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A STUDY OF SMART MATERIALS USED
IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
UNDER GUIDANCE OF
Er. Alice Johny
Asst. Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
SUBMITTED BY
Annie Rachel John
SECM
SM-23-044
1
CONTENT
1. Introduction
2. Definition and Types of Smart Materials
3. Applications of Smart Materials in Construction
4. Benefits of Smart Materials
5. Challenges and Limitations of Smart Materials
6. Conclusion
7. Reference
2
INTRODUCTION
Smart materials are revolutionizing the construction industry by
providing innovative solutions that enhance building performance,
energy efficiency, and sustainability.
• The Evolution of Materials in Human Civilization
Stone Age: Shaping and using stones
Bronze Age: Discovery of bronze through metallurgy
Industrial Revolution: Development of plastics and composites
Recent Decades: Synthesis of novel materials
3
DEFINITION
• A smart material is a new class of nanomaterials with the ability
to self-respond to external stimuli.
• It can alter one or more of their properties in response to external
stimuli.
• External stimuli can include stress, temperature, light, electrical
or magnetic fields, mechanical deformation, electrochemical
actions, or pH value.
4
FACTORS DRIVING THE GROWTH OF SM IN
CONSTRUCTION
• Aging infrastructure:
The need to upgrade and renovate aging infrastructure is creating
a demand for new and innovative construction materials.
• Sustainability concerns:
Smart materials can help to achieve sustainability goal by
reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste, and improving
durability.
5
• Advancements in technology:
Advancements in material science and engineering are leading to the
development of new and improved smart materials.
• Increasing demand for intelligent buildings:
The demand for intelligent buildings that can adapt to the needs of
their occupants is increasing. Smart materials can play a key role in the
development of these buildings.
6

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STUDY OF SMART MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION-1.pptx

  • 1. A STUDY OF SMART MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY UNDER GUIDANCE OF Er. Alice Johny Asst. Professor Department of Civil Engineering SUBMITTED BY Annie Rachel John SECM SM-23-044 1
  • 2. CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Definition and Types of Smart Materials 3. Applications of Smart Materials in Construction 4. Benefits of Smart Materials 5. Challenges and Limitations of Smart Materials 6. Conclusion 7. Reference 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Smart materials are revolutionizing the construction industry by providing innovative solutions that enhance building performance, energy efficiency, and sustainability. • The Evolution of Materials in Human Civilization Stone Age: Shaping and using stones Bronze Age: Discovery of bronze through metallurgy Industrial Revolution: Development of plastics and composites Recent Decades: Synthesis of novel materials 3
  • 4. DEFINITION • A smart material is a new class of nanomaterials with the ability to self-respond to external stimuli. • It can alter one or more of their properties in response to external stimuli. • External stimuli can include stress, temperature, light, electrical or magnetic fields, mechanical deformation, electrochemical actions, or pH value. 4
  • 5. FACTORS DRIVING THE GROWTH OF SM IN CONSTRUCTION • Aging infrastructure: The need to upgrade and renovate aging infrastructure is creating a demand for new and innovative construction materials. • Sustainability concerns: Smart materials can help to achieve sustainability goal by reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste, and improving durability. 5
  • 6. • Advancements in technology: Advancements in material science and engineering are leading to the development of new and improved smart materials. • Increasing demand for intelligent buildings: The demand for intelligent buildings that can adapt to the needs of their occupants is increasing. Smart materials can play a key role in the development of these buildings. 6
  • 7. TYPES 1. Smart Concrete 1. Self-healing Concrete 2. Self Sensing Concrete 3. Conductive Concrete 2. Shape Memory Alloy 3. Carbon Concrete 4. Aerogel 7
  • 8. 1. SMART CONCRETE  Smart concrete is a type of concrete that can sense and respond to changes in its environment.  It contains sensors or other materials that can detect cracks, changes in temperature or humidity, or other stimuli.  When a stimulus is detected, the smart concrete releases a healing agent or takes other action to repair itself or prevent further damage. 8
