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retort packaging by rupesh chavan..


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retort packaging by rupesh chavan..

  1. 1. Presented By: Rupesh N. Chavan B.Tech 3rd Year, Food Technology Under the guidance of Mr. G. M. Hend.
  2. 2. Convenience food  Convenience food is a concept that is prevalent in the developed world since long, while its inception into the Indian market has been recent. With the changing socio-economic pattern of life and the increasing number of working couples, the concept is fast becoming popular in Indian market. This type of food is becoming popular because it saves time and labor. This food has extended shelf-life and is available off the market shelves.
  3. 3. In India……..  Packaged/convenience food products sector has been slow in penetrating the large potential presented by Indian 250 million strong middle class. But due to growing urbanization and changing food habits, the demand has been rising at a good pace and there is enough latent market potential waiting to be exploited through developmental efforts.
  4. 4. Introduction  Thermal sterilization of low-acid food products (LACF), sometimes referred to as retorting, has been a widely accepted means of food preservation for many years.  Retort pouch which is a flexible pack. Material has been developed as an alternative to metal can and glass bottles. It is flexible laminated pouch which can withstand thermal processing temperature of 120-130°C and combine advantage of metal can and plastic boil- in-bag. It provides superior barrio properties for a long shelf life, toughness and punctuating resistance. Such pouches are normally used for packaging low acid products like meat, fish, veg., rice products.  The retort pouch is a rectangular, flexible, laminated plastic, four side hermetically sealed pouch in which food is thermally processed. It is a lightweight, high-quality, durable, convenient and shelf-stable packs.  The material from which retort pouches are made are either aluminum foil bearing/plastic laminates or foil free plastic laminates films. These must be inert, heat sealable, dimensionally stable and heat resistant to at least 121°C for typical process time. They should have low oxygen and water vapor permeability. They should physically strong,
  5. 5. Selection of packaging material:- The advancements in food technology and packaging technology have made it possible to extend the shelf-life of various food products. Before deciding which packaging material is to be used, it is necessary to know the packaging requirements of the product i.e. what hazards will cause product deterioration and the conditions to which the packaged product will be subjected throughout its shelf-life.
  6. 6. Factors which influence the selection criteria for choosing packaging materials, are highlighted:- • Product Characteristics • The type of food and its composition, moisture, fat, protein, flavour etc. • Form and shape of the product – smooth, regular, irregular, with sharp edges etc. • Nature of the product – crisp, brittle, sticky etc. • Factors Affecting Packaging Factors responsible for the spoilage of the food products: • Biological spoilage due to micro-organisms • A biotic spoilage due to chemical reactions like oxidation, hydrolysis and enzymatic reactions. • The environmental factors like light, humidity and temperature. • The food processing parameters e.g.. processing temperature and duration. • The shelf-life desired for a given ready-to-eat food, influences the type of packaging and processing parameters to be used.
  7. 7. Definition of Retort packaging material:- Retort packaging materials are defined by ASTM (American Society of Testing and Materials.) as “Those packaging material which is capable of withstanding specified thermal processing in a closed retort at temperature over 100°C.”
  8. 8. Role of thermal processing:-  Food is spoiled principally by the action of micro-organisms. Thermal processing destroys these harmful micro-organisms by heat. The aim of thermal processing is to bring the food as rapidly as possible to a temperature at which unwanted organisms are killed, and to hold the food at that temperature long enough to render the food “commercially sterile”
  9. 9. The convenience food could be basically classified into two categories:  Shelf – stable convenience food  Frozen convenience food Shelf-stable convenience food are further classified as: • Ready-to-Eat (RTE) and Ready-To-Serve (RTS) food - e.g. Idlis, dosas, pav bhaji, meat products like pre-cooked sausages, ham, chicken products, curries, chapattis, rice, vegetables like aloo chole, navratan kurma, channa masala etc. • Ready-to-Cook food – e.g. instant mixes like cake mixes, gulab-jamun mix, falooda mix, icecream mix, jelly mix, pudding mix etc., pasta products like noodles, macaroni, vermicelli etc.
  10. 10. Packaging Requirements of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) and Ready-to-Serve (RTS) Food  A “ready-to-eat” food product may be defined as any food product which does not require any elaborate processing procedures on the part of consumer before it is good enough for consumption. It is ready- to-eat as soon as the pack is opened in a form, which is tasty and appetizing. The advancements in food technology and packaging technology have made it possible to extend the shelf-life of these products. Before deciding which packaging material is to be used, it is necessary to know the packaging requirements of the product i.e. what hazard will cause product deterioration and the conditions to which the packaged product will be subjected throughout its shelf-life.
