Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications                  (IJERA)              ISSN...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications                    (IJERA)              IS...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications                  (IJERA)              ISSN...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications          (IJERA)              ISSN: 2248-9...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications                  (IJERA)              ISSN...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications                  (IJERA)              ISSN...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications                   (IJERA)              ISS...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications              (IJERA)              ISSN: 22...
Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications              (IJERA)              ISSN: 22...
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Hc3113741382

  1. 1. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382 Designing Flood Control Systems Using Wireless Sensor Networks Inyiama H. C., Obota M. E. *Dept Of Electronic And Computer Engineering Nnadi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria **Dept Of Electronic And Computer Engineering Nnadi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, NigeriaAbstract Recent advancement in information and Nigeria, the incident of flood disaster is becomingcommunication technology (ICT) and wireless increasingly worrisome; hence the menace cannotsensor networks have made new trends to emerge be left unchecked. Although, in recent years, risk-in flood control practice. Proper prevention and based approaches and other measures havemanagement of flood is more needed now for continued to receive increasing attention as means tosustainable socio-economic conditions of the manage flood hazards but all have not yielded thepeople. The paper presents an automated flood desired results. It is strongly believed that thiscontrol system based on supervisory control, project when fully implemented would go a longwired and wireless communication. Efficient way in preventing incessant flood hazards in Nigeriamonitoring and control of water level which and the world at large.however represents an important input on floodprevention and control is realised. This Basic Control Conceptstechnology, if wisely deployed, could prevent or A control system is a device or system thatreduce the incessant flooding and its attendant maintains or alters the operation of a process. Thehazards on the populace. The benefit of this whole system consists of: (i) the process beingdesign can be extended to other control systems controlled; (ii) the sensing system (to measure thee.g. irrigation control, oil spillage control etc. process response if feedback is required); and (iii) the controller (which incorporates both the softwareKEY WORDS: Flood, Control, Sensor, System, and hardware required to control the process).Controller. Control systems may be either open-loop or closed- loop: an open-loop control system uses knownINTRODUCTION relationships between the process input and output According to “oxford dictionary”, “flood” to adjust the controller parameters, while a closed-is a large quantity of water covering an area that is loop control system measures the output of theusually dry. Flood may occur as a result of: a heavy process and adjusts the controller parameters torainfall, a river flowed over its banks, a burst of minimise the `error signal which is the differencewater pipes, etc. Flood hazards are the most between the input and the measured output.common and destructive of all natural disasters. However, difference between these is that closedEach year, flood disasters cause tremendous loss of loop control systems have feedback from sensors,lives and property, thereby causing devastating make decisions and apply decisions to the system.impact on the socio-economic conditions of the On the other hand, open loop control systems applypeople. At least 25 million people living in coastal a preset action, as is done with timers. Since theregions of Nigeria are at risk of the devastation of controller is the brain behind control system, thefloods before the end of the year [NEMA report]. type of controller used determines control systemThe coastal areas of Lagos, Ondo, Delta, Rivers, [1].Akwa Ibom and Cross River states have alreadyexperienced severe flooding impact since the Open Loop Control Systemsbeginning of this year, due to factors such as Open loop control systems use duration orabsence of surface drains and blockage of existing applied volume for control purpose. In this type ofdrains, refuse and eroded soil sediment; the plateau controller, the basic control parameters are howexperience of July being the worst in the recent often and how long is the water to be pumped. Thismonths. Frankly speaking, a flood can devastate type of system is based on a pre-defined controlhomes, commercial buildings, agricultural and concept, with no feedback from the controlledpastoral lands, public goods and other physical object. The user sets the time to start, the time to endproperties. Health sector is not exempted because and the time for pause intervals and the waterthere are always threats to health and safety during pumping periods. These parameters are pre-set forthe flood and aftermath. Floodwaters contain disease the entire session as thus:causing bacteria, dirty oil, human and animal waste  How long the pumping session should[Public Health Laboratory Service 2000]. In last 1374 | P a g e
