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Hermes Reliable Replication Protocol - ASPLOS'20 Presentation

"Hermes: A Fast, Fault-Tolerant and Linearizable Replication Protocol" -- ASPLOS'20

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Hermes
A Fast, Fault-tolerant and Linearizable
Replication Protocol
Antonios Katsarakis, V. Gavrielatos, S. Katebzadeh,
A. Joshi*, B. Grot, V. Nagarajan, A. Dragojevic†
University of Edinburgh, *Intel, †Microsoft Research
hermes-protocol.com
Thanks to:
In-memory with read/write API
Backbone of online services
Need:
High performance
Fault tolerance
Distributed datastores
2
Distributed Datastore
In-memory with read/write API
Backbone of online services
Need:
High performance
Fault tolerance
Distributed datastores
3
Distributed Datastore
In-memory with read/write API
Backbone of online services
Need:
High performance
Fault tolerance
Distributed datastores
4
Distributed Datastore
In-memory with read/write API
Backbone of online services
Need:
High performance
Fault tolerance
Distributed datastores
5
Distributed Datastore
In-memory with read/write API
Backbone of online services
Need:
High performance
Fault tolerance
Distributed datastores
6
Distributed Datastore

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Hermes Reliable Replication Protocol - ASPLOS'20 Presentation

  • 1. Hermes A Fast, Fault-tolerant and Linearizable Replication Protocol Antonios Katsarakis, V. Gavrielatos, S. Katebzadeh, A. Joshi*, B. Grot, V. Nagarajan, A. Dragojevic† University of Edinburgh, *Intel, †Microsoft Research hermes-protocol.com Thanks to:
  • 2. In-memory with read/write API Backbone of online services Need: High performance Fault tolerance Distributed datastores 2 Distributed Datastore
  • 3. In-memory with read/write API Backbone of online services Need: High performance Fault tolerance Distributed datastores 3 Distributed Datastore
  • 4. In-memory with read/write API Backbone of online services Need: High performance Fault tolerance Distributed datastores 4 Distributed Datastore
  • 5. In-memory with read/write API Backbone of online services Need: High performance Fault tolerance Distributed datastores 5 Distributed Datastore
  • 6. In-memory with read/write API Backbone of online services Need: High performance Fault tolerance Distributed datastores 6 Distributed Datastore
  • 7. In-memory with read/write API Backbone of online services Need: High performance Fault tolerance Distributed datastores 7 Distributed Datastore Mandates data replication
  • 8. Typically 3 to 7 replicas Consistency Weak: performance but nasty surprises Strong: programmable and intuitive Reliable replication protocols • Strong consistency even under faults • Define actions to execute reads & writes à these determine a datastore’s performance Replication 101 9 …… … …
  • 9. Typically 3 to 7 replicas Consistency Weak: performance but nasty surprises Strong: programmable and intuitive Reliable replication protocols • Strong consistency even under faults • Define actions to execute reads & writes à these determine a datastore’s performance Replication 101 10 …… … …
  • 10. Typically 3 to 7 replicas Consistency Weak: performance but nasty surprises Strong: programmable and intuitive Reliable replication protocols • Strong consistency even under faults • Define actions to execute reads & writes à these determine a datastore’s performance Replication 101 11 …… … … Reliable Replication Protocol
  • 11. Typically 3 to 7 replicas Consistency Weak: performance but nasty surprises Strong: programmable and intuitive Reliable replication protocols • Strong consistency even under faults • Define actions to execute reads & writes à these determine a datastore’s performance Replication 101 12 …… … … Reliable Replication Protocol
  • 12. Typically 3 to 7 replicas Consistency Weak: performance but nasty surprises Strong: programmable and intuitive Reliable replication protocols • Strong consistency even under faults • Define actions to execute reads & writes à these determine a datastore’s performance Replication 101 13 Can reliable protocols provide high performance? …… … … Reliable Replication Protocol
  • 13. Golden standard strong consistency and fault tolerance Low performance reads à inter-replica communication writes à multiple RTTs over the network Common-case performance (i.e., no faults) as bad as worst-case (under faults) 15 Paxos
