SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 8
Download to read offline
Smart Water Meter System for Detecting
Sudden Water Leakage
Aneek Banerjee
National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Orisha-761008
aneek.uit.bwn@gmail.com
Abstract — This article deals with a proposal of a smart water meter for monitoring water
consumption and for accidental leakage detection. The hardware part of the smart water meter
consists of a mini-computer and a pulse water meter. Application logic is then in the hands of the
original software that evaluates water consumption patterns. If a water leak is detected, the smart
water meter uses a ball valve to close the inlet. The meter also has a self-learning mode that can
recommend set limits within the reference period. A separate application interface is designed for
communication between the meter and the user .Various computer simulations were used to test
and initiate different water consumption scenarios.
Keywords - Smart water meter; water leak; web services; water monitoring; computer
simulation.
I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, we witness the dynamic development of industry 4.0 that can be found in all areas.
One of the industry's 4.0 components is the Internet of Things (IoT), which is mainly used for
consumer, business and infrastructure applications. Besides the Internet of Things, it is also
possible to see EIoT (Enterprise Internet of Things), which is mainly used in business solutions.
Currently, experts estimate that the Internet of Things will include approximately 30 billion
devices in 2020, and the market value is estimated to be $ 80 billion [1]. Within this area, for
example, smart buildings can be built to monitor key systems and units. One of the important
monitored substances is water, for which the most monitored are its quality or consumption.
Water is nowadays an increasingly discussed commodity, as it is one of vital substances. One of
the reasons why water attracts ever more attention is its depletion. It mainly involves a
significant drop in groundwater [2]. As a result, many supporting activities come not only from
the state to address this issue in the future. However, the fact remains that water is and will be a
valuable commodity, and one of the areas that is particularly important for end customers is the
monitoring of its consumption and early detection of unwanted leakage. On average, around 20%
loss of the total water distribution [3] is reported worldwide. Sudden leakage of water can cause
considerable damage in the short term, especially to equipment adjacent to the point of leak. On
the other hand, such leakage is relatively easy to detect. Another significant problem can be a
small but long term and continuous leakage. In these cases, there is not necessarily a great
damage to property, but rather in higher or additional water costs. It is precisely these long and
continuous water leaks that should be detected and, in the event of their occurrence, inform about
them in good time and adequately respond to them.
II. STATE OF ART
In the area of water monitoring, a number of entities or organizations already currently operate,
particularly in the area of surveillance. This is, for example, a design of real-time automated
reading system using IoT to be deployed in smart cities. These systems use a system of
measuring sensors and communicate via, for example, esp8266 [14] wireless communication
technology. Data is most often stored on cloud servers for more detailed data processing. Other
systems, for example, monitor grid pressure [5]. With these systems, water distributors can
remotely monitor network status and detect sudden leakages early on both the backbone network
and end nodes such as city hydrants. On the basis of long-term monitoring of water distribution
networks, it is possible to, for example, determine the age of the network and to detect the no
longer adequate condition of individual parts of the pipeline. In these cases, it is most often a
continuous increase in consumption at the same measured water flow [6]. Most systems,
however, primarily aim at the industrial use of distribution networks and monitoring the
consumption of larger agglomerations as one of the smart city subsystems.
III. SOLUTION
A. Main motivation
The main objective is the design of autonomous water consumption monitoring system for small
and medium-sized buildings, mainly households, administrative buildings or educational
institutions. Especially in buildings with a higher number of persons, more complex water
distribution systems with higher number of end-points are built, such as sanitary facilities. These
end-points are the most common source of water leakage problems. Excessive use leads to
higher wear and thus to an earlier potential failure. This often leads either to sudden leakage or
long-term water leakage, which in both cases entails additional costs.
B. Hardware
The basic part of the smart water meter is shown in Figure 1 and consists of four parts:

Central control unit- in this case, the Raspberry Pi Zero W [7] single-core mini-computer
expanded by a real time unit (RTC) using the standard Linux Raspbian environment [8]. In this
Linux environment there is implemented software, which mainly provides:
o reception of information about flow rate from the water meter
o communication within the application interface via a wireless network
o periodic evaluation of the water flow based on established rules according to application logic
o two-way valve control

Pulse Water Meter - Provides information on the intensity and continuity of water flow. In
general, any pulse water meter can be used, even with any sensitivity (number of pulses per liter)