  2. 2. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382  How often the pumping period should t o t h e m ea sur em en t s pr ovi ded by t h e repeat itself. sen sor s and th e pr e - pr ogra mm ed No checking is done to know whether pa ra m et er s, th e c on tr ol l er dec i des onwater is pumped out or not. Open loop control wh en a n d h ow fa r t o e va cua t e t h e wa t er .system is said to be time-driven. Open l oop Cl os ed l oop c on t r ol l er s ba se t h ei rc on tr ol s yst em s h a ve t h e a dva n ta ges t ha t deci si on s on :t h ey a r e l ow c ost , r ea di l y a va i l a bl e, a n d  Mon i t or in g th e st a t e var i a bl esm an y va r i at i on s of t h e d e vi c es a r e  Com pa r in g th e st a t e va r i a bl es wi t h th em an ufa ct ur ed wi t h di ffer en t degr ees of desi r ed va r i a bl es or t a r get sta t e.fl exi bi l i t y r el a t ed t o t h e n um ber of  De ci di n g wh a t a ct i on s ar e n ecessa r yst a t i on s a n d sch edul e spe ci fi ca t i on . This t o ch a n ge th e st at e of t h e s yst em .type of control system, though relatively simple and  Ca rr yi n g out t h e n ecessa r y a ct i on s. Acheap but in most cases does not provide the optimal cl osed l oop c on t r ol s yst em i s e ven t -solution to the problem. Howe ver , i t does n ot dr i ven an d h en ce r esp on dsr espon d a ut om a t i ca l l y to pr eva i l i n g a ut om a t i ca l l y t o pr e va i l i n g ch an gesch an ges a n d r equir e fr equen t r eset t i n g t o t h er eby a ch i evi n g h i gh l evel ofa ch i eve h i gh l evel s of e ffi ci en c y [2]. e ffi ci en c y [3].Cl ose L oop C ontr ol Syste m MATERIALS AND METHODS T h ese a r e ba sed on a com bi n a t i on of Components requirement: sensor probespr e-defi n ed c on t r ol c on cept ( fe ed - (water-level sensors), wireless sensor network (wsn)for wa r d) a n d fe ed ba ck fr om t h e con t r ol l ed node, poles, controller, water pump for evacuatingobje ct . In th i s t ype of c on t r ol l er , th er e i s water, water channels, software component,a feed ba ck of t h e n ec e ssa r y da t a t o supervisory component (i.e. SCADA). Generally,det er m in e wh en t o e va cua t e wa t er . Th e the project is realised in units or modules as thus:c on tr ol l er r ecei ve s fe ed ba ck fr om on e or water level sensor unit, wireless sensor networkm or e s en sor s in the fi el d that node unit, control unit, actuator unit, andc on t in uousl y pr ovi de upda t ed da t a t o th e supervisory unit. Fig1 shows the schematic diagramc on tr ol l er a bou t t h e pa r am et er s t ha t of the automated system.i n fl uen ce t h e s yst em beh a vi or . Acc or di n gWater level sensor:Poles are mounted at various strategic points in the area prone to flooding. The number of poles to be useddepends on the size of the area. A sensor probe is fixed on each pole. The dept in which the probe is hungon the pole is categorised into two levels {i.e. level 1 and level 2}. Some set of probes are located at lower level,level1, while other probes are located at the higher level, level 2. The connection between the sensors and the 1375 | P a g e
  3. 3. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382wireless sensor network (wsn) node is made by The wireless sensor network node is located at thecoaxial cable. The water level sensor probes are the higher ground outside the flood-prone area. Eachslave sensors while the wireless sensor network wireless device also known as NODE has one ornode is regarded as the master sensor. more sensors integrated in it. Fig 2 shows wsn nodeWireless sensor network (wsn) node: architecture. Fig 2 wsn node architectureIn addition to sensors, a node is also equipped with to an encoder that carry a unique ID which in turntransceiver (transmitter and receiver), actuators, will feed its output to a wireless transmitter thatanalogue-to-digital and/or digital-to-analogue will transmit the ID of the transmitter and the dataconverters, microcomputer and battery. The sensors that indicate the need for flood to be evacuated.cooperatively continuously monitor water level The node is powered by a 5 V, 1000mAh NiCddata (water level signal coming from water-level battery. The nodes are programmed to remain mostsensor probe). The actuator provides the control of the time in a sleep mode and wake up only whenfunction desired (i.e. a switch that turns a motor on the water level goes above the preset value andor off). The transceiver (transmitter and receiver), then communication with the central controlleris used for wireless communication with other (base station) occurs.nodes or directly with gateway. The transceivermodulates and transmits, receives and demodulates Base station (Control unit):digital data. The gateway in the transceiver is The control logic of the project isresponsible for transmitting sensor data from sensor implemented in the controller, which also has thepatch to remote base station (the central controller). function of integrating all elements of the system.The microcontroller reads the sensor data and, after Normally, the type of acquisition system is chosenprocessing and formatting, outputs the data to the to be optimal for the control algorithm to be used.wireless transceiver. The microcontroller is also The choice of programming language used in theresponsible for any control command directed to controller is Assembly language. However, anythe