  • 14. Golden standard strong consistency and fault tolerance Low performance reads à inter-replica communication writes à multiple RTTs over the network Common-case performance (i.e., no faults) as bad as worst-case (under faults) 16 Paxos
  • 15. Golden standard strong consistency and fault tolerance Low performance reads à inter-replica communication writes à multiple RTTs over the network Common-case performance (i.e., no faults) as bad as worst-case (under faults) 17 Paxos
  • 16. Golden standard strong consistency and fault tolerance Low performance reads à inter-replica communication writes à multiple RTTs over the network Common-case performance (i.e., no faults) as bad as worst-case (under faults) 18 Paxos State-of-the-art reliable protocols exploit failure-free operation for performance
  • 17. 20 Performance of state-of-the-art protocols Leader ZAB replicas
  • 18. 21 Performance of state-of-the-art protocols Leader ZAB writeread bcastucast Local reads form all replicas à Fast
  • 19. 22 Performance of state-of-the-art protocols Leader ZAB Leader Writes serialize on the leader à Low throughput writeread bcastucast Local reads form all replicas à Fast
  • 20. 23 Performance of state-of-the-art protocols Leader ZAB Leader Writes serialize on the leader à Low throughput Head Tail CRAQ writeread bcastucast Local reads form all replicas à Fast
  • 21. 24 Performance of state-of-the-art protocols Leader ZAB Leader Writes serialize on the leader à Low throughput Head Tail CRAQ writeread bcastucast Local reads form all replicas à Fast Local reads form all replicas à Fast
  • 22. 25 Performance of state-of-the-art protocols Leader ZAB Leader Writes serialize on the leader à Low throughput Head Tail CRAQ Head Tail Writes traverse length of the chain à High latency writeread bcastucast Local reads form all replicas à Fast Local reads form all replicas à Fast
  • 23. 26 Performance of state-of-the-art protocols Leader ZAB Leader Writes serialize on the leader à Low throughput Head Tail CRAQ Head Tail Writes traverse length of the chain à High latency writeread bcastucast Fast reads but poor write performance Local reads form all replicas à Fast Local reads form all replicas à Fast
  • 24. 28 Goal: low-latency + high-throughput Reads Local from all replicas Writes Fast - Minimize network hops Decentralized - No serialization points Fully concurrent - Any replica can service a write Key protocol features for high performance
  • 25. 29 Goal: low-latency + high-throughput Reads Local from all replicas Writes Fast - Minimize network hops Decentralized - No serialization points Fully concurrent - Any replica can service a write Key protocol features for high performance Local reads from all replicas
  • 26. 30 Goal: low-latency + high-throughput Reads Local from all replicas Writes Fast - Minimize network hops Decentralized - No serialization points Fully concurrent - Any replica can service a write Key protocol features for high performance Local reads from all replicas Head Tail Avoid long latencies
  • 27. 32 Goal: low-latency + high-throughput Reads Local from all replicas Writes Fast - Minimize network hops Decentralized - No serialization points Fully concurrent - Any replica can service a write Leader Avoid write serialization Key protocol features for high performance Local reads from all replicas
  • 28. 33 Goal: low-latency + high-throughput Reads Local from all replicas Writes Fast - Minimize network hops Decentralized - No serialization points Fully concurrent - Any replica can service a write Key protocol features for high performance Local reads from all replicas Fast, decentralized, fully concurrent writes
  • 29. 34 Goal: low-latency + high-throughput Reads Local from all replicas Writes Fast - Minimize network hops Decentralized - No serialization points Fully concurrent - Any replica can service a write Key protocol features for high performance Local reads from all replicas Fast, decentralized, fully concurrent writes Existing replication protocols are deficient
  • 30. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations - Coordinator is a replica servicing a write Enter Hermes 36
  • 31. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations - Coordinator is a replica servicing a write Enter Hermes 37 write(A=3) Coordinator Followers
  • 32. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations - Coordinator is a replica servicing a write Enter Hermes 38 States of A: Valid, Invalid write(A=3) Coordinator Followers I Invalidation I