Two-way ball valve - Based on the request from the control system (both external from the
user and internal based on the evaluation of the autonomous mode) controls the opening or
closing of the water flow.
Backup battery - Provides a standby power supply in the event of a power outage, for greater
stability when the main power supply has been dropped, the battery has been supplied with a
suitable capacitor.
Control
Control
unit
Fig. 1. Basic concept of a smart water meter
C. Software solution
The software part is built on the JAVA platform [10] using the MySQL database [10] and the Pi4j
[12] library which provides object-oriented access to the Raspberry Pi I/O minicomputer
One of the basic activities of the software is to evaluate input pulses from the water meter. These
pulses are:

Stored in a local database for periodic measurement of consumption - Periodic measurement of
consumption

According to the rules set, it is continuously evaluated whether there is a sudden water leakage
– leakage detection
1) Periodic measurement of consumption
Individual pulses from a water meter are stored in a local database and are evaluated in a
periodic interval (for example one hour). The water meter may have different granularity
according to its parameters (for example 1 liter = 2 impulses). At these discreet moments, the
total consumption over the given period is calculated and the cumulative sum is stored in a cloud
database via application interface. In the event of an Internet signal failure and transmission
failure, the data is again stored in the local database and is transmitted when the connection
between the measuring device and the server is available again.
Pulse
Water
Meter
Ball
ValveControl Unit
2) Leak Detection
The basic idea of leakage detection is primarily based on monitoring continuous off take,
secondarily on set daily limits. For continuous off take, it is assumed that this continuous status
may only last for a limited period of time. If this condition lasts longer than the set time, this
status can subsequently be declared as undesired leakage. Continuous off take times can be
divided into time zones (for example, day/night), with single limits being entered either manually
or on a basis of, so called, self-learning mode. Such self-learning mode based on a specific
algorithm following observation recommends limits, using basic statistical indicators such as:

Average
Median
Diffusion
Standard deviation
IV. CASE STUDY
For example, if we focus on households, we can estimate daytime limits from the average
consumption. For leak detection, however, the aforementioned continuity, which can be further
distinguished according to the daily time, for example day and night mode, is more important.
The night mode can be judged based on stricter criteria than the daily one. By experimental
measurements within selected households it was found that the longest periods of continuous off
take are reached in times dedicated to personal hygiene (filling of the tub) in the range of 20-30
minutes, depending on the water flow and the size of the tub. Household appliances (dishwasher,
washing machine) are only marginal to this measurement. Based on these findings, two modes
were established:

Day (6am to 1am) with a 20-minute limit for maximum continuous off take.

Night (from 1am to 6am) with a limit of 5 minutes for maximum continuous off take.
Day mode covers maximum off take. No significant long term off take is expected during the
night mode, so the limit may be set more strictly.
A. Testing
Testing took place both within the selected household and by using a computer simulation. For
this purpose, a simple simulation tool was designed and implemented. It contains the core of a
discrete simulation and allows to introduce different situations of both standard and non-standard
water off take. The simulation scenarios themselves can then be based either on historical or
generated data.
V. DESIGN OF APPLICATION INTERFACE
The whole system can be divided into three layers:
Measurement-water meter layer
Communication layer
User layer
The overall concept of the smart water meter system is illustrated in Figure 2.
Fig. 2. Overall concept of the smart water meter system
In order to communicate with the smart water meter, it was necessary to design a suitable
application interface (API). For this case, the REST (Representational State Transfer)
architecture was chosen. Application interface is implemented as a web service and consists of a
set of methods that provide basic communication means between:

User layer and database

Water meter and database
The communication interface can be divided into three parts:

Communication with the sensor
o GET /api/Sensor
o GET /api/Sensor/{id}
o GET /api/Sensor/{id}/consumption
o POST /api/Sensor/{id}/consumption
o PUT /api/Sensor/{id}/live

