Research Scientific Research
    4. 4. What is RESEARCH? <ul><li>RESEARCH is composed of 2 words. </li></ul><ul><li>RE is a prefix meaning again, anew or over again. </li></ul><ul><li>SEARCH a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to probe or study thoroughly. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Qualities of a Good RESEARCHER <ul><li>R esearch-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>E fficient </li></ul><ul><li>S cientific </li></ul><ul><li>E ffective </li></ul><ul><li>A ctive </li></ul><ul><li>R esourceful </li></ul><ul><li>C reative </li></ul><ul><li>H onest </li></ul><ul><li>E conomical </li></ul><ul><li>R eligious </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Open mind </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline and focus </li></ul>What It Takes?
    7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>The study of research methods provides us with the knowledge and skills we need to solve the problems and meet the challenges of a fast-paced decision-making environment. </li></ul></ul></ul>Why Study Research?
    8. 8. Definition of Research : <ul><li>Research is a systematic activity to achieve the truth . </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Research is an organized , systematic data-based , objective , scientific enquiry/investigation into a specific problem , undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Research is a procedure of collection of data, analyzing the data and finding the conclusions . </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Hourglass of Research
    10. 10. Characteristics of Good Research <ul><li>Purpose clearly identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Research process detailed. </li></ul><ul><li>Research design thoroughly planned. </li></ul><ul><li>High ethical standards applied. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate analysis for decision maker’s needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings presented . </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions justified. </li></ul>
    11. 11. What Is Good Research? Good research generates dependable data , being derived by practices that are conducted professionally and that can be used reliably for managerial decision making. In contrast, poor research is carelessly planned and conducted, resulting in data that a manager can’t use to reduce his or her decision-making risks. Good research follows the standards of the scientific method.
    12. 12. The Manager-Researcher Relationship <ul><li>Manager’s Obligations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate background information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Researcher’s Obligations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a creative research design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide answers to important business questions </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Decision Making Decision Making in industry is now a popular subject for discussion and research. Recognizing that the wrong decision may cost thousands , sometimes even millions of pounds, top management is searching for ways of improving its score of bulls eyes.
    14. 14. An Introduction to Decision Making Process (DMP) <ul><li>the variables related to each phase of the process of making decision, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>( i ) Rational decision making/ management science/managerial economics : decision making based on the scientific method. </li></ul><ul><li>( ii ) behavioral decision making : decision making based on human behavior . </li></ul>
    15. 15. Decision Making level
    16. 16. Formulating Research Problem
    17. 17. “ The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution.” Albert Einstein
    18. 18. Starting Off… <ul><li>W hat is your research about? </li></ul><ul><li>Research Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Purpose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Question </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>General Specific
    19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Differences Among Topic, Problem, Purpose and Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A research topic is the broad subject matter or interest being addressed in a study. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A research problem is a specific issue or concern to be studied. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A purpose is the major intent or objective of the study… Why should you do it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research questions are questions the researcher would like specifically answered or addressed in the study. </li></ul></ul></ul>Distinguishing the Research Problem From Other Research Steps
    20. 20. Examples General Specific Topic Research Problem Purpose Statement Research Question Employee Turnover To determine factors To increase employee’s turnover rate . Which factors play an important role in the increasing employee’s turnover rate in Pakistan Pharmaceutical industry ? Why Employee leave the organizations.