  • 33. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations - Coordinator is a replica servicing a write Enter Hermes 39 States of A: Valid, Invalid write(A=3) Coordinator Followers At this point, no stale reads can be served Strong consistency! I Invalidation I
  • 34. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations 2. Followers Acknowledge invalidation 3. Coordinator broadcasts Validations - All replicas can now serve reads for this object Strongest consistency Linearizability Local reads from all replicas à valid objects = latest value Enter Hermes 41 States of A: Valid, Invalid write(A=3) Coordinator Followers Ack Ack I Invalidation I
  • 35. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations 2. Followers Acknowledge invalidation 3. Coordinator broadcasts Validations - All replicas can now serve reads for this object Strongest consistency Linearizability Local reads from all replicas à valid objects = latest value Enter Hermes 42 States of A: Valid, Invalid write(A=3) Coordinator Followers Ack Ack I Invalidation I Vcommit
  • 36. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations 2. Followers Acknowledge invalidation 3. Coordinator broadcasts Validations - All replicas can now serve reads for this object Strongest consistency Linearizability Local reads from all replicas à valid objects = latest value Enter Hermes 43 States of A: Valid, Invalid write(A=3) Coordinator Followers V Validation V Ack Ack I Invalidation I V
  • 37. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations 2. Followers Acknowledge invalidation 3. Coordinator broadcasts Validations - All replicas can now serve reads for this object Strongest consistency Linearizability Local reads from all replicas à valid objects = latest value Enter Hermes 44 States of A: Valid, Invalid write(A=3) Coordinator Followers V Validation V Ack Ack I Invalidation I V
  • 38. Broadcast-based, invalidating replication protocol Inspired by multiprocessor cache-coherence protocols Fault-free operation: 1. Coordinator broadcasts Invalidations 2. Followers Acknowledge invalidation 3. Coordinator broadcasts Validations - All replicas can now serve reads for this object Strongest consistency Linearizability Local reads from all replicas à valid objects = latest value Enter Hermes 45 States of A: Valid, Invalid write(A=3) Coordinator Followers What about concurrent writes? V Validation V Ack Ack I Invalidation I V
  • 39. Challenge How to efficiently order concurrent writes to an object? Solution Store a logical timestamp (TS) along with each object - Upon a write: coordinator increments TS and sends it with Invalidations - Upon receiving Invalidation: a follower updates the object’s TS - When two writes to the same object race: use node ID to order them Concurrent writes = challenge 47 write(A=3) write(A=1)
  • 40. Challenge How to efficiently order concurrent writes to an object? Solution Store a logical timestamp (TS) along with each object - Upon a write: coordinator increments TS and sends it with Invalidations - Upon receiving Invalidation: a follower updates the object’s TS - When two writes to the same object race: use node ID to order them Concurrent writes = challenge 48 write(A=3) write(A=1)
  • 41. Challenge How to efficiently order concurrent writes to an object? Solution Store a logical timestamp (TS) along with each object - Upon a write: coordinator increments TS and sends it with Invalidations - Upon receiving Invalidation: a follower updates the object’s TS - When two writes to the same object race: use node ID to order them Concurrent writes = challenge 49 write(A=3) write(A=1) Inv(TS1) Inv(TS4)
  • 42. Challenge How to efficiently order concurrent writes to an object? Solution Store a logical timestamp (TS) along with each object - Upon a write: coordinator increments TS and sends it with Invalidations - Upon receiving Invalidation: a follower updates the object’s TS - When two writes to the same object race: use node ID to order them Concurrent writes = challenge 50 write(A=3) write(A=1) Inv(TS1) Inv(TS4)
  • 43. Challenge How to efficiently order concurrent writes to an object? Solution Store a logical timestamp (TS) along with each object - Upon a write: coordinator increments TS and sends it with Invalidations - Upon receiving Invalidation: a follower updates the object’s TS - When two writes to the same object race: use node ID to order them Concurrent writes = challenge 51 write(A=3) write(A=1) Inv(TS1) Inv(TS4)