Ball valve control
o PUT /api/Valve/setState
VI. USER INTERFACE
For the sake of completeness of the proposed smart water meter system, it was necessary to
design and implement an application that would provide clear information on water
consumption, inform about leakage via a text message and at the same time enable the basic
administration of the water meter.
Currently implemented is:
responsive web application
Despite all the benefits of a responsive web application based primarily on its versatility, native
mobile application brings greater convenience and more intuitive user friendliness.
Mobile application was built for the Android platform, one of the screens is illustrated in Figure
3.
Fig. 3. A sample of a running web site
VII. CONCLUSION
Attention was primarily paid to the proposal of a smart water meter, which can measure water
consumption on an ongoing basis, but also has an autonomous mode. Within this superstructure,
the water meter can detect water leaks, both sudden and long-term. This is achieved by
continuous off take detection, which should only last for a limited time in a normal state. The
proposed water meter also has a self-learning mode which, based on the statistical evaluation of
the reference period, is designed to recommend required limits. The water meter is further
supplemented with a backup battery and is therefore able to use its own power source for a
certain period of time in the event of a power outage. Above the smart water meter, this can be
included in the measurement layer, a second layer providing application interface with access to
the cloud database within web services was built. This layer allows communication between the
client and the water meter. Within the user layer, two applications have been proposed.
This web application which allows remote management and configuration of the meter including
user administration.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work has been supported by the project “Smart Water Monitoring System” installed at
National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Odisha.
REFERENCES
[1] K. Mundle, Home Smart Home: Domesticating the Internet of Things. Toptal.com [online].,
2015 [cit. 2018-01-05]. Dostupné z: https://www.toptal.com/designers/interactive/smart-home-
domesticinternet-of-things.
[2] The biggest problem today - water. Prumyslovaekologie.cz [online].Průmyslová ekologie,
2017 [cit. 2018-01-05]. Dostupné z:
http://www.prumyslovaekologie.cz/Dokument/103217/nejvetsiproblem-soucasnosti-voda.aspx
[3] G. Moser, S. G. Paal, and I. F. C. Smith, “Leak Detection of Water Supply Networks Using
Error-Domain Model Falsification”, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, vol. 32, no. 2, p.
04017077-, 2018.
[4] Y. Gao, M. J. Brennan, and P. F. Joseph, “A comparison of time delay estimators for the
detection of leak noise signals in plastic water distribution pipes”, Journal of Sound and
Vibration, vol. 292, no. 3-5,pp. 552-570, 2006.
[5] G. Moser, S. G. Paal, and I. F. C. Smith, “Leak Detection of Water
Supply Networks Using Error-Domain Model Falsification”, Journal of
Computing in Civil Engineering, vol. 32, no. 2, p. 04017077-, 2018.
[6] A. Rajeswaran, S. Narasimhan, and S. Narasimhan, “A graph partitioning algorithm for leak
detection in water distribution networks”, vol. 108, pp. 11-23, 2018.
[7] “RASPBERRY PI DOCUMENTATION”, Raspberrypi.org. [Online]. Available:
https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/raspbian/.[Accessed: 05-Jan.-2018].
[8] “RASPBIAN”, Raspberrypi.org. [Online]. Available:
https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/raspbian/. [Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018].
[9] “Java™ Platform, Standard Edition 7 API Specification”, Docs.oracle.com. [Online].
Available: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/. [Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018].
[10] “MySQL Documentation”, Mysql.com, 2017. [Online]. Available:
https://dev.mysql.com/doc/. [Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018].
[11] “Pi4J: Parent POM 1.1 API”, Pi4j.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://pi4j.com/apidocs/.
[Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018].
[12] “Water consumption in the region fell again”, Czso.cz, 2014. [Online]. Available:
https://www.czso.cz/csu/xh/spotreba-vody-v-kraji-opetklesla.[Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018].
[13] “REST API DOCUMENTATION BEST PRACTICES”, Bocoup.com, 2017. [Online].
Available: https://bocoup.com/blog/documenting-yourapi.[Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018].
[14] “ESP8266-WiFi Module”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ESP8266;The ESP8266 is a low-cost
Wi-Fi microchip with full TCP/IP stack and microcontroller capability produced by Shanghai-
based Chinese manufacturer Espressif;NodeMCU ESP32 Hayes command set MicroPython.

More Related Content

What's hot

e-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOT
e-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOTe-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOT
e-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOTIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management System
IRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management SystemIRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management System
IRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management SystemIRJET Journal
 
Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...
Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...
Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...IJECEIAES
 
Smart Water Metering
Smart Water MeteringSmart Water Metering
Smart Water Meteringijtsrd
 
IRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring System
IRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring SystemIRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring System
IRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring SystemIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...
IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...
IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOT
IRJET-  	  Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOTIRJET-  	  Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOT
IRJET- Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOTIRJET Journal
 
A Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSM
A Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSMA Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSM
A Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSMRSIS International
 
Design and development of automatic Water flow meter
Design and development of automatic Water flow meterDesign and development of automatic Water flow meter
Design and development of automatic Water flow meterIJCSEA Journal
 
IRJET- Smart Water Meter Reading and Distribution
IRJET-  	  Smart Water Meter Reading and DistributionIRJET-  	  Smart Water Meter Reading and Distribution
IRJET- Smart Water Meter Reading and DistributionIRJET Journal
 
Monitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive Bodies
Monitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive BodiesMonitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive Bodies
Monitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive BodiesIRJET Journal
 
Smart monitoring system of Najran dam
Smart monitoring system of Najran dam Smart monitoring system of Najran dam
Smart monitoring system of Najran dam IJECEIAES
 
WATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSOR
WATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSORWATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSOR
WATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSORdeepa bhatia
 
REMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATION
REMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATIONREMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATION
REMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATIONijait
 
SOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water Monitoring
SOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water MonitoringSOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water Monitoring
SOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water Monitoringrahulmonikasharma
 
IRJET- Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...
IRJET-  	  Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...IRJET-  	  Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...
IRJET- Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...IRJET Journal
 
Smart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdapt
Smart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdaptSmart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdapt
Smart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdaptSai Bhaskar Reddy Nakka
 
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...RekaNext Capital
 

What's hot (20)

e-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOT
e-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOTe-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOT
e-Water Supply System using Python, Raspberry Pi and IOT
 
IRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management System
IRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management SystemIRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management System
IRJET- Smart Water Distribution Management System
 
Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...
Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...
Web based Water Turbidity Monitoring and Automated Filtration System: IoT App...
 
Smart Water Metering
Smart Water MeteringSmart Water Metering
Smart Water Metering
 
IRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring System
IRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring SystemIRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring System
IRJET- Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring System
 
IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...
IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...
IRJET- Smart Water Monitoring System for Real-Time Water Quality and Usage Mo...
 
IRJET- Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOT
IRJET-  	  Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOTIRJET-  	  Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOT
IRJET- Automated Water Conservation and Theft Detection using IOT
 
sea water quality
sea water qualitysea water quality
sea water quality
 
A Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSM
A Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSMA Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSM
A Real Time System for Water Quality Measurement Using GSM
 
Design and development of automatic Water flow meter
Design and development of automatic Water flow meterDesign and development of automatic Water flow meter
Design and development of automatic Water flow meter
 
IRJET- Smart Water Meter Reading and Distribution
IRJET-  	  Smart Water Meter Reading and DistributionIRJET-  	  Smart Water Meter Reading and Distribution
IRJET- Smart Water Meter Reading and Distribution
 
Monitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive Bodies
Monitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive BodiesMonitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive Bodies
Monitoring And Analysis Of Aquatic Intake In Instructive Bodies
 
Smart monitoring system of Najran dam
Smart monitoring system of Najran dam Smart monitoring system of Najran dam
Smart monitoring system of Najran dam
 
WATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSOR
WATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSORWATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSOR
WATER LEVEL DETECTOR WITH TURBIDITY SENSOR
 
REMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATION
REMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATIONREMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATION
REMOTE SENSING AND CONTROL FOR ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING DIGITAL IRRIGATION
 
SOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water Monitoring
SOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water MonitoringSOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water Monitoring
SOC Module for IOT Based Smart Water Monitoring
 
IRJET- Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...
IRJET-  	  Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...IRJET-  	  Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...
IRJET- Software Sensor for Potable Water Quality through Qualitative and ...
 
Sensors for Agriculture & Water
Sensors for Agriculture & WaterSensors for Agriculture & Water
Sensors for Agriculture & Water
 
Smart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdapt
Smart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdaptSmart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdapt
Smart technology for Water Use Efficiency ClimaAdapt
 
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring and Alert Systems, Applications using OPEX...
 

Similar to Smart Water Meter System for Detecting Sudden Water Leakage

Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...
Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...
Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...IRJET Journal
 
Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...
Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...
Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...IRJET Journal
 
Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...
Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...
Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...IRJET Journal
 
iaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation system
iaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation systemiaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation system
iaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation systemIaetsd Iaetsd
 
IRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement System
IRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement SystemIRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement System
IRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement SystemIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation System
IRJET-  	  Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation SystemIRJET-  	  Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation System
IRJET- Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation SystemIRJET Journal
 
AN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEM
AN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEMAN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEM
AN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEMpadma gade
 
IOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For Lake
IOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For LakeIOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For Lake
IOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For LakeIRJET Journal
 
Automatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADA
Automatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADAAutomatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADA
Automatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADAijtsrd
 
IRJET- A Survey Paper on Dam Management
IRJET-  	  A Survey Paper on Dam ManagementIRJET-  	  A Survey Paper on Dam Management
IRJET- A Survey Paper on Dam ManagementIRJET Journal
 
Intelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PI
Intelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PIIntelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PI
Intelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PIijtsrd
 
IRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring System
IRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring SystemIRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring System
IRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring SystemIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...
IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...
IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- IoT based Water Management System using Arduino
IRJET- IoT based Water Management System using ArduinoIRJET- IoT based Water Management System using Arduino
IRJET- IoT based Water Management System using ArduinoIRJET Journal
 
Smart Rainwater Harvesting System
Smart Rainwater Harvesting SystemSmart Rainwater Harvesting System
Smart Rainwater Harvesting SystemIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Smart Irrigation System
IRJET- Smart Irrigation SystemIRJET- Smart Irrigation System
IRJET- Smart Irrigation SystemIRJET Journal
 
IMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORA
IMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORAIMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORA
IMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORAIRJET Journal
 

Similar to Smart Water Meter System for Detecting Sudden Water Leakage (20)

Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...
Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...
Water Level and Leakage Detection System with its Quality Analysis based on S...
 
Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...
Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...
Water Supply Measurement and Management System Based on IoT with Water Leakag...
 
Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...
Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...
Internet of Things (IoT) based Smart Water Tank Level Monitoring and Motor Pu...
 
iaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation system
iaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation systemiaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation system
iaetsd A novel approach towards automatic water conservation system
 
IRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement System
IRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement SystemIRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement System
IRJET- IoT based Smart Water Manangement System
 
IRJET- Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation System
IRJET-  	  Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation SystemIRJET-  	  Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation System
IRJET- Digital Water Management and Automatic Bill Generation System
 
AN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEM
AN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEMAN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEM
AN INTELLIGENT SMS BASED PREPAID WATER METERING SYSTEM
 
N044066769
N044066769N044066769
N044066769
 
IOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For Lake
IOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For LakeIOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For Lake
IOT Based Water Level Monitoring System For Lake
 
Automatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADA
Automatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADAAutomatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADA
Automatic Water Storage and Distribution System using Reliance SCADA
 
IRJET- A Survey Paper on Dam Management
IRJET-  	  A Survey Paper on Dam ManagementIRJET-  	  A Survey Paper on Dam Management
IRJET- A Survey Paper on Dam Management
 
sir G 2
sir G 2sir G 2
sir G 2
 
Intelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PI
Intelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PIIntelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PI
Intelligent Water Leakage Controller using Raspberry PI
 
IRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring System
IRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring SystemIRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring System
IRJET - Water Distribution and Monitoring System
 
IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...
IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...
IRJET- Design and Implementation of Wireless based Water Level Monitoring Sys...
 
IRJET- IoT based Water Management System using Arduino
IRJET- IoT based Water Management System using ArduinoIRJET- IoT based Water Management System using Arduino
IRJET- IoT based Water Management System using Arduino
 
Hc3113741382
Hc3113741382Hc3113741382
Hc3113741382
 
Smart Rainwater Harvesting System
Smart Rainwater Harvesting SystemSmart Rainwater Harvesting System
Smart Rainwater Harvesting System
 
IRJET- Smart Irrigation System
IRJET- Smart Irrigation SystemIRJET- Smart Irrigation System
IRJET- Smart Irrigation System
 
IMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORA
IMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORAIMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORA
IMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY FLOOD DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE SYSTEM USING LORA
 

Recently uploaded

办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书
办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书
办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书zdzoqco
 
Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000
Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000
Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000Komal Khan
 
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light ServiceLighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light ServiceImport Car Center
 
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX ResidentsMastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX ResidentsRowlett Motorwerks
 
原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量
原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量
原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量208367051
 
Trent engineer.pptx presentation reports
Trent engineer.pptx presentation reportsTrent engineer.pptx presentation reports
Trent engineer.pptx presentation reportsbasant11731
 
Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...
Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...
Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...Forth
 
248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdf
248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdf248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdf
248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdfkushkruthik555
 
原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档208367051
 
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptxPros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptxjennifermiller8137
 
Centering Equity Panel by Samantha Bingham
Centering Equity Panel by Samantha BinghamCentering Equity Panel by Samantha Bingham
Centering Equity Panel by Samantha BinghamForth
 
Car Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptx
Car Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptxCar Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptx
Car Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptxsaakshamrajput
 
Building a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh Rodriguez
Building a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh RodriguezBuilding a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh Rodriguez
Building a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh RodriguezForth
 
Building a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget Gilmore
Building a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget GilmoreBuilding a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget Gilmore
Building a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget GilmoreForth
 
-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hh
-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hh-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hh
-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hhmhamadhawlery16
 
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University OrientationWelcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientationxlr8sales
 
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!Mint Automotive
 
Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...
Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...
Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...Forth
 
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILESABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILESsriharshaganjam1
 
Corolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdf
Corolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdfCorolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdf
Corolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdfkevintruissi05
 

Recently uploaded (20)

办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书
办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书
办理克莱姆森大学毕业证成绩单|购买美国文凭证书
 
Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000
Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000
Dubai Call Girls Services Call 09900000000
 
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light ServiceLighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
Lighting the Way Understanding Jaguar Car Check Engine Light Service
 
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX ResidentsMastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
Mastering Mercedes Engine Care Top Tips for Rowlett, TX Residents
 
原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量
原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量
原版1:1定制(IC大学毕业证)帝国理工学院大学毕业证国外文凭复刻成绩单#电子版制作#留信入库#多年经营绝对保证质量
 
Trent engineer.pptx presentation reports
Trent engineer.pptx presentation reportsTrent engineer.pptx presentation reports
Trent engineer.pptx presentation reports
 
Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...
Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...
Transportation Electrification Funding Strategy by Jeff Allen and Brandt Hert...
 