  11. 11. WHY READY TO EAT FOODs:-  „ Globalization of Indian food and its culture are the core factors for popularization of ready to eat foods. „ Main motivation for these ready to eat foods is fast growing foreign market. „  Retail outlet culture is now growing rapidly in India. „ Shelf life of these foods are at least 12-18 months. „ Quality, Taste and Flavour of these foods remains as good as fresh up to the expiry date.  Women wanting to spend more time out of the kitchen. „  More working bachelors staying away from homes.  „ Cost effective in comparison to the Indian cuisine served by the restaurants in foreign countries.
  12. 12. History of Retort Pouch  In the late 1940’s, the initial concept of a flexible package for sterile food products was developed. The United States military was the first major consumer of retort pouches in the form of meals-ready-to-eat (MRE) as a replacement for C-rations which were packaged in a rigid metal cans. FDA and USDA recognize qualified individuals trained in thermal processing techniques as process authorities. Process authorities specify the time, temperature and other factors required to render a food product in a retort pouch commercially sterile. Retort pouch products have a distinct advantage over similar volume products packaged in rigid metal cans or glass jar in that it has quicker heat penetration. Faster product heating allows for improved quality of the food product. Other advantages that retort pouches have compared to rigid containers is their lighter weight and easier opening. Retorting food products in flexible pouches has several key differences when compared to rigid metal cans. The pouch materials, styles, filling, sealing and retort systems.
  13. 13. Commercial Sterilization Operation in which product is placed in a hermetic container (canned foods or retort pouches), heated at a sufficiently high temperature for a sufficient length of time to destroy all microbial and enzyme activity (Note - "commercial sterility" implies less than absolute destruction of all micro- organisms and spores, but any remaining would be incapable of growth in the food under existing conditions).
  14. 14. What is Retort Pouch A retort pouch is constructed from a flexible metal-plastic laminate which is able to withstand thermal processing used for sterilization. The food is first prepared, even raw or semi cooked, and then sealed into the retort pouch. The pouch is then heated to 240-250°F (116-121°C) for several minutes under high pressure, inside retort or autoclave machines. The food inside is cooked, similar to pressure cooking. This process reliably kills all commonly occurring microorganisms (particularly Clostridium botulinum), preventing it from spoiling. The packaging process is very similar to canning, except that the package itself is flexible. The lamination structure doesn't allow permeation of gases from outside into the pouch.
  15. 15. Retort pouch is a special package in which the perishable food items are preserved by physical, and/or chemical means. It is a flexible laminate, which can withstand thermal processing, and combines the advantages of the metal can and the boil-in- bag. Ready-to-use retort pouches are flexible packages made from multilayer plastic films with or without aluminium foil as one of the layers. Unlike the usual flexible packages, they are made of heat resistant plastics, thus making them suitable for processing in retort at a temperature of around 121°C. These retort pouches posses toughness and puncture resistance normally required for any flexible packaging. It can also withstand the rigours of handling and distribution. The material is heat sealable and has good barrier properties.
  16. 16. Retort Pouch Material  Aluminum foil  Polyester  polypropylene and  Nylon The material used depends upon the barrier properties required, the process temperature which will apply and handling needs.
  17. 17. Laminates Layer Materials 2 ply Polypropylene-Nylon/ Polyester 3 ply Polypropylene-- Al foil-Nylon/ Polyester 4 ply Polypropylene-Aluminum foil-Nylon- polyester-
  18. 18. Really look at current MRE packaging
  19. 19. Construction of Retort Pouch A retort pouch is constructed from a flexible metal- plastic laminate which is able to withstand thermal processing used for sterilization. The food is first prepared, even raw or semi cooked, and then sealed into the retort pouch. The pouch is then heated to 240-250°F (116-121°C) for several minutes under high pressure, inside retort or autoclave machines. The food inside is cooked, similar to pressure cooking. This process reliably kills all commonly occurring microorganisms (particularly Clostridium botulinum), preventing it from spoiling. The packaging process is very similar to canning, except that the package itself is flexible. The lamination structure doesn't allow permeation of gases from outside into the pouch. The particular retort pouches used for several products consist of four layers bonded in a lamination machine.
