Ncc art100 ch.9


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Ncc art100 ch.9

  1. 1. Exploring Art:A Global,Thematic Approach Chapter 9 Mortality and Immortality
  2. 2. Early Tombs, Mounds and Mountains Ancient burials Furnished tombs Development of cemeteries and grave monuments: Christian burials; Islamic mausoleums. Reliquaries Modern commemorative art: cemeteries; memorial art and practices
  3. 3. Stonehenge—as well as—many ancient tombs is oriented to the movement of celestial bodies. Stonehenge—monolithic rock structure
  4. 4. The earliest tombs were hill-shaped. Newgrange, County Meath, Ireland, 3200 BCE
  5. 5. Egyptian Tombs & Mortuary Temples From the Great Pyramids at Gizeh to hidden mountainside chambers Still pillaged by grave robbers King Tutankhamen’s grave remained virtually undisturbed until 1922 Decor included servant statues to help in the afterlife Wall painting adorned tomb walls Fowling Scene, figure 10-4
  6. 6. Egyptians used the pyramid form to create the meeting place between life on earth and eternity. The pharaohs were believed to be descendants of the most powerful god, Re the Sun God. PYRAMIDS AT GIZA,2525-2550 BCE
  7. 7. Fowling Scene, Thebes, Egypt, c.1400-1350 Wall painting from the tomb of Nebamun
  8. 8. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, c.1490 BCE
  9. 9. Etruscan Tombs were very much like houses. The tombs chambers were carved directly out of soft bedrock called tufa. Buried their dead in earthen mounds furnished for the afterlife Around Cerveteri, a necropolis of earthen mounds organized into “streets” Tombs’ interiors simulate domestic interior Indicate importance of sociability and the pleasures of living Tomb art Banqueters and Musicians from the Tomb of the Leopards.
  10. 10. Banqueters and Musicians. Mural painting from the Tomb of the Leopards. From a cemetery near Tarquinia, Etruria (Italy), c. 480–470 BCE. Hirmer Fotoarchiv.
  11. 11. Sarcophagus with Reclining ouple, Etruria, c.420 BCE
  12. 12. Funeral Complex of Shi Huangdi Shi Huangdi means “First Emperor” Ying Cheng founded the Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE Underground funeral palace Discovered in 1974 as peasants dug for a well Uncovered an army of more than 6,000 figures Soldiers from Pit 1, figure 10-8 No two soldiers’ faces are alike
  13. 13. Soldiers from Pit 1, Shaanxi, China, 221-206 BCE painted ceramic; average figure height, 5’9”
  14. 14. Royal Tombs of the Moche Civilization Over 350 tombs discovered in Peru during the 1980s and 90s Contents of tombs varied widely Indicated highly stratified society Furnished tombs showed rank in society Warrior priests had most elaborate tombs Gold and silver used in symmetrical and matching patterns
  15. 15. Peanut Necklace, Moche Civilization, Peru, c. 300. Gold and silver necklace from the Royal Tomb of Sipan, 20” diameter. The peanuts may symbolize ceremonial food or a food of honor. The Moche used gold and silver symmetrically —even some nose plates are symmetrically half gold and half silver
  16. 16. Viking Ship Burial Tombs reflect importance of sea travel to Viking civilization Oseberg ship burial, excavated 1904 near Oslo Elaborately designed ship Animal designs Winding, inter-laced designs Also seen in Viking jewelry
  17. 17. Viking Longship Oseberg The word viking was introduced to the English language with romantic connotations in the 18th century. In the current Scandinavian languages the term viking is applied to the people who went away on viking expeditions, be it for raiding or trading. The medieval Scandinavian population is also referred to as Norse. The curves of the ship culminate in tall spiral posts…the forward one is carved like a coiled snake. Animal forms are interlaced in complex, lace-like patterns.
  18. 18. Cemeteries and Grave Monuments 1st millennium BCE transitioned from mound tombs to other forms of funerary art and architecture Ancient Greeks common monuments (The ancient Greeks developed the earliest commemorative funerary architecture in Europe and the Middle East)  Small columns supporting vases, urns, small statues  Life-size freestanding figures of young men or women  Relief carvings on stone slabs  The Grave Stele of Hegeso Early Romans  Buried outside city walls  Built tombs in several styles Modern cemeteries developed in response to an increase in urban populations and concerns about pollution and sanitation.
  19. 19. The New York Kouros at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  20. 20. Grave Stele of Hegeso, Athens, Greece, c.410-400 BCE Greek grave markers usually showed quiet, everyday moments.