actuator. A resistive wireless sensor network other language could be used depending on thenode is designed and built to fit of a wooden plate designer’s choice since the controller used,measuring 5cm wide and 10cm long. This piece is At89c51 is in the family of 8051. Fi g 3 i s t h eattached to the technology circuitry, sealed inside a pr oce ss fl owch ar t sh owi n g con t r olplastic case with the antenna installed at its top. a l gor i thm . Th e pseud o c ode i s a s fol l ows :The antenna is a dBi gain double dipole. The sensor i. i ni t i al i z e th e syst emnode circuit board consists of the sensor interface ii. ch eck t h e wa t er l eveland signal conditioning circuits. The sensor is i i i . ch eck th e com m un i ca t i on syst emdriven by a 200 KHz square wave. The frequency i v. r ea d th e wa t er l evel va l uewill be changed according to the water level sensor v. com pa r e wa t er l evel wi t h l owersignal value and the DC output of the filter will limitindicate the water level. The water level will be vi . s wi t ch on t h e pum p i f gr ea t er orbetween 2 and 3.5 V indicating 0-100% water level equa lin accordance to scale chosen. The output of the vi i . c om pa r e t h e wa t er l e vel wi t h upperfilter is fed to a comparator whose output will be limitactive only when the measured water level is less vi i i . s wi t ch on th e a l ar m i f gr ea t er orthat the pre-set value. The output of the comparator equa lwill activate a low frequency generator circuit thatproduces a square wave of 0.1 Hz. This will be fed 1376 | P a g e
  4. 4. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382 Start Water level (WL) N Communication ok Motor drives ok disable Y WL < Lower Limit N < = WL < N WL= > Lower Upper Limit Upper N Limit limit Y Y Y Motor Motor Alarm drive drive Manual action disable full v/f required Fig 3 Controller flowchart 1377 | P a g e
  5. 5. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382This controller uses event-based data sampling communication with the supervisor fails, thetechnique as against the time-based ones. The controller starts to operate in stand-alone mode,commonest controller used is a gain scheduling PI with a subroutine based on default parameters. Thescheme where the controller parameters are mode of communication between the controller andchanged based on some disturbances. Controller the supervisory system is wireless and is done by areceives information from the sensors and sends the GSM Modem in DNP3 protocol. Fig 4 showscommands to the drives of the pumps. Supervision schematic diagram of communication system.is established through the SCADA, which canmonitor the situation of the controlled object. If the SCADA USER PNEUMATIC GSM SYSTEM N/W PC INTERFACED SENSOR WITH GSM INPUT PORT MODEM CONTROLLER Fig 4 Schematic diagram of the communication systemThe choice of these standards is justified by the large number of modules for serial communicationconsolidated use of GSM/DNP3 applications in ports.power systems, such as operation of switches andremote controlled substations. Pumps and DrivesThe DNP3 protocol has time stamped variants of A water pump is used to evacuate waterall data so that even with communication failure from the flooded area to a sectioned area via abetween the controller and SCADA, it is still channel. The pumps are normally at low-speed andpossible to recover data to correctly reconstruct the therefore should be coupled to motors by pulleyssequence of events after the communication is and belts for higher efficiency. Fig 5 showsrestored. A particular feature of this controller, pneumatic diagram of the system.which is important to this specific application, is a 1378 | P a g e
  6. 6. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382 120V, 60HZ STEPDOWN TRANSFORMER 5:1 24V, 60HZ OUTPUT CONTROLLER CONNECTED IN PARALLEL TO 5V SIGNAL TO POWER THE OPEN THE RELAY 1 PNUMATIC SYSTEM 5V SIGNAL TO OPEN THE RELAY 2 F. INVERTER S.S. RELAY 1 S.S RELAY 2 DRVE 2 DRVE 1 PUMP 2 PUMP 1 Fig 5 Pneumatic diagram of the systemThe speed of the pumps is controlled by frequency During the maintaining of the water level, theinverters. It receives the command from the frequency of the drives is adjusted according to thecontroller through 5V, 4-20mA channels. The difference between the reference value of waterirrigation pump system uses three-phase AC power level and the value measured by the sensors. Asupply. Due to supply constraints at the some hysteresis loop based on limits of water level iscertain sites, the inverters also have the capability established to prevent the pumps from switching onof converting the single phase local grid to three- or off at undue situation. Above the lower limit, thephase. It adopts three-phase solid state relay (SSR) drives are fully activated, according to the ratedSSR-24V, 5A to the controller. Singlechip is values of V and f to evacuate water from theconnected to the SSR. When system receives flood flooded zone. The upper limit of water level is usedevacuation command, control signal will be low to trigger an alarm that requires manualand open SSR to power the pump to evacuate water intervention to open up sections of the field,out of the flood area. When the system receives a because the action can no longer be controlledstop command, control signal becomes high and the automatically.system stops pumping. 1379 | P a g e