248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdf
248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdf248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdf
248649330-Animatronics-Technical-Seminar-Report-by-Aswin-Sarang.pdf
 
原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制宾州州立大学毕业证(PSU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
 
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptxPros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
Pros and cons of buying used fleet vehicles.pptx
 
Centering Equity Panel by Samantha Bingham
Centering Equity Panel by Samantha BinghamCentering Equity Panel by Samantha Bingham
Centering Equity Panel by Samantha Bingham
 
Car Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptx
Car Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptxCar Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptx
Car Dealership Business Plan by Slidesgo.pptx
 
Building a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh Rodriguez
Building a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh RodriguezBuilding a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh Rodriguez
Building a Budget by Cat Plein and Josh Rodriguez
 
Building a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget Gilmore
Building a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget GilmoreBuilding a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget Gilmore
Building a Future Where Everyone Can Ride and Drive Electric by Bridget Gilmore
 
-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hh
-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hh-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hh
-The-Present-Simple-Tense.pdf english hh
 
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University OrientationWelcome to Auto Know University Orientation
Welcome to Auto Know University Orientation
 
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
Can't Roll Up Your Audi A4 Power Window Let's Uncover the Issue!
 
Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...
Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...
Electric Nation Upper Midwest Inter-Tribal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Com...
 
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILESABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
ABOUT REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM ON AUTOMOBILES
 
Corolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdf
Corolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdfCorolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdf
Corolla2000-06Diagramas Toyota Corolla.pdf
 