  • 44. Challenge How to efficiently order concurrent writes to an object? Solution Store a logical timestamp (TS) along with each object - Upon a write: coordinator increments TS and sends it with Invalidations - Upon receiving Invalidation: a follower updates the object’s TS - When two writes to the same object race: use node ID to order them Concurrent writes = challenge 52 write(A=3) write(A=1) Inv(TS1) Inv(TS4) Broadcast + Invalidations + TS à high performance writes
  • 45. 1. Decentralized Fully distributed write ordering at endpoints 2. Fully concurrent Any replica can coordinate a write Writes to different objects proceed in parallel 3. Fast Writes commit in 1 RTT Writes never abort Writes in Hermes 54 Broadcast + Invalidations + TS
  • 46. 1. Decentralized Fully distributed write ordering at endpoints 2. Fully concurrent Any replica can coordinate a write Writes to different objects proceed in parallel 3. Fast Writes commit in 1 RTT Writes never abort Writes in Hermes 55 Broadcast + Invalidations + TS
  • 47. 1. Decentralized Fully distributed write ordering at endpoints 2. Fully concurrent Any replica can coordinate a write Writes to different objects proceed in parallel 3. Fast Writes commit in 1 RTT Writes never abort Writes in Hermes 56 Broadcast + Invalidations + TS
  • 48. 1. Decentralized Fully distributed write ordering at endpoints 2. Fully concurrent Any replica can coordinate a write Writes to different objects proceed in parallel 3. Fast Writes commit in 1 RTT Writes never abort Writes in Hermes 57 Broadcast + Invalidations + TS
  • 49. 1. Decentralized Fully distributed write ordering at endpoints 2. Fully concurrent Any replica can coordinate a write Writes to different objects proceed in parallel 3. Fast Writes commit in 1 RTT Writes never abort Writes in Hermes 58 Awesome! But what about fault tolerance? Broadcast + Invalidations + TS
  • 50. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation 60 Handling faults in Hermes
  • 51. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 61 Handling faults in Hermes
  • 52. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 62 Handling faults in Hermes Inv(TS) I I
  • 53. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 63 Handling faults in Hermes Inv(TS) Coordinator fails I I
  • 54. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 64 Handling faults in Hermes read(A) Inv(TS) Coordinator fails I I
  • 55. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 65 Handling faults in Hermes read(A) Inv(TS) Coordinator fails I I
  • 56. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Idea Allow any Invalidated replica to replay the write and unblock. Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 66 Handling faults in Hermes read(A) Inv(TS) Coordinator fails I I
  • 57. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Idea Allow any Invalidated replica to replay the write and unblock. How? Insight: to replay a write need - Write’s original TS (for ordering) - Write value Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 67 Handling faults in Hermes read(A) Inv(TS) Coordinator fails I I
  • 58. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Idea Allow any Invalidated replica to replay the write and unblock. How? Insight: to replay a write need - Write’s original TS (for ordering) - Write value TS sent with Invalidation, but write value is not Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation write(A=3) Coordinator Followers 68 Handling faults in Hermes read(A) Inv(TS) Coordinator fails I I
  • 59. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Idea Allow any Invalidated replica to replay the write and unblock. How? Insight: to replay a write need - Write’s original TS (for ordering) - Write value TS sent with Invalidation, but write value is not Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation Handling faults in Hermes 70 Inv(3,TS)write(A=3) Coordinator fails I I Coordinator Followers
  • 60. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Idea Allow any Invalidated replica to replay the write and unblock. How? Insight: to replay a write need - Write’s original TS (for ordering) - Write value TS sent with Invalidation, but write value is not Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation Handling faults in Hermes 71 Inv(3,TS)write(A=3) read(A) Coordinator fails I I Coordinator Followers