  20. 20. Pouch Fabrication:- In fabrication a web of laminate is drawn from roll- stock through a plow assembly which folds the web in creating the front and rear walls of the pouch. Two opposing hot bars then apply the bottom seal and two opposing cooling bars stabilize it. Two adjacent side seals are then applied by double width hot bars and stabilization is achieved at the next section. Corner rounding and tear notch formation are performed by pouch and die assemblies after the side seals are formed. At this point, the pouches are separated with cut off knife and their progression from here is dependant upon whether they are fabricated on a FFS unit or are manufactured on an independent operation for use with pouch fill-seal machinery. The pouches commonly used in the local industries are the preformed type. i.e. With 3 sides already sealed.
  21. 21. Thermal process and retort consideration:- For satisfactory processing of retort pouches, it is necessary to use the “OVER PRESSURE” type retort in order to maintain pouch integrity during heating and cooling. There are main 3 categories of over pressure retort system used for pouch processing are:- 1) Full water immersion batch retorts:- This is the oldest technology and most common. 2) Water trickle, spray or cascade batch retorts:- This retorts use minimal water for heating medium application in conjunction with air over pressure. 3) Steam/ air batch retorts:- These retorts use a mixture of steam and air as the heating medium. The air is source of the over pressure. This retort provide a more gentle ramp and less thermal shock to the product and offer shorter come up time.
  22. 22. One Frenchy system, the “steritech” retort is used in Thailand for pouched Thai food products. Another Japanese steam-air retort is used for tuna in pouches. The rack system used to hold the pouch during retorting is as important as the retort itself. The rack system must be designed to allow adequate heating medium circulation around each container to contraining thickness and side to side movement. The rack must prevent container to container contact. Whatever the heating medium both the heat distribution and heat penetration are critically important for each product and container size. For this reason racking configuration is important in container processing and should be designed for the specific container and retort system.
  23. 23. Foil Pouch Lamination: Entrees Oriented PET Aluminum Foil Oriented BON Polyolefin Puncture Resistance, Heat resistance Light, Oxygen, Water Vapor Barrier/ Stiffness Puncture Resistance Pouch Sealing / shock absorbance
  24. 24. Functions of Layer  Aluminum-foil:- it provides good barrier properties against oxygen, light, moisture, vapor and extend shelf life. Those without aluminum foil are transparent.  The outer polyester film provides strength and toughness are stable for high temperature.  While the inner polypropylene provides good heat sealing properties, strength, flexibility and compatibility with all foodstuff.  The additional incorporation of an oriented PA (nylon) film layer further increases the durability of the pouch, especially where the individual pouches are not, subsequently, packed individually in cartons. The layers are laminated to each other using specially developed thermo-stable, food compatible adhesives. Typical thickness: PP-0.00039”, 0.00035” Al foil, 0.00059” Nylon, 0.0005” Polyester.
  25. 25. Requirements of Retort Films:-  Low oxygen permeability- 0CC/m²/24hr/atm  Sterilization temp. stability-0 to 150°C  Low water vapor transmission rate- 0gm/m² 24hr  Heat sealability-160 to 260°C  Thickness tolerance- ±2 micrometer  Seal strength-2 to 3.5 kg/10mm  Busting strength- 7.5kg/cm²
  26. 26. MRE Logistics Process Packaging Store Transport Store Deploy
  27. 27. Production System 1)Preformed Retort Pouch: Retort unloading Retorting Product Preparation Vacuum Production Automatic or Manual Transport Packing and retort loading Vacuum Sealing Weighing Filling of Product Pouch OpeningPre-Formed Retort Pouch Cont. retorting Inspection pt.
  28. 28. Drying Cartoning Casing Inspection pt.
  29. 29. 2)Form-Fill-Seal Retort Pouch Processing Retort Film Web (Reel) Vacuum Production Forming Into Pouch Vacuum Sealing Automatic or Manual filling of Product Heat Processing and Cooling Steam Cooker or Seam Air Mixer Secondary Packaging Surface Drying Weigh and Filling Into Pouch
  30. 30. Production of Pouches Pouches can either be formed from reels of laminated material either on in-line form/fill/seal machines in the packer’s plant or they may be obtained as preformed individual pouches sealed on three sides, cut and notched.
  31. 31. Filling and Sealing:- In-lined and preformed pouches are filled vertically. Vertical form/fill/seal machine can be used for liquid products. Another method employs a web of pouch material which is formed on a horizontal bed into several adjacent cavities. The cavities are filled whilst the sealed areas are shielded. This method is specially useful for filling space able products. Thereafter the filled cavities are simultaneously sealed from the top using a second web fed from the reel. Pouch closure is normally accomplished by some means of air removal, either by steam flushing or by drawing a vacuum in a sealed chamber or simply, in the case of liquid food products, flattening the pouch by squeezing between two vertical plates. Efficient air removal prevents ballooning and rupturing during retorting. Never hot pack in retort pouches. The bag could burst causing burns or other problems. All products must be cooled completely before vacuum sealing. Then remain in a cold environment until placed directly into the pressure canner for processing.