  • 9. TYPES OF SMART CONCRETE I. Self-healing concrete: • Self-healing concrete is a type of concrete that contains encapsulated bacteria or chemicals that can repair cracks and damage. • When a crack forms in self-healing concrete, the capsules rupture, releasing the bacteria or chemicals into the crack. • The bacteria or chemicals then react with the surrounding concrete to form a new, hardened material that fills the crack. source: https://images.app.goo.gl/bs sThH9RA9WjPJUU7 9
  • 10. How Does Self-Healing Concrete Work? • There are two main methods of self-healing concrete: • Bacterial self-healing: This method uses encapsulated bacteria that produce calcium carbonate, which fills cracks in the concrete. • Chemical self-healing: This method uses encapsulated chemicals that react with each other and with the surrounding concrete to form a new, hardened material. 10
  • 11. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages  Reduced maintenance costs  Extended lifespan  Improved durability  Sustainability  Increased safety Disadvantages  Limited availability  Complexity of implementation  Limited understanding of long-term performance  High cost 11
  • 12. II. Self-Sensing concrete: • Self-sensing concrete is a type of concrete that contains conductive fibers or particles that change their electrical resistance in response to mechanical stress or strain. • When a load is applied to self-sensing concrete, the conductive fibers or particles deform, causing a change in their electrical resistance. • This change in electrical resistance can be measured and used to monitor the strain, stress, and damage in the concrete structure. . 12
  • 13. There are two main types of self-sensing concrete:  Piezoresistive self-sensing concrete: This type of concrete uses conductive fibers or particles that change their electrical resistance in response to pressure or stress.  Piezoelectric self-sensing concrete: This type of concrete uses piezoelectric materials that generate an electrical charge in response to mechanical strain. Source: Self-Sensing Concrete (Chrysanthos,2021) 13
  • 14. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages  Improved structural health monitoring  Reduced maintenance costs  Increased safety Disadvantages  More expensive  Complexity of installation  Limited availability  Durability 14
  • 15. III. Conductive concrete: Conductive concrete is a type of concrete that contains conductive fibers or particles, such as graphite, steel, or nickel. These conductive fibers or particles create a network throughout the concrete that allows electricity to flow through the material. Source: https://www.internationales- verkehrswesen.de/wp- content/uploads/2018/06/figure_1_talg aresources.jpg 15
  • 16. 2. SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY  Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of materials that can remember and return to a predetermined shape when subjected to a specific stimulus, such as temperature or stress. Source: SMA (V Rayan,2008) 16
  • 17.  SMAs are a type of metal alloy that exhibits two distinct phases: the martensitic phase and the austenitic phase.  In the martensitic phase, the alloy is deformed and can be easily shaped.  Upon heating or applying stress, the alloy undergoes a phase transformation to the austenitic phase, returning to its original shape 17
  • 18. There are two main types of shape memory alloys:  One-way SMAs: These alloys only exhibit shape memory behavior in one direction. They remember and return to their original shape when heated or stressed beyond a certain threshold.  Two-way SMAs: These alloys exhibit shape memory behavior in both directions. They can remember and return to two predetermined shapes, one in the martensitic phase and another in the austenitic phase. 18
  • 19. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages  Shape memory  Corrosion resistance  Fatigue resistance  High power density  Low energy consumption Disadvantages  Cost  Hysteresis  Limited training range  Brittleness  Limited ductility 19
  • 20. 4. CARBON CONCRETE  Carbon concrete, is a composite material that combines the strength and durability of concrete with the versatility and high tensile strength of carbon fibers.  It is four times stronger and lighter than the usual reinforced concrete. Source: Carbon Concrete Produced from Carbon Mesh and Rebar (The civil constructor) 20
  • 21. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages  Increased strength  Reduced weight  Reduced environmental impact  Fire resistance Disadvantages  High Cost  Need for specialized equipment  Complexity of production  Brittleness  Limited availability 21