  • 61. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Idea Allow any Invalidated replica to replay the write and unblock. How? Insight: to replay a write need - Write’s original TS (for ordering) - Write value TS sent with Invalidation, but write value is not Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation V V Inv(3,TS) completion write replay read(A) Handling faults in Hermes 73 Inv(3,TS)write(A=3) Coordinator fails I I Coordinator Followers
  • 62. Problem A failure in the middle of a write can permanently leave a replica in Invalid state Idea Allow any Invalidated replica to replay the write and unblock. How? Insight: to replay a write need - Write’s original TS (for ordering) - Write value TS sent with Invalidation, but write value is not Solution: send write value with Invalidation à Early value propagation V V Inv(3,TS) completion write replay read(A) Handling faults in Hermes 74 Inv(3,TS)write(A=3) Early value propagation enables write replays Coordinator fails I I Coordinator Followers
  • 63. Strong Consistency through CC-inspired Invalidations Fault-tolerance write replays via early value propagation High Performance Local reads at all replicas High performance writes Fast Decentralized Fully-distributed Hermes recap 76 V I write(A=3) commit Coordinator Followers Inv(3,TS) V I V Broadcast + Invalidations + TS + early value propagation
  • 64. Strong Consistency through CC-inspired Invalidations Fault-tolerance write replays via early value propagation High Performance Local reads at all replicas High performance writes Fast Decentralized Fully-distributed Hermes recap 77 V I write(A=3) commit Coordinator Followers Inv(3,TS) V I V Broadcast + Invalidations + TS + early value propagation In the paper: protocol details, RMWs, other goodies
  • 65. Evaluation 78 State-of-the-art hardware testbed - 5 servers - 2x 10 core Intel Xeon E5-2630v4 per server - 56 Gb/s InfiniBand NICs KVS Workload - Uniform access distribution - Million KV pairs: <8B keys, 32B values> Evaluated protocols: - ZAB - CRAQ - Hermes
  • 66. Performance 79 Throughput high-perf. writes + local reads conc. writes + local reads local reads Millionrequests/sec
  • 67. Performance 80 Throughput high-perf. writes + local reads conc. writes + local reads local reads 4x 40% Millionrequests/sec
  • 68. Performance 81 Throughput high-perf. writes + local reads conc. writes + local reads local reads 4x 40% Millionrequests/sec Write performance matters even at low write ratios
  • 69. Performance 82 Throughput high-perf. writes + local reads conc. writes + local reads local reads 4x 40% 5% Write Ratio Write Latency (normalized to Hermes) Millionrequests/sec Write performance matters even at low write ratios
  • 70. Performance 83 Throughput high-perf. writes + local reads conc. writes + local reads local reads 4x 40% 5% Write Ratio Write Latency (normalized to Hermes) Millionrequests/sec Write performance matters even at low write ratios 6x
  • 71. Performance 84 Throughput high-perf. writes + local reads conc. writes + local reads local reads 4x 40% 5% Write Ratio Write Latency (normalized to Hermes) Millionrequests/sec Write performance matters even at low write ratios 6x Hermes: highest throughput & lowest latency
  • 72. Hermes Broadcast + Invalidations + TS + early value propagation Hermes-protocol.com Code available TLA+ verification Q&A Conclusion 86
  • 73. Hermes Broadcast + Invalidations + TS + early value propagation Strong consistency Fault tolerance via write replays High performance Local reads from all replicas High performance writes Fast Decentralized Fully concurrent Hermes-protocol.com Code available TLA+ verification Q&A Conclusion 87
  • 74. Hermes Broadcast + Invalidations + TS + early value propagation Strong consistency Fault tolerance via write replays High performance Local reads from all replicas High performance writes Fast Decentralized Fully concurrent Hermes-protocol.com Code available TLA+ verification Q&A Conclusion 88
  • 75. Hermes Broadcast + Invalidations + TS + early value propagation Strong consistency Fault tolerance via write replays High performance Local reads from all replicas High performance writes Fast Decentralized Fully concurrent Hermes-protocol.com Code available TLA+ verification Q&A Conclusion 89 Need reliability and performance? Choose Hermes!