    21. 21. <ul><li>Research questions – some ACRONYM Checklists </li></ul><ul><li>B E T T E R research questions </li></ul><ul><li>S M A R T E R research questions </li></ul><ul><li>R O M A N T I C research questions! </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>B E T T E R research questions </li></ul><ul><li>B - Biting/having bite </li></ul><ul><li>E - Engaging </li></ul><ul><li>T - Targeted (i.e. focussed at a gap, issue etc) </li></ul><ul><li>T - Timely (the moment is right!) </li></ul><ul><li>E - Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>R - Reputation enhancing </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>S M A R T E R research questions </li></ul><ul><li>S - Significant </li></ul><ul><li>M – Motivating/Motivational </li></ul><ul><li>A - Addressable/Answerable </li></ul><ul><li>R - Relevant (to today/tomorrow, the field) </li></ul><ul><li>T - Targeted (i.e. focussed at a gap, issue, idea) </li></ul><ul><li>E - Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>R - Replicable/Repeatable </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>‘ R O M A N T I C’ research questions </li></ul><ul><li>R - Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>O - Original </li></ul><ul><li>M - Motivational and Manageable </li></ul><ul><li>A - Addressable/Answerable </li></ul><ul><li>N - Novel in some way (if not entirely Original) </li></ul><ul><li>T - Timely (the moment is right!) </li></ul><ul><li>I - Inspiring/inspirational/incisive </li></ul><ul><li>C – Cutting a distinctive path </li></ul>
    25. 25. Types of research <ul><li>Research can be classified from three perspectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Application of the research study; </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives in understanding the research; </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry mode employed. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Types of research Types of research Application Objectives Inquiry mode Correlation research Exploratory research Qualitative research Quantitative research Pure research Applied research From the viewpoint of
    27. 27. Application Research <ul><li>• Pure research: </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the development, examination, verification and refinement of research methods, procedures, techniques and tools that forms the body of research methodology. Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge . Not directly involved in the solution to a practical problem . </li></ul><ul><li>• Applied Research: </li></ul><ul><li>To solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting, demanding a timely solution . about various aspects of a situation, issues, problems or phenomenon . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted when a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Exploratory Research This is when a study is undertaken with the objective either to explore new area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular study . • When a study is carried out to determine its feasibility it is called a feasibility study or a pilot study . Objective Research
    29. 29. Correlation Research <ul><li>• It is the study to discover or establish the existence of a Relationship/interdependence between two or more Aspects or Variable of a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact of an advertising campaign on a sale of a product? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between technology and unemployment? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Inquiry Mode Research Comparison <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation, prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Test theories </li></ul><ul><li>Known variables </li></ul><ul><li>Large sample </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation, description </li></ul><ul><li>Build theories </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown variables </li></ul><ul><li>Small sample </li></ul><ul><li>Observations, interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive </li></ul>
    31. 31. Main Steps in Quantitative Research: <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Research design </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Select research site(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Select research subjects/respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Administer research instruments/ collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Process data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse data </li></ul><ul><li>Write up findings and conclusions </li></ul>
    32. 32. Main Steps in Qualitative Research: <ul><li>General research question </li></ul><ul><li>Select relevant sites and subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of relevant data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of data </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual and theoretical work </li></ul><ul><li>Specification of the research question </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of further data </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual and theoretical work </li></ul><ul><li>Write up findings </li></ul>
    33. 33. Examples of Quantitative Research Methods: <ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Social surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Statistical Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Official Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field stimulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Interviews and Observation. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Examples of Qualitative Research Methods : <ul><li>In-depth Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Field Research </li></ul><ul><li>Historical-Comparative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Media Analysis </li></ul>
    35. 35. Business Research Defined Business research is defined as the systematic and objective process of generating information for aid in making business decisions.
    36. 36. Business Research Types Basic research Applied research
    37. 37. Research can be undertaken for two different purposes . <ul><ul><li>Applied Research: to solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting, demanding a timely solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted when a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particular product may not be selling well and the manager might want to find the reasons for this in order to take corrective action. </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Basic Research <ul><li>Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Not directly involved in the solution to a practical problem. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Scientific Research <ul><li>The analysis and interpretation of empirical evidence (facts from observation or experimentation) to confirm or disprove prior/past conceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Major elements of Scientific Research: </li></ul><ul><li>1: Purpose. 2: Testability. </li></ul><ul><li>3: Replicability. 4: Precision. </li></ul><ul><li>5: Confidence Level. </li></ul><ul><li>6: Objectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>7: Generalizability . </li></ul>
    40. 40. Thanks