Smart Water Meter System for Detecting Sudden Water Leakage

  • 1. Smart Water Meter System for Detecting Sudden Water Leakage Aneek Banerjee National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Orisha-761008 aneek.uit.bwn@gmail.com Abstract — This article deals with a proposal of a smart water meter for monitoring water consumption and for accidental leakage detection. The hardware part of the smart water meter consists of a mini-computer and a pulse water meter. Application logic is then in the hands of the original software that evaluates water consumption patterns. If a water leak is detected, the smart water meter uses a ball valve to close the inlet. The meter also has a self-learning mode that can recommend set limits within the reference period. A separate application interface is designed for communication between the meter and the user .Various computer simulations were used to test and initiate different water consumption scenarios. Keywords - Smart water meter; water leak; web services; water monitoring; computer simulation. I. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, we witness the dynamic development of industry 4.0 that can be found in all areas. One of the industry's 4.0 components is the Internet of Things (IoT), which is mainly used for consumer, business and infrastructure applications. Besides the Internet of Things, it is also possible to see EIoT (Enterprise Internet of Things), which is mainly used in business solutions. Currently, experts estimate that the Internet of Things will include approximately 30 billion devices in 2020, and the market value is estimated to be $ 80 billion [1]. Within this area, for example, smart buildings can be built to monitor key systems and units. One of the important monitored substances is water, for which the most monitored are its quality or consumption. Water is nowadays an increasingly discussed commodity, as it is one of vital substances. One of the reasons why water attracts ever more attention is its depletion. It mainly involves a significant drop in groundwater [2]. As a result, many supporting activities come not only from the state to address this issue in the future. However, the fact remains that water is and will be a valuable commodity, and one of the areas that is particularly important for end customers is the monitoring of its consumption and early detection of unwanted leakage. On average, around 20% loss of the total water distribution [3] is reported worldwide. Sudden leakage of water can cause considerable damage in the short term, especially to equipment adjacent to the point of leak. On the other hand, such leakage is relatively easy to detect. Another significant problem can be a small but long term and continuous leakage. In these cases, there is not necessarily a great damage to property, but rather in higher or additional water costs. It is precisely these long and continuous water leaks that should be detected and, in the event of their occurrence, inform about them in good time and adequately respond to them.
  • 2. II. STATE OF ART In the area of water monitoring, a number of entities or organizations already currently operate, particularly in the area of surveillance. This is, for example, a design of real-time automated reading system using IoT to be deployed in smart cities. These systems use a system of measuring sensors and communicate via, for example, esp8266 [14] wireless communication technology. Data is most often stored on cloud servers for more detailed data processing. Other systems, for example, monitor grid pressure [5]. With these systems, water distributors can remotely monitor network status and detect sudden leakages early on both the backbone network and end nodes such as city hydrants. On the basis of long-term monitoring of water distribution networks, it is possible to, for example, determine the age of the network and to detect the no longer adequate condition of individual parts of the pipeline. In these cases, it is most often a continuous increase in consumption at the same measured water flow [6]. Most systems, however, primarily aim at the industrial use of distribution networks and monitoring the consumption of larger agglomerations as one of the smart city subsystems. III. SOLUTION A. Main motivation The main objective is the design of autonomous water consumption monitoring system for small and medium-sized buildings, mainly households, administrative buildings or educational institutions. Especially in buildings with a higher number of persons, more complex water distribution systems with higher number of end-points are built, such as sanitary facilities. These end-points are the most common source of water leakage problems. Excessive use leads to higher wear and thus to an earlier potential failure. This often leads either to sudden leakage or long-term water leakage, which in both cases entails additional costs. B. Hardware The basic part of the smart water meter is shown in Figure 1 and consists of four parts:  Central control unit- in this case, the Raspberry Pi Zero W [7] single-core mini-computer expanded by a real time unit (RTC) using the standard Linux Raspbian environment [8]. In this Linux environment there is implemented software, which mainly provides: o reception of information about flow rate from the water meter o communication within the application interface via a wireless network o periodic evaluation of the water flow based on established rules according to application logic o two-way valve control  Pulse Water Meter - Provides information on the intensity and continuity of water flow. In general, any pulse water meter can be used, even with any sensitivity (number of pulses per liter)  Two-way ball valve - Based on the request from the control system (both external from the user and internal based on the evaluation of the autonomous mode) controls the opening or closing of the water flow.
  • 3. Backup battery - Provides a standby power supply in the event of a power outage, for greater stability when the main power supply has been dropped, the battery has been supplied with a suitable capacitor. Control Control unit Fig. 1. Basic concept of a smart water meter C. Software solution The software part is built on the JAVA platform [10] using the MySQL database [10] and the Pi4j [12] library which provides object-oriented access to the Raspberry Pi I/O minicomputer One of the basic activities of the software is to evaluate input pulses from the water meter. These pulses are:  Stored in a local database for periodic measurement of consumption - Periodic measurement of consumption  According to the rules set, it is continuously evaluated whether there is a sudden water leakage – leakage detection 1) Periodic measurement of consumption Individual pulses from a water meter are stored in a local database and are evaluated in a periodic interval (for example one hour). The water meter may have different granularity according to its parameters (for example 1 liter = 2 impulses). At these discreet moments, the total consumption over the given period is calculated and the cumulative sum is stored in a cloud database via application interface. In the event of an Internet signal failure and transmission failure, the data is again stored in the local database and is transmitted when the connection between the measuring device and the server is available again. Pulse Water Meter Ball ValveControl Unit