  32. 32. Inspection of Retort Pouches
  33. 33. Processing Processing takes place in steam heated pressure vessel or retorts. The system provided by either of the following: 1) Steam heated water with compressed air overpressure 2) Mixtures of steam and air Instrumentation and control valve systems are vitally important to accurately control ant record pressure and temperature (+1°C to - 0.5°C) during the retorting of pouches. In automatic process cycle, control is preferred. Vertical retorts may be used but horizontal batch retorts are the most commonly used.
  34. 34. Post Retort Handling  Following pressure cooling and removal in racks or trays from the retort, the pouches must be dried, inspected and placed in some form of outer packaging. When dry, pouch seal may once again visually checked or inspected for leaks, ruptures or weak points that have been shown up during retorting. This should not involve manual handling of the individual pouches.
  35. 35. Outer Packaging The secondary packaging of retort pouches for storage and distribution may either involve packing each pouch in printed carton or, alternatively packing a number of pouches in a transit case, possibly incorporating vertical dividers.
  36. 36. Types of retorts
  37. 37. Still Retorts  Pressure vessel  Batch-type  Non-agitating  Vertical or horizontal  With or without crates (crateless)
  38. 38. Loading a vertical retort
  39. 39. Still Retort with Overpressure Overpressure *Pressure in excess of normal pressure at a given temperature *May now have air introduced to retort during processing as well as cooling  Purpose *Maintain container integrity *Internal pressure developed during processing is greater than pure steam pressure.
  40. 40.  Overpressure Applications  Plastic container  Flexible pouches  Metal trays  Glass jars
  41. 41. Continuous Retorts  Still and agitating retorts may be batch or continuous. Continuous retorts have four sections:  –can warmer  –pressure section  –pressure cooler  –atmospheric cooler  These retorts have self sealing valves which maintain pressure and tolerate temperatures up to 143°C.
  42. 42. AGITATING RETORTS  Some retorts agitate the cans during processing in order to increase the rate of heat penetration into the cans. Agitation may either be axial or end over end. Agitation is useful for products which are too viscous to heat or cool by natural convection. By using agitation, the process time may be reduced by up to 80%. Mixing is largely due to the movement of the headspace during agitation and to be effective there must be a sufficiently large headspace inside the can. A small headspace may lead to under processing.
  43. 43. Racks for semi rigid containers
  44. 44. Quality control program for retort pouch:- Q.C. Procedures must include not only the end item or final product testing based on samples, but also audit procedures to verify that production procedures adhered to rigidity. Incoming pouch should be visually inspected for any defects and checked for quality and strength of the seal upon receipt every incoming lot. During process it is important to control fill weight and pack thickness; evacuation sealing (avoidance of contaminants and proper time/temp.); the thermal process parameters; and post process container handling to minimize damage. In order to achieve an absolutely minimum reject level of defective pouches especially for leaks, retort pouches must be 100% inspected in process after sealing and after retorting.
  45. 45. Indian Retort Foods  Indian food like palak paneer, dal fry, curry rice, upma, vegetables biryani etc. are retort processed hence their packaging requirements are different. These products are retort processed because they are low acid food with moderate to large size particles; hence it is easy to remove oxygen from the head-space by gas flushing. The selection of a polymer or its combination is based on the requirement of barrier properties.
  46. 46. PLAYERS IN READY TO EAT FOOD  MTR  Kohinoor Foods  ITC  Haldiram  Tasty Bites
  47. 47. Advantages and Disadvantages of Retort Pouches:- Advantages:-  less energy is required to manufacture pouches compared with cans  • transport of empty containers is cheaper (85% less space required than cans)  • packaging is cheaper than equivalent can and with carton cost is about the same.  • filling lines are easily changed to a different size  • rapid heat penetration and faster process results in better nutrition/ flavour  • contents are ambient shelf stable – no refrigeration is required  • packed pouch is more compact requiring about 10% less shelf space  • less brine or syrup used, pouches are lower in mass and cheaper to transport  • fast reheating of contents by immersion of pack in hot water. No pots to clean  • opens easily by tearing or cutting  • ideal for single portion packaging and serving size control  • retort pouch materials are non-corrosive  • convenient for outdoor leisure and military rations use.