  21. 21. Vatican Museum: Funerary Relief w/ Circus Maximus, Trajanic or early Hadrianic
  22. 22. Burial in Places of Worship Christian burials No cremation so body could be resurrected Catacombs (vast underground passages) Used to bury martyrs, hide fugitives, worship Christian status changed with Constantine Legalized Christianity in 313 CE Tombs became increasingly ornate Baldacchino, figure 10-16
  23. 23. Mortuary chapel of The Good Shepherd, the story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling of a cubiculum in the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy, early fourth century
  24. 24. Early Christians buried their dead in vast underground networks called Catacombs.
  25. 25. Detail, Christ Figure, Deësis Mosaic, mid-13th century, Hagia Sophia Later Christian art became more formalize. This is an example of a Byzantine icon.
  26. 26. In 313, under the emperor Constantine, Christianity became the official religion of Rome. Old St. Peter's, Rome, c. 330, CE St. Peter’s tomb lay in the ground—marked by six twisting marble columns and four brass candelabra, each 10’ tall and finished in silver.
  27. 27. Gianlorenzo Bernini. Baldacchino (bronze canopy) 1624 - 33. Gilt bronze (stripped from the Pantheon and melted), height approx. 100’ What the Barbarians didn’t do the Barberini’s did.
  28. 28. Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English, later British and later still (and currently) monarchs of the Commonwealth Realms. It briefly held the status of a cathedral from 1546–1556, and is currently a Royal Peculiar.
  29. 29. Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London 1503-19 Large chapel, almost a separate church, on the back of London’s Westminster Abbey. The tomb established the abbey’s fame, making it a destination for pilgrims.
  30. 30. Islamic Mausoleums Most famous Islamic mausoleum is the Taj Mahal Resting place of Murntaz Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan, ruler of the Mughal Empire Shows influences of many cultures Afghanistan Turkey Iran Indigenous India
  31. 31. Taj Mahal. Agra, India, 1632–1654. Built by Shah Jahan, ruler of Mughal Empire in India to honor his wife.
  32. 32. Taj Mahal mosque. The wealthy and powerful among islamic societies were sometimes buried in mausoleums adjoining mosques.
  33. 33. Reliquaries Small shrines housing pieces of clothing or body parts of the dead Popular during the Medieval period Sculptural representation of revered body part Reliquaries from Africa Used in rituals to honor ancestors Extremely influential in development of 20th century Western art styles
  34. 34. A reliquary is a small shrine which contains the remains of a holy person. Reliquary Arm. ca. 1230. Mosan. Silver over oak; hand: bronze- gilt; appliqué plaques: silver-gilt, niello and cabochon stones; 25 1/2 x 6 1/2 x 4 in. The Cloisters Collection
  35. 35. Modern Commemorative Art Modern cemeteries Severed link between religion and burial Italian cemeteries organized in grids Père Lachaise influenced by Romanticism Forest Lawn, in Glendale, CA Benevolent, non-denominational cemetery Tombstones forbidden Theme of “Great Art of Western Civilization”
  36. 36. Jim Morrison’s gravestone, Père Lachaise cemetery Stone placed by his father 10 years later with Greek inscription “true to his own spirit”
  37. 37. Michael Jackson's grave at Forest Lawn cemetery
  38. 38. Contemporary Memorial Art Day of the Dead, Mexico Mixture of Christian and Aztec beliefs Parades and celebrations Depicted in Diego Rivera’s series of murals, La Dia de los Meurtos  1923  Shows urban observance of feast day Rituals commemorate dead and serve social needs
  39. 39. DIEGO RIVERA. Día de Los Muertos. Fresco. Detail showing the city fiesta. South wall, Court of the Fiestas, Ministry of Education, Mexico City, 1923. Celebrated on November 2nd similar to All Soul’s Day.
  40. 40. AIDS Memorial Quilt. Displayed on the Mall in Washington, D.C., October 11, 1996. Organized by the Names Project, San Francisco It changes every time it is displayed.
  41. 41. The Tribute in Light is an art installation of 88 searchlights placed next to the site of the World Trade Center to create two vertical columns of light in remembrance of the September 11 attacks. It initially ran as a temporary installation from March 11 to April 14, 2002, and was launched again in 2003 to mark the second anniversary of the attack. It has been repeated every year on September 11. The tribute continued in 2008, but has not been funded for future years.
  42. 42. Courtyard of the Great Mosque Isfahan, Iran 11th to 17th centuries
  43. 43. Dome of the Shah Mosque Isfahan, Iran 1611-1638
  44. 44. Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami Isfahan, Iran ca. 1354 glazed mosaic tilework 11 ft. 3 in. x 7 ft. 6 in.