- 2. Sun Sun light Back contact supporting layer Glass substrate Window layer Absorbent layer Front contact Back contact
- 4. Mechanics: The branch of Physics concerned with motion and forces producing motion. Mechanics: (i) Classical mechanics (Newtonian mechanics) (ii) Quantum Mechanics Classical mechanics is concerned with; The set of Physical Laws describing the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. The study of the motion of bodies is an earliest one, making classical mechanics one of the oldest and largest subjects in all branches of science. Often Newtonian mechanics is considered, along with Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics, as the three main formalisms of classical mechanics. Classical mechanics describes the motion of Macroscopic objects, from Projectile to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as planets, stars and galaxies. Within classical mechanics are sub-fields, including those that describe the behavior of solids, liquids and gases. Classical mechanics provides extremely accurate results when studying large objects and speeds not approaching the speed of light.
- 5. The term classical mechanics was coined in the early 20th century. It describes the system of physics started by Newton and many other 17th century philosophers. It is also built upon the earlier astronomical theories of J. Kepler, and the studies of terrestrial projectile motion of Galileo. Since these aspects of physics were developed long before the emergence of Quantum Mechanics and relativity. • Relativistic mechanics, represents classical mechanics in its most developed and accurate form. The earliest development of classical mechanics is often referred to as Newtonian mechanics. It consists of the physical concepts employed by and the mathematical methods invented by Newton, and others. Later, more methods were developed, leading to the reformulations of classical mechanics known as Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics. These advances, made mostly in the 18th and 19th centuries, extend significantly beyond Newton's work.
- 6. Using just a few equations, scientists can describe; the motion of a ball flying through the air and the pull of a magnet, etc The mathematical study of the motion of everyday objects and the forces that affect them is called classical mechanics. Classical mechanics is often called Newtonian mechanics because nearly the entire study builds on the work of Newton. Some mathematical laws and principles at the core of classical mechanics include the following; Newtons Laws of Motion: Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation: Law of Conservation of Energy: Law of Conservation of Momentum:
- 8. FALL/WINTER - 2019 TEXT: Goldstein, “Classical Mechanics”, 3rd. Ed., Addison Wesley Office Hour: Problem Session: Check LMS for up-to-date Class activities such as; schedule, information, lectures, assignments etc Email: hasnain.tariq@kfueit.edu.pk Phone number: Not available Recommended Books: 1. John R Taylor “Classical Mechanics”, University Science Books; null edition 2. Tai L. Chow “Classical Mechanics”, CRC Press; 2nd edition 3. Goldstein, “Classical Mechanics”, 3rd. Ed., Addison Wesley, 2008 4. Stephen T. Thornton , Jerry B. Mario, “Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems”, Cengage Learning; 5 edition (July 7, 2003) 5. Fowles & Cassiday “Analytical Mechanics” 7th Edition, Thomson 6. T W. B. Kibble, F H. Berkshir, “Classical Mechanics” World Scientific Publishing Company; 5th edition 2004 WEDNESDAY – 5:00 to 8:00 pm
- 9. SYLLABUS Advanced Classical Mechanics 1. Survey of the elementary principles, 2. Variational principles and Lagranges’s equations, 6. Oscillations, 7. The classical mechanics of the special theory of relativity, 8. The Hamiltonian equations of motion, 9. Canonical transformations, 10. Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Action angle variable, 11. Classical Chaos , 12. Canonical perturbation theory, 13. Introduction to the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations for continuous systems and fields, Classical mechanics of liquids and deformable solids; stress, deformation and strain flow. Recommended Books: 1. Classical Mechanics by Landua & Lifshitz, (Butterworth-Heinemann, 3rd edition,1976). 2. Classical Mechanics by John R Taylor, (University Science Books 3. Classical Mechanics by Goldstein, (AddisonWesley, 3rd edition, 2008). 4. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems by Stephen T. Thornton and Jerry B. Mario, (Cengage Learning, 5th edition, 2003).
- 10. COURSE REQUIREMENTS: • THINK about the physics we discuss, of course you have to be awake. • Read the textbook before class. • Lecture presentations/topics will be posted online (LMS) before class in pdf format. • During class, concentrate on understanding; copying the lecture notes is secondary. • I anticipate your involvement and feedback throughout the lecture, in the form of Q/A’s, discussions, demonstrations, etc. • At the end of each class, I encourage you to write a short note, describing what you’ve learned, what you don’t understand, and comment on my pace and teaching style, suggestions, etc. • Summarize the lecture for yourself too. !Attending the lectures is required. Classroom Participation means responding to questions posed in the class by any class mate.
- 11. GRADING POLICY: Exams & Evaluation • Sessional marks (Quizzes, Assignments, presentations, class participation, ….): 20% • Mid term exam/marks: 30% (3rd week - Dec 2019*) • End semester exam/marks: 50% (last week - Feb 2020*) Quizzes – Occasional (after lecture, surprise, announced . . . ) Assignments – Occasional - weightage (Deadline) Homework- No weightage (practice work) * Subject to change by Exam department
- 12. HOMEWORK AND EXAMS: • Homework will be assigned but not collected. • You are expected to have completed the homework by the quiz/exam date prior to class. • There will be several 15-min, closed book and notes quizzes at the end of lecture on the dates specified or surprise. • The quiz will consist of a few slightly modified homework problems (numbers changed, etc). • The homework problems are a very important part of the course and those assigned are considered the simple minimum necessary to understand the course material. • There will be one mid-term exam and a final exam, • The problems in midterms & final will be similar to those in your homework, but may be asked differently. • Do not expect “plug & play” type of questions. • You need to really understand the course materials to solve the problems.
- 14. ALL THE BEST