  48. 48. Disadvantages:-  filing of crates and loading into crates is much slower and much complex than can or glass containers.  Establishing the scheduled process and controlling critical factors is more complex.  Pouches are more sensitive to snagging and cutting impacts, as well as to a softening effect during heating; therefore a pack integrity can be more easily compromised than in rigid containers.  High capital investment , especially in equipment necessary for appropriate pouch handling during loading and unloading of the retort (e.g., stackable trays ,rack) and during post thermal process handling to ensure pack integrity.
  49. 49. From Processor’s Point of View:-  Shorter sterilization cycle due to thin profile of containers. Hence, there is 30% - 40%reduction in processing time compared to cans.  Less deterioration of flavor, taste, color and nutrition-due to reduced exposure to heat.  Empty containers save almost 85% of space during warehousing when compared with empty cans.  Being light in weight, transportation charges are less
  50. 50. From Consumers Point of View:-  Easy to handle  Easy to cook  Easy to open
  51. 51. What's going in India:-  In India, 3-ply laminate consisting of PET/Al Foil/PP is commonly used for packaging of ready to eat retort packed food. The product packed in such laminates has a shelf-life of one year. The other materials generally used in retort pouch structure includes nylon, silica coated nylon, ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and polyvinyledene chloride (PVDC). These materials have high moisture barrier properties and are used successfully for packaging of ready-to-eat high moisture Indian food.
  52. 52. Both preformed pouches as well as pouches formed on FFS machines are used. Preformed pouches are of flat and stand - up type. The typical structure of these pouches are: Flat configuration : 12µ PET/12µ Al foil/ 75µ PP Stand up configuration : 12µ PET/9µ Al foil/ 15µ OPA/60µ PP
  53. 53. MARKET & ITS GROWTH „ 1)The popularity of ready to eat packed food now is no longer marks a special occasion. Peoples want value for time, money in terms of quality and variety. „ 2)The food processing industry is one of the largest industries in India and it is the ranked fifth in terms of Production, Consumption, Export & Expected growth. „ 3)Processed food market in India accounts for 32% that is Rs. 1280 billion or 29.4 billion US $ in a total estimated market of Rs. 3990 billion or 91.66 US $. 4) Euromonitor International, a market research company says that amount of money Indian spend on ready to eat snacks & food is 5 billion US $ in a year while on abroad Indian or Indian subcontinents spend 30 billion US $ in a year. „ 5)Ready to eat packaged food industry is over Rs. 4000 crore or 1 billion US $ and it is growing at the rate of 20 % per annum. „ Ready to eat food market is developing specifically in UK, USA, Canada, Gulf & South Asian Countries with the growth rate of over 150 % per annum.
  54. 54. A few exporters of retort pouch foods in India are – 1. Shri Venue exports – Mumbai, 2. Britto Exports – Chennai, 3.Gujarat State Export Corporation – Ahmedabad 4.Tasty Bite Eatables, MTR Foods, ITC Foods, 5. Satnam Overseas – New Delhi, ADF Foods etc. Tasty bite has US factory production capacity of 100000 meals per day, while the Indian outlet has around 50000 meals per day capacity.
  55. 55. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:- 1)What is retort packaging? – Retort packaging is a self stable flexible package What is the shelf life of retort food? – The shelf life of a retort package is a year plus. What are the shipping advantages? – A retort package will not break or dent and weigh less. Where do you display the package in the retail store? – You can display at room temperature at any corner of the retail store What are some of the main reasons, a packager of consumer products would like to go from a conventional package material to a flexible retort pouch? – The package provides a flat surface for graphics and text, needs no refrigeration and is microwave compatible. What's the difference between foil and non-foil retort structures? – Non-foil retort packaging can be put in the micro wave.
  56. 56. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:- What about taste of products in a retort package? – People say that products packaged with retort material taste fresher and maintain a more natural flavor. What about shelf appeal? – Retort pouches are more space efficient and provide a larger surface for graphics and text. What kind of food products can be packed in retort packaging ? – All kind of veg & Non- veg food products
  57. 57. Conclusion The market for retort pouches is certainly one that will continue to experience growth over the next few years, as the retort pouch gets acceptable as equal to or even superior to glass or metal containers. The pouch has the same shelf-life as the can or the Ready-to-Cook Products Packed in Flexible Plastic Pouches 155 jar. The retort pouch needs to address ease of opening and re- closing (compared to glass jars). In addition, the packaging economics of the pack for mass volume products will depend upon the ability to increase filling speeds and to move from batch to continuous retort processing. Also, the retort pouch can save about 60% energy while processing. Furthermore, as the product is already sterile, it does not require additional low temperature storage.
  58. 58. Thank you for your attention! Any questions, Now?