  • 22. 4. AEROGEL  Aerogel is a synthetic porous material derived from a gel, in which the gel's liquid component is replaced with a gas.  It is a solid with the lowest known density, making it incredibly lightweight.  Aerogels can be classified into three main types: oxide, polymer, and carbon-based 22
  • 23. Types of Aerogel used in construction 1. Silica aerogel: It is made from silica gel. High thermal insulation properties Used in a variety of applications, including Building insulation, Fireproofing Soundproofing. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerogel 23
  • 24. 2. Carbon aerogel:  It is made from carbon nanotubes or graphene.  Lighter and stronger than silica aerogel.  It has better thermal insulation properties. Source: https://www.bbc.com/news/s cience-environment- 22079592 24
  • 25. 3. Polymer aerogel:  It is made from polymers, such as polyimide or polystyrene.  The unique property of this aerogel is it has the ability to be shaped into different forms Source: NASA (News Atlas) 25
  • 26. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages  Ultra-low density  High thermal insulation  High porosity  Large surface area  Non-toxic and environmentally friendly Disadvantages  High Cost  Moisture sensitivity  Hygroscopic nature 26
  • 27. APPLICATION OF SMs • Energy-efficient. • Self-healing and self-actuating. • Smart sensors for structural health monitoring. • Adaptive facades for temperature regulation. 27
  • 28. BENEFITS OF USING SM • Enhanced structural performance: It is used to create adaptive structures that can change their shape or properties in response to changes in their environment. • Improved energy efficiency: It can be used to create electrochromic materials that can change their color or opacity in response to electrical current. • Improved safety: Smart materials can be used to create sensors that can detect cracks, leaks, and other potential hazards. 28
  • 29. • Promote sustainability: Smart materials can be used to create photocatalytic materials that can break down pollutants in the air and water. They can also be used to create bio-based materials that are made from renewable resources. • Reduce maintenance and repair costs: It helps to reduce maintenance and repair costs by extending the lifespan of buildings and structures. 29
  • 30. CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS OF SM • Cost implications • Technical limitations and compatibility issues • Lack of standardization and regulations • Resistance to adoption and implementation 30
  • 31. CONCLUSION  The integration of smart materials into buildings can lead to enhanced energy efficiency, improved structural integrity, increased safety, reduced maintenance costs, and a more sustainable construction process.  As research and development continue, we can expect to see even more innovative applications for smart materials in construction, shaping the future of sustainable and resilient buildings. 31
  • 32. REFERENCE  [1] Shashi Bahl , Himanshu Nagar , Inderpreet Singh and Shankar Sehgal (2020). “Smart materials types, properties and applications: A review” Journal MaterialsToday: Proceedings , Volume 28, Part 3, Pages 1302-1306.  [2] Mert Yildirimb and Zeki Candan. (2023). “Smart materials: The next generation in science and engineering”, Journal MaterialsToday: Proceedings , j.matpr.2023.10.116.  [3] Dr. Abeer Samy Yusef Muhammed(2017). “Smart Materials Innovative Technologies; Towards Innovative Design Paradigm”, Energy Procedia, 115, 139-154.  [4] Natt Makul (2020). “Advanced smart concrete - A review of current progress, benefits and challenges”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 274, 122899.  [5] Zhuang Tian , Yancheng Li , Jiajia Zheng and Shuguang Wang (2019). “A state-of-the-art on self-sensing concrete: Materials, fabrication and properties”, Composites Part B: Engineering, 117, 107437. 32
  • 33.  [6] Chrysanthos Maraveas and Thomas Bartzanas (2021). “Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Agricultural Structures”, MDPI Sensors, 347994947.  [7] Partik Deogekar and Bassem Andrews (2018). “Hybrid Confinement of High Strength Concrete using Shape Memory Alloys and Fiber Reinforced Polymers ”, Journal of structural integrity and Maintenance , Vol 23, 22-32.  [8] W.-J. Yang, C.-X Wei, A.C.Y Yuen, B. Lin, G.H. Yeoh, H.-D. Yang (2022). “Fire Retarded Nanocomposites Aerogels for Multifunctional Applications: A review”, Composites Part B: Engineering, 237, 109866.  [9] Monika Gandhi, Ashok Kumar, Rajasekar Elangovan ,Chandan Swaroop Meena, Kishor S. Kulkarni, Anuj Kumar, Garima Bhanot, and Nishant R. Kapoor(2020). “A Review on Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials for Latent Energy Storage in Buildings”, Sustainability, 12(22), 9481. 33
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