  • 4. 2) Leak Detection The basic idea of leakage detection is primarily based on monitoring continuous off take, secondarily on set daily limits. For continuous off take, it is assumed that this continuous status may only last for a limited period of time. If this condition lasts longer than the set time, this status can subsequently be declared as undesired leakage. Continuous off take times can be divided into time zones (for example, day/night), with single limits being entered either manually or on a basis of, so called, self-learning mode. Such self-learning mode based on a specific algorithm following observation recommends limits, using basic statistical indicators such as:  Average Median Diffusion Standard deviation IV. CASE STUDY For example, if we focus on households, we can estimate daytime limits from the average consumption. For leak detection, however, the aforementioned continuity, which can be further distinguished according to the daily time, for example day and night mode, is more important. The night mode can be judged based on stricter criteria than the daily one. By experimental measurements within selected households it was found that the longest periods of continuous off take are reached in times dedicated to personal hygiene (filling of the tub) in the range of 20-30 minutes, depending on the water flow and the size of the tub. Household appliances (dishwasher, washing machine) are only marginal to this measurement. Based on these findings, two modes were established:  Day (6am to 1am) with a 20-minute limit for maximum continuous off take.  Night (from 1am to 6am) with a limit of 5 minutes for maximum continuous off take. Day mode covers maximum off take. No significant long term off take is expected during the night mode, so the limit may be set more strictly. A. Testing Testing took place both within the selected household and by using a computer simulation. For this purpose, a simple simulation tool was designed and implemented. It contains the core of a discrete simulation and allows to introduce different situations of both standard and non-standard water off take. The simulation scenarios themselves can then be based either on historical or generated data.
  • 5. V. DESIGN OF APPLICATION INTERFACE The whole system can be divided into three layers: Measurement-water meter layer Communication layer User layer The overall concept of the smart water meter system is illustrated in Figure 2. Fig. 2. Overall concept of the smart water meter system In order to communicate with the smart water meter, it was necessary to design a suitable application interface (API). For this case, the REST (Representational State Transfer) architecture was chosen. Application interface is implemented as a web service and consists of a set of methods that provide basic communication means between:  User layer and database  Water meter and database The communication interface can be divided into three parts: 
  • 6. Communication with the sensor o GET /api/Sensor o GET /api/Sensor/{id} o GET /api/Sensor/{id}/consumption o POST /api/Sensor/{id}/consumption o PUT /api/Sensor/{id}/live  Ball valve control o PUT /api/Valve/setState VI. USER INTERFACE For the sake of completeness of the proposed smart water meter system, it was necessary to design and implement an application that would provide clear information on water consumption, inform about leakage via a text message and at the same time enable the basic administration of the water meter. Currently implemented is: responsive web application Despite all the benefits of a responsive web application based primarily on its versatility, native mobile application brings greater convenience and more intuitive user friendliness. Mobile application was built for the Android platform, one of the screens is illustrated in Figure 3.
  • 7. Fig. 3. A sample of a running web site VII. CONCLUSION Attention was primarily paid to the proposal of a smart water meter, which can measure water consumption on an ongoing basis, but also has an autonomous mode. Within this superstructure, the water meter can detect water leaks, both sudden and long-term. This is achieved by continuous off take detection, which should only last for a limited time in a normal state. The proposed water meter also has a self-learning mode which, based on the statistical evaluation of the reference period, is designed to recommend required limits. The water meter is further supplemented with a backup battery and is therefore able to use its own power source for a certain period of time in the event of a power outage. Above the smart water meter, this can be included in the measurement layer, a second layer providing application interface with access to the cloud database within web services was built. This layer allows communication between the client and the water meter. Within the user layer, two applications have been proposed.
  • 8. This web application which allows remote management and configuration of the meter including user administration. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work has been supported by the project “Smart Water Monitoring System” installed at National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Odisha. REFERENCES [1] K. Mundle, Home Smart Home: Domesticating the Internet of Things. Toptal.com [online]., 2015 [cit. 2018-01-05]. Dostupné z: https://www.toptal.com/designers/interactive/smart-home- domesticinternet-of-things. [2] The biggest problem today - water. Prumyslovaekologie.cz [online].Průmyslová ekologie, 2017 [cit. 2018-01-05]. Dostupné z: http://www.prumyslovaekologie.cz/Dokument/103217/nejvetsiproblem-soucasnosti-voda.aspx [3] G. Moser, S. G. Paal, and I. F. C. Smith, “Leak Detection of Water Supply Networks Using Error-Domain Model Falsification”, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, vol. 32, no. 2, p. 04017077-, 2018. [4] Y. Gao, M. J. Brennan, and P. F. Joseph, “A comparison of time delay estimators for the detection of leak noise signals in plastic water distribution pipes”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 292, no. 3-5,pp. 552-570, 2006. [5] G. Moser, S. G. Paal, and I. F. C. Smith, “Leak Detection of Water Supply Networks Using Error-Domain Model Falsification”, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, vol. 32, no. 2, p. 04017077-, 2018. [6] A. Rajeswaran, S. Narasimhan, and S. Narasimhan, “A graph partitioning algorithm for leak detection in water distribution networks”, vol. 108, pp. 11-23, 2018. [7] “RASPBERRY PI DOCUMENTATION”, Raspberrypi.org. [Online]. Available: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/raspbian/.[Accessed: 05-Jan.-2018]. [8] “RASPBIAN”, Raspberrypi.org. [Online]. Available: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/raspbian/. [Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018]. [9] “Java™ Platform, Standard Edition 7 API Specification”, Docs.oracle.com. [Online]. Available: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/. [Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018]. [10] “MySQL Documentation”, Mysql.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/. [Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018]. [11] “Pi4J: Parent POM 1.1 API”, Pi4j.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://pi4j.com/apidocs/. [Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018]. [12] “Water consumption in the region fell again”, Czso.cz, 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.czso.cz/csu/xh/spotreba-vody-v-kraji-opetklesla.[Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018]. [13] “REST API DOCUMENTATION BEST PRACTICES”, Bocoup.com, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://bocoup.com/blog/documenting-yourapi.[Accessed: 06-Jan.-2018]. [14] “ESP8266-WiFi Module”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ESP8266;The ESP8266 is a low-cost Wi-Fi microchip with full TCP/IP stack and microcontroller capability produced by Shanghai- based Chinese manufacturer Espressif;NodeMCU ESP32 Hayes command set MicroPython.