  7. 7. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382GSM Modem Medium or High. These levels can be used for The wireless telemetry unit, model G24 filtering and sorting messages.(Motorola / Itech) is used to establishcommunication between the controller and OPERATION OF THE SYSTEMsupervisory system. This model has the ability to When the water level in the field begins toautomatically manage the GSM connection and rise, a time may reach when it touches two or moreperform the compatibility of this technology to the probes at the lower level. The affected probes areDPN3 protocol transparently (without protocol now bridged. The bridged probes now send signalsconversion) with the supervisory system used. to the base station (central controller) via wsn node. Fig 6 shows the architectural diagram of the entireSupervisory Control and Data Acquisition project. The control logic is implemented in the(SCADA) base station by articulating and integrating all The SCADA software allows monitoring elements of the system based on the pre-setof the controlled object, flood. It also provides a parameters, controlled object and the deployedfriendly interface for the user and allows access to programme. The controller however sendsparameters and control variables of the flood command to the drives of the pump. The waterespecially at a critical situation e.g. flood rising to pumps will continue to evacuate water from thebridge sensor probes of level 2. This critical field in as much as the water level has not droppedsituation can be addressed through the capability of below the lower limit. In a case where the rate ofthe alarm screen of the developed system. An water rising outweighs the volume of water beingimportant SCADA feature is the alarm evacuated, the flood may get to the upper limitmanagement. It has an application which contains sensors. The signals sent due to the bridge of theall information on all warning conditions. For each probes at this level triggers alarm which issource of alarm it is possible to set limits, the accompanied by colour change to be seen from themessage on the event occurrence, its priority and SCADA by the user. The alarm signifies that thethe acknowledgment requisition. The priority flood has gone beyond the control of the systemindicates how important the occurred alarm is. It and hence needs immediate external support ormay assume one of the following levels: Low, intervention before flood hazards occur. 1380 | P a g e
  8. 8. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382 GSM MODEM SCADA 120V, 60HZ SERIAL PORT CONNECTING PC UNIT AND CONTROLLER STEPDOWN TRANSFORMER24, 60HZ PC CONTROLLEROUTPUTCONNECTED IN 5V SIGNAL TOPARALLEL TO OPEN THE 10 BIT ADC ON RELAY 1POWER THE CONTROLLERPNUMATICSYSTEM 5V SIGNAL TO OPEN THE RELAY 2 1O BIT ADC S.S. RELAY 1 S.S RELAY 2 F. INVERTER SIGNAL AMPLIFIE D FROM 0- 1.15V TO 0- AMP DRVE 2 5VDRVE 1 SENSOR PUMP 2 OUTPUT ANALOGPUMP 1 OUTPUT 0-1.15V Fig 6 Architectural diagram of the entire project 1381 | P a g e
  9. 9. Inyiama, Obota / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1374-1382CONCLUSION (10) THOMAS L..D., (2005). Electronic The work presented in this paper has fundamentals Circuits, Devices anddemonstrated ability to automatically control flood Applications, Prentice-Hall Internationalbased on the water level using water level sensor INC fourth editionprobe and wireless sensor network (WSN). The (11) Peatman, J., (1988). Design withsystem technique has provided more supervision Microcontrollers, McGraw-Hill, Newand control than in traditional method of flood York,control. Available equipment especially water level (12) Horowitz, P., (1996) “The Artmonitoring devices provided needed information to Programming” Cambridge Universitythe control system. The developed system gives a press,framework for further research on the quality of (13) Microchip Technology Inc.,(2001).flood control through the intersection of historical www.microchip.com.water level data and whether data. The controlsystem has met all the desired objectives.REFERENCE (1) Bautista, E. and Clemmens, A. J., (2006), Response of ASCE Task Committee Test to open loop control measure. Journal of Irrigation, Flood and Drainage Engineering. (2) Feng, X; Yu-Chu T., Yanjun, L. Youxian, S. (2009). Actuator Network Design for Mobile Control Application. Page 215- 217. (3) Reddy, M. J. (1999), Stochastic optimal and suboptimal control of irrigation canals. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 125(6); 369- 374. (4) Zhang, Z. (2004), Investigation of wireless sensor network for precision agriculture. Asebe Paper No. 041154, Asebe, St Joseph MI. (5) Jacobian, B. K., Jones, P. H., Jones, J. W., Paramore,, J. A., (1989). Real-time greenhouse monitoring and control with an expert system. page 271-275 (6) Richard, G. A., Luis, S. P., Dirk, R., and Martin, S. (2006). FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper. No 56; Crop Evapotranspiration. (7) Kim, Y., Evens, R. G., Iversion, W. M., Pierce, F. J., Chavez, J. L., (2006), Software design for wireless in-field sensor-based management. Asebe Paper No. 063074. Asebe, St Joseph MI. (8) Zuo, X., Gao, W., Zhang, G., Zhu, Y. and Xia, D., (2011). Design of Enviromental Parameter Monitoring System for Watermelon seedling, based on wireless sensor networks; Applied mathematics and information science; Page 244-247. (9) George, W. I., Jeremy, C.and William, G. S., (2006), “ An overview of Wireless Networks in Control and Monitoring” International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Kunming, China, vol. 4114. Page 161-163. 1382 